Journal of Earth Science  2018, Vol. 29 Issue (5): 1167-1180   PDF    
0
A Review of Ultrahigh Temperature Metamorphism
Hengcong Lei, Haijin Xu    
School of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
ABSTRACT: Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism represents extreme crustal metamorphism with peak metamorphic temperatures exceeding 900℃ and pressures ranging from 7 to 13 kbar with or without partial melting of crusts, which is usually identified in the granulite-facies rocks. UHT rocks are recognized in all major continents related to both extensional and compressive tectonic environments. UHT metamorphism spans different geological ages from Archean to Phanerozoic, providing information of the nature, petrofabric and thermal evolution of crusts. UHT metamorphism is traditionally identified by the presence of a diagnostic mineral assemblage with an appropriate bulk composition and oxidation state in Mg-Al-rich metapelite rocks. Unconventional geothermobarometers including Ti-in-zircon (TIZ) and Zr-in-rutile (ZIR) thermometers and phase equilibria modeling are increasingly being used to estimate UHT metamorphism. Concentrated on the issues about UHT metamorphism, this review presents the research history about UHT metamorphism, the global distribution of UHT rocks, the current methods for constraints on the UHT metamorphism, and the heat sources and tectonic settings of UHT metamorphism. Some key issues and prospects about the study of UHT metamorphism are discussed, e.g., identification of UHT metamorphism for non-supracrustal rocks, robustness of the unconventional geothermometers, tectonic affinity of UHT metamorphic rocks, and methods for the constraints of age and duration of UHT metamorphism. It is concluded that UHT metamorphism is of great importance to the understanding of thermal evolution of the lithosphere.
KEY WORDS: ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)    granulite-facies    metamorphism    review    

0 INTRODUCTION

Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism is now regarded as a key frontier topic following ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism (e.g., Tong et al., 2014; Wei, 2012; Harley, 2004). The study of UHT metamorphism has significantly enhanced our understanding of origin and evolution of supercontinents and the thermal properties of the crust in geodynamic modeling (e.g., Kelsey and Hand, 2015; Harley, 2008; Brown, 2006). In particular, HP-UHT granulite-facies metamorphism is crucial for understanding the nature and structure of the deep crust, continental interfacial interaction and subduction process, evolution and geodynamics of the orogens (e.g., Brown, 2014, 2009; Tong et al., 2014; Wei, 2012; Harley, 2008; Santosh et al., 2006; O'Brien and Rötzler, 2003; Zhai and Liu, 2001).

Dallwitz (1968) firstly reported a metamorphic pelite with a mineral assemblage of sapphirine+quartz in Enderby area, East Antarctica, unfortunately, its geological significance was not expounded clearly. Ellis (1980) identified another metamorphic pelite with the mineral assemblage of sapphirine+cordierite+ sillimanite+garnet in the same area, and estimated the peak metamorphic temperature over 1 000 ℃. This very high metamorphic temperature was not widely accepted then until Hensen and Harley (1990) systematically summarized graphical analysis of P-T-X relations in granulite-facies metapelites and named it as "Ultrahigh Temperature Metamorphism". Harley(1998a, b, c) compiled a dataset of granulite localities and demonstrated that many terranes have experienced metamorphism at temperatures over 900 ℃. Harley (1998a) officially defined that UHT metamorphism was a granulite-facies metamorphism with medium pressure (7–13 kbar) and very high temperature (900–1 100 ℃). And then, the UHT metamorphism was extensively concerned. Increasing studies have been focused on its petrogenesis and tectonic significance. Brown(2007a, b, 2006) and Stüwe (2007) defined a maximum pressure limit of approximately ≥20 ℃/km or 75 ℃/kbar, roughly corresponding to the reaction boundary between kyanite and sillimanite (Fig. 1). Many researchers suggested that UHT metamorphism is a continuum of granulite- facies metamorphism rather than a thermal anomaly (e.g., Brown, 2007a, b; Pattison et al., 2003).

Download:
Figure 1. P-T diagram illustrating conditions of selected metamorphic facies and P-T ranges of different types of metamorphism (modified after Brown, 2007a). BS. Blueschist; AEE. amphibole-epidote eclogite facies; ALE. amphibole-lawsonite eclogite facies; LE. lawsonite-eclogite facies; AE. amphibole-eclogite facies; UHPM. ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism; E-HPG. eclogite-high-pressure granulite metamorphism; G. granulite facies; UHTM. ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism; Ol-Th. olivine tholeiite; Q-Th. quartz tholeiite.

As summarized by Kelsey (2008) and Harley (2008), several diagnostic mineral assemblages have been used to identify UHT metamorphism with respect to extremely Mg-Al-rich metapelites, but there is not any diagnostic assemblage for other rocks. Some trace element thermometers had been proposed to distinguish UHT metamorphism like TIZ geothermometer (e.g., Ferry and Watson, 2007; Watson et al., 2006) and ZIR geothermometer (e.g., Ferry and Watson, 2007; Tomkins et al., 2007; Watson et al., 2006; Zack et al., 2004; Degeling, 2003). Both the TIZ and ZIR thermometers have been successfully used to estimate temperatures for some UHT granulite-facies rocks (e.g., Liu et al., 2015; Chen et al., 2013; Jiao et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2010). However, the relative validity and robustness of these two thermometers for recording the UHT metamorphism are widely debated (e.g., Mitchell and Harley, 2017; Pape et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2015; Taylor-Jones and Powell, 2015; Ewing et al., 2013). The mineral abbreviations used in this paper are as follows: Ab. albite; Bi. biotite; Coe. coesite; Cpx. clinopyroxene; Crd. cordierite; Dia. diamond; Gr. graphite; Gt. garnet; Ilm. ilmenite; Kfs. K-feldspar; Ky. kyanite; Mi. microcline; Ol. olivine; Opx. orthopyroxene; Pl. plagioclase; Q. quartz; Ru. rutile; Sil. sillimanite; Sp. sphalerite.

1 DISTRIBUTION OF UHT ROCKS

UHT rocks are identified in all the major continents, and more than 60 localities showing UHT metamorphism have been reported (Fig. 2, Table S1). The age of the generation of UHT rocks ranges from Archean to Phanerozoic, but most of them are closely associated with Precambrian crustal evolution (e.g., Wei, 2012; Kelsey, 2008; Brown, 2007b; Zhai and Liu, 2001). UHT granulite-facies metamorphic rocks also widely occur in China. The Paleoproterozoic sapphirine-bearing spinel gneisses in Daqingshan and Tuguiwula khondalite belt, Inner Mongolia, North China Craton are the most typical UHT rocks (e.g., Liu et al., 2012, 2010; Santosh et al., 2012, 2007a, b; Liu and Li, 2007). Paleoproterozoic UHT granulite-facies metapelites were also reported in the Sulu orogenic belts. Lenses of Paleoproterozoic UHT granulite-facies metapelites were found in the gneisses from the Sulu UHP terrane (Lei et al., 2014; Xiang et al., 2014a). Sapphirine-bearing UHT granulites were also discovered in the Qinling Group of the Qinling-Tongbai Orogen (e.g., Xiang et al., 2014b). The Early Paleozoic HP-UHT granulites were reported in the Bahiwake area of the South Altun (e.g., Yu et al., 2011; Zhang and Meng, 2005). The Late Paleozoic UHT granulites from the Altay Orogen, northwestern China, have typical mineral assemblages of spinel-sillimanite-garnet-orthopyroxene (e.g., Li et al., 2014, 2004; Tong et al., 2014, 2013; Yang and Li, 2013; Wang et al., 2009). The Darongshan-Shiwandashan Indo-Sinian S-type granites in South China contain UHT metasedimentary granulite enclaves (e.g., Zhao et al., 2011; Peng et al., 2006). In the central Tibetan Plateau of China, the anhydrous metasedimentary and mafic xenoliths entrained in 3-Ma-old shoshonitic lavas record a thermal gradient reaching UHT condition (e.g., Hacker et al., 2000).

Download:
Figure 2. Sketch map showing the localities of the UHT metamorphism in the world (modified after Kelsey and Hand, 2015). See Table S1 for the studies conducted for each locality.
2 IDENTIFICATION OF UHT METAMORPHISM

UHT metamorphism is primarily recognized on the basis of mineral assemblages found in Mg-Al-rich metapelites (e.g., Kelsey and Hand, 2015). As the first UHT mineral assemblage recognized from metapelites, sapphirine+quartz is the most unequivocal UHT assemblage (e.g., Bhadra, 2016; Tsunogae and Santosh, 2011; Kelsey, 2008). Al-orthopyroxene+sillimanite± quartz mineral assemblage is another diagnostic indicator for UHT metamorphism, which has been documented from > 65% of the known UHT localities in the world (e.g., Kelsey, 2008 and references therein). When osumilite is associated with other minerals, such as garnet, orthopyroxene+sillimanite, and sapphirine+ orthopyroxene+quartz, it can be considered as an indicator of UHT metamorphism too (e.g., Harley, 2008). Other diagnostic minerals and assemblages of UHT metamorphism are displayed in Table 1. Caution needs to be exercised when these assemblages are used as the indicators for UHT metamorphism in some situations (e.g., Kelsey and Hand, 2015 and references therein). Besides above-mentioned assemblages, there are many other assemblages which are helpful to indicate UHT metamorphism, such as orthopyroxene+corundum (e.g., Kelly and Harley, 2004; Bertrand et al., 1992; Kihle and Bucher-Nurminen, 1992), garnet+corundum (e.g., Kelsey et al., 2006; Shimpo et al., 2006; Scrimgeour et al., 2005) and so on. Some sapphirine-bearing assemblages as coronas around garnet, sillimanite or orthopyroxene are also indicative of UHT metamorphism (e.g., Sajeev et al., 2004; Harley, 1998c). Some of them are not definitive diagnosis of UHT condition. Until now, there are no typically diagnostic mineral assemblages of UHT metamorphism for non- supracrustal rocks.

Table 1 The diagnostic minerals and assemblages of UHT metamorphism
3 P-T CONDITIONS CONSTRAINTS OF UHT META- MORPHISM 3.1 Geothermobarometers

The UHT metamorphism was not widely accepted as a common type of metamorphism until the end of the last century (e.g., Kelsey, 2008). Two-pyroxene, two-oxide, and garnet- clinopyroxene thermometers were used to T-estimate by Frost and Chacko (1989), finding that these conventional thermobarometry may not be capable of routinely recovering peak metamorphic temperature from granulite terrains and that special steps must be taken to maximize the chances of obtaining these peak conditions, which is called granulite uncertainty principle.

In recent years, unconventional geothermobarometers have increasingly been applied to estimate temperatures of metamorphic rocks. The most popular thermometers are TIZ (Ti-in-zircon, e.g., Ferry and Watson, 2007; Watson et al., 2006) and ZIR (Zr- in-rutile, e.g., Ferry and Watson, 2007; Tomkins et al., 2007; Watson et al., 2006; Zack et al., 2004; Degeling, 2003). These two thermometers are based on the incorporation of Ti into zircon coexisting with rutile and quartz and Zr into rutile coexisting with zircon and quartz, respectively. In general, when the content of Ti in zircon is more than 50 ppm (e.g., Ferry and Watson, 2007; Watson et al., 2006) and/or the content of Zr in rutile exceeds 1 500 ppm (e.g., Ferry and Watson, 2007; Tomkins et al., 2007; Watson et al., 2006; Zack et al., 2004; Degeling, 2003), these two thermometers can be used to identify UHT metamorphism. TIZ thermometry has been applied to evaluate the temperatures of metamorphism for two UHT granulite localities by Baldwin et al. (2007). They obtained two phases of growth temperatures of 878–1 024 and 839–936 ℃, respectively. ZIR thermometry was applied to UHT granulites from three localities of the khondalite belt in North China Craton, yielding temperature results which are higher than 900 ℃, even surpass 1 000 ℃ (e.g., Jiao et al., 2011). And these two thermometers have been more and more successfully used to estimate the peak and post-peak temperatures of UHT rocks (e.g., Mitchell and Harley, 2017; Chen et al., 2013; Ewing et al., 2013; Meyer et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2010). Furthermore, Ferry and Watson (2007) confirmed an equilibrium between TIZ and ZIR in the case of the rocks containing both zircon and rutile.

3.2 Phase Equilibria Modeling

Since the establishment and improvement of thermodynamic database (e.g., Diener and Powell, 2012; Holland and Powell, 2011, 1998; White and Powell, 2010; White et al., 2007; Wei et al., 2004; Berman, 1988), P-T pseudosection modeling has become one of the most effective means to constrain P-T conditions and P-T paths for metamorphism. Compared with conventional geothermobarometers, phase equilibria modeling, based on the stability of mineral assemblages, mineral chemistry, mineral proportion and thermodynamic data, focuses on continuous and discontinuous mineral reactions rather than only on the mineral compositions. The quantitative study of phase equilibria can not only calculate P-T projection, pseudosection, and component symbiotic diagrams (e.g., Wei and Zhou, 2003), but also quantitatively simulate the re-melting, changing in the composition of the melt and the effect of melt behavior on mineral composition during the metamorphism (e.g., Wei et al., 2017).

The success of phase equilibria modeling has led to some complacency that UHT metamorphism is now fully quantified in terms of P-T and mineral assemblages in metapelites (Fig. 3) (e.g., Wei, 2016; Wei and Zhu, 2016; Lei et al., 2014; Xiang et al., 2014a; White and Powell, 2010; White et al., 2001). However, the former a–x models used in the pseudosection calculations of clinopyroxene and amphibole are based on phase equilibrium calculations of eclogite-facies and amphibolite-facies (e.g., Wei et al., 2017; Diener et al., 2007; Green et al., 2007). Since Ti end-members in amphibole and (Mg, Fe)2Si2O6 components in clinopyroxene are not included, a–x models are not suitable for the phase equilibrium calculations of granulite- facies. In addition, the former melts models are intended to calculate equilibria of metapelites but not appropriate for mafic metamorphic rocks. Until Green et al. (2016) presented a set of thermodynamic models consisting of new activity-composition relations, the calculation of partial melting equilibria for metabasic rocks has not been allowed. Calibration of the new activity-composition relations was carried out aiming to reproduce major experimental phase-in/phase-out boundaries that define the amphibolite-granulite transition, across a range of bulk compositions, at ≤13 kbar.

Download:
Figure 3. P-T pseudosection (a) and the compositional isopleths of the garnet (b) for the UHT granulite of Sulu orogenic belt (e.g., Lei et al., 2014). The red and black dashes lines represent isopleths of Mg# and XCa for garnet respectively. Mg#=Mg/(Fe+Mg) and XCa=Ca/(Fe+Mg+Ca+Mn).
4 GENESIS OF UHT METAMORPHISM 4.1 Heat Source

UHT metamorphism suggests that the crust has achieved an anormal geothermal gradient with approximately 20 ℃/km or 75 ℃/kbar (e.g., Brown, 2007a, b, 2006; Stüwe, 2007). The achievement of the temperature for UHT metamorphism is very difficult without a large amount of heat generation (e.g., Nabelek et al., 2010; Nabelek and Liu, 2004; Thompson and Connolly, 1995; Royden, 1993). Heating sources for UHT metamorphism are probably from radiogenic heat, strain heat, heat of magma and/or mantle.

The radiogenic heat generated from elements U, Th, and K within the lithosphere plays an important role in the distribution of crustal temperature (e.g., Sandiford and McLaren, 2006). The radiogenic heat can produce noticeable temperature up to 300 ℃ and 25 mWm-2 (e.g., Vilà et al., 2010). Clark et al. (2011) suggesed that radiogenic heat is closely related to UHT metamorphism, at least to a certain extent, and can provide a certain heat source to UHT metamorphism. Ferrero et al. (2017) suggested that radiogenic heat may be one of the reasons for the UHT metamorphism of felsic granulites from northeastern Connecticut of US.

Strain heating in ductile shear zone dominantly depends on the stresses imposed on the lithosphere and the rate of heat transfer from the deforming region (e.g., Nabelek et al., 2010). With the increase of temperature, the decrease of thermal diffusivity helps the heating of the deformed region to reach higher temperatures (e.g., Whittington et al., 2009). When a shear zone is infertile or has lost all melt and became anhydrous, the deformation may potentially lead to granulite and UHT metamorphism in the proximity of the shear zone, in which the maximal temperature reaches ~940–1 040 ℃ (e.g., Nabelek et al., 2010). Infiltration metasomatism under granulite-facies conditions of 870–924 ℃ and 10.1–10.2 kbar exists in shear zones of the Lapland granulite belt (e.g., Lebedeva et al., 2010; Bushmin et al., 2007).

High-heat flow from magmas could induce contact UHT metamorphism of the wall-rocks, which is an important heat source for UHT metamorphism. They include high-temperature intrusions such as anorthosite (e.g., McFarlane et al., 2003), charnockite (e.g., Barbosa et al., 2006), or gabbronorite (e.g., Guo et al., 2012; Arima and Gower, 1991). Based on Al solubility in orthopyroxene, thermometry can record a temperature gradient ranging from 700 to 900 ℃ at distances between 5 750 and 20 m from the intrusion of the Makhavinekh Lake pluton (e.g., McFarlane et al., 2003). Samples of aluminous- magnesian granulites collected close to the Brejões Dome record the temperatures of 900–1 000 ℃ (e.g., Barbosa et al., 2006). Barbosa et al. (2006) suggested that the intrusion of the Brejões charnockite diaper was responsible for a local increase in temperature above the peak temperature of regional granulite metamorphism. Meanwhile, the temperature of peak UHT metamorphism in Daqingshan sapphirine granulites is in the range of 910–980 ℃, and is ascribed to contact metamorphism induced by gabbronorite intrusions (e.g., Guo et al., 2012).

The additional thermal energy derived from the mantle can also generate high-heat flow which can promote UHT metamorphism. This is one of the most important heat sources which result in UHT metamorphism. In some cases, coeval mantle magmatism is directly linked to granulite formation (e.g., Maidment et al., 2013; Kemp et al., 2007; Yoshino and Okudaira, 2004). If thickening is extreme, the high-heat flow transfers through delamination of the sub-crustal lithosphere or perhaps from crustal self-heating (e.g., McKenzie and Priestley, 2008). Within the continental lithosphere, many processes including UHT metamorphism may be driven by the transfer of the high-heat flow from the mantle (e.g., Brown, 2006). UHT metamorphism generated by the heat flow in the mantle appears in many locations like South Altay belt of NW China (e.g., Yang and Wei, 2017; Yang et al., 2014; Wan et al., 2013; Peng et al., 2010), Palghat Cauvery tectonic zone of India (e.g., Tsunogae and Santosh, 2011), Kerala khondalite belt of India (e.g., Gou et al., 2015; Pattison et al., 2003), and In Ouzzal of Algeria (e.g., Adjerid et al., 2013).

4.2 Tectonic Settings of UHT Metamorphism 4.2.1 Continental collisional orogenic system

The occurrence of UHT metamorphism throughout Earth history is closely associated with the generation of supercontinent (e.g., Brown, 2007a, b, 2006). In many cases, the extreme UHT crustal metamorphism is distributed in the collisional environments (e.g., Santosh and Sajeev, 2006; Tsunogae and Santosh, 2006). Here are the possible circumstances.

(1) Post-collisional slab break-off and delamination (Fig. 4a); in this case, the addition thermal energy may derive from the asthenospheric mantle, so the lower part of overlying crust experiences UHT metamorphism (e.g., Harley, 2008). In the Korean Peninsula, the southwestern Odaesan gneiss complex underwent UHT metamorphism (902–950 ℃, 8.8–9.4 kbar) due to the heat supplied by the uplifted asthenospheric mantle through the opening formed by the slab break-off during the initial post-collision stage (e.g., Lee et al., 2016). (2) The isothermal exhumation in the final stage of a continental collisional orogenic belt (e.g., Tsunogae et al., 2008) (Fig. 4b); Tsunogae et al. (2008) supposed that UHT metamorphism (880–1 040 ℃, 9.8–12.5 kbar) of the Komateri northern Madurai Block of southern India has a close correlation with the continent-continent collision during the final stage of amalgamation of Gondwana supercontinent. (3) Magmatic underplating in a thickened crust that the orogen underwent a post extension with an anticlockwise P-T path (e.g., Sajeev and Osanai, 2004; Harley, 1989) (Fig. 4c); UHT metamorphism (1 150 ℃, 12 kbar) of Mg-Al-rich granulites from the Central Highland complex of Sri Lanka is a typical case (e.g., Sajeev et al., 2004). (4) Continental lower crustal delamination and extensional collapse of orogen (e.g., Santosh and Omori, 2008a) (Fig. 4d); the extreme temperatures suggest a convective thinning or detachment of the lithospheric thermal boundary layer during or after crustal thickening (e.g., Santosh and Sajeev, 2006). The peak P-T conditions of 930–980 ℃ and 8.5–9.0 kbar (e.g., Adjerid et al., 2013) suggest a delamination of the lithospheric mantle underneath the In Ouzzal crust.

Download:
Figure 4. Schematic diagrams deciphering continental collisional orogen related possible sites of UHT.

In addition, self-heating of the orogen such as viscous dissipation or mechanical heating is another heat source in the collision-style tectonic systems (e.g., Kelsey, 2008), which can quickly and efficiently provide heat transfer between the lithosphere and overlying crust (e.g., Kincaid and Silver, 1996). In the continental collisional orogenic system, an in-situ heat source from deformed lithospheric mantle provides immediate feedback to metamorphic temperatures in the overlying crust (e.g., Burg and Gerya, 2005; Stüwe, 1998). Viscous heating has potential influence on both temperature distribution and large-scale structural patterns within the deformed crust, notably the exhumation of lower crustal rocks would speed up (e.g., Burg and Gerya, 2005). Moreover, the lower crust has a lower thermal diffusivity than one which has been previously employed to geodynamic models (e.g., Whittington et al., 2009), which implies that the lower crust can retain heat for a longer time and the underlying mantle has a higher mean temperature (e.g., Santosh et al., 2012). Thus, UHT metamorphism may be a function of the inherent properties and characteristics of the continental collisional orogenic crust.

4.2.2 Accretionary orogenic system

A hot part involved in HT-UHT metamorphism can form within the accretionary orogen during tectonic switching in prolonged lithospheric extension interrupted by intermittent and transient contraction (e.g., Collins, 2002a, b). The following conditions provide favorable environments for UHT metamorphism (Fig. 5). (1) Asthenosphere upwelling as the deep subduction oceanic slab stagnancy, rollback and break-off (e.g., Collins, 2002a, b); extension and slab rollback lead to the UHT metamorphism at 1 000 ℃ and 7–8 kbar (e.g., Gorczyk et al., 2016). (2) Input of mantle material into upper crust since the mantle delamination is caused by the crust thickened (e.g., Guo et al., 2012; Collins, 2002a, b); granulite-facies metapelitic rocks from the Archean Pikwitonei granulite domain record P-T conditions at ~910 ℃ and 9 kbar in this stage (e.g., Kooijman et al., 2012). (3) The emplacement of magmas in the roots of arcs and subsequent granulite-facies metamorphism (e.g., Santosh et al., 2012; Jagoutz et al., 2007). (4) A back-arc basin of an active accretionary- extensional margin or orogen (e.g., Santosh et al., 2012; Brown, 2009, 2007a, b, 2006; Harley, 2008, 1989; Collins, 2002a, b); it may be one of the commonly invoked settings for the UHTmetamorphism, on the basis of the observation that many backarc basins are recognized to be regions of thin, weak crust and high heat flow (e.g., Hyndman et al., 2005). UHT metamorphism in the Schirmacher Hills of East Antarctic is such an example (e.g., Baba et al., 2010, 2006).

Download:
Figure 5. Cartoon cross-section depicting subduction related possible sites of UHT metamorphism in the accretionary orogenic system (modified after Santosh and Omori, 2008a).

In addition, ridge subduction and slab window are candidates for UHT metamorphism (Fig. 6) (e.g., Santosh et al., 2012; Santosh and Kusky, 2010; Bradley et al., 2003). During the evolution of ocean basins, spreading ridges usually interact with the convergent margin, causing the ridge to be subducted beneath the convergent margin in the subduction zone (e.g., Bradley et al., 2003). The upwelling mantle material that fills the slab window would normally trigger partial melting, and once the slab window opens beneath the convergent margin, a switch over occurs with increasing depth (e.g., Santosh and Kusky, 2010). In shallow levels of the accretionary prism, melt still rises, mixes with, and partially melts the accretionary wedge material, forming hybrid magmas (e.g., Kusky and Li, 2003), together with a medium- ultrahigh temperature near-trench metamorphism (e.g., Sisson et al., 2003). UHT mafic granulites in the East Hebei of North China Craton possibly formed under this tectonic setting (e.g., Yang and Wei, 2017).

Download:
Figure 6. Ridge subduction and slab window model about UHT metamorphism (modified after Santosh and Kusky, 2010).
4.2.3 Post-collisional extension, intracontinental rifting and mantle plume

The extensional tectonics are usually associated with the UHT metamorphism, such as post-collisional extension, intra- continental rifting and mantle plume. In these extensional environments, high-temperature intrusions generate an extreme temperature for UHT metamorphism (Fig. 7). The Gondwana suture in southern India and the Inner Mongolia suture zone in the North China Craton, are associated with post-collisional extension of the paleo-subduction zones (e.g., Santosh et al., 2012). In the African rift valley, the heat and volatiles supplied by rising plumes might contribute to the generation of dry ultrahigh- temperature assemblages in the lower crust (e.g., Santosh and Omori, 2008b). Such UHT metamorphism also occurs in the Altai orogenic belt, China. (e.g., Tong et al., 2014, 2013).

Download:
Figure 7. Cartoon sketch illustrating UHT metamorphism in the case of intracontinental rifting and mantle plume (modified after Santosh and Omori, 2008b). When rising plume hits the subcontinental mantle, then small amounts of melts from plume and heat recrystallize the lower crust to yield UHT rocks.
5 KEY SCIENTIFIC QUESTIONS ON UHT METAMOR- PHISM 5.1 Identification of UHT Metamorphism in the Non- Supracrustal Rocks

The diagnostic mineral assemblages of UHT metamorphism are sapphirine+quartz, Al-orthopyroxene+sillimanite±quartz, spinel+quartz and so forth. All of them occur in high-Mg-Al supracrustal rocks. However, there are no typically diagnostic assemblages or methods which can be applied to identify UHT metamorphism in other types of rocks like metabasite. The determination of UHT conditions for the non-supracrustal rocks is still difficult due to the absence of an appropriate activity- composition model. Green et al. (2016) presented a set of thermodynamic models including new activity-composition model which can be employed for mafic melts, however, it takes time to get good grades. Although Harley (2008) suggested that pigeonite can exist in the mafic UHT rocks, whether it can only be stabilized under UHT condition is still relatively uncertain (e.g., Wei et al., 2017). Fortunately, a successful application of Ti-in- zircon thermometer to UHT metamorphism in the Anápolis- Itauçu complex has been reported by Baldwin et al. (2007). Increasing works use TIZ and ZIR to constrain UHT granulite- facies metamorphism for the non-supracrustal rocks (e.g., Jiao et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2010). Thus, the unconventional geothermo- barometers might be a viable approach to identify UHT metamorphism for the non-supracrustal rocks.

5.2 Applications of TIZ and ZIR in UHT Metamorphism

TIZ and ZIR as unconventional geothermobarometers are effective methods on the recognition of UHT metamorphism. The results of these two tools should be coupled in theory when there is a balance between zircon and rutile (e.g., Ferry and Watson, 2007). However, the results of TIZ and ZIR usually show a decoupled feature when they are employed for the natural samples, especially for the estimation of P-T conditions of UHT metamorphism (e.g., Mitchell and Harley, 2017; Pape et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2015; Taylor-Jones and Powell, 2015; Ewing et al., 2013). Ewing et al. (2013) investigated the behavior of the ZIR and TIZ thermometers in granulite-facies metapelites from the Ivrea-Verbano zone lower crustal section. They found that the temperatures recorded by rutiles are higher than those recorded by zircons for 100–200 ℃, suggesting that ZIR thermometer can robustly record peak temperatures in the high-grade metamorphic terranes. On the contrary, Harley (2016) found that the temperatures recorded by zircons are higher than those recorded by rutiles for 140–200 ℃ in the UHT Napier complex. To evaluate the usefulness and reliability of ZIR geothermometer in the granulite-facies rocks, Pape et al. (2016) investigated the rutile in UHT rocks and suggested that different Zr concentrations in rutile crystals from the same sample provide a record of prograde metamorphic reactions and distinct equilibration textures. This work forcefully suggests that Zr contents in rutile can be affected by the retrograde adjustment (Pape et al., 2016). Furthermore, Mitchell and Harley (2017) presented an integrated petrological approach to testify ZIR thermometry which focused on high-pressure rutile bearing UHT granulites from Napier complex, considering that the ZIR thermometer may be not as reliable as it was thought before. As effective ways to study UHT metamorphism, it is urgent to understand their limitations, results and range of applications. Besides, the decoupled circumstances of these two thermometers and the reasons why the decouple is caused should be settled urgently.

5.3 Tectonic Affinity of UHT Metamorphic Rocks

Characterized by elevated thermal gradients, as the main source on which the gradients are established, UHT metamorphism is closely associated with deep crustal structure and geodynamical features of the orogenic belt (e.g., Kelsey and Hand, 2015; Brown, 2007b). Brown(2007a, b) put forward that there are mainly two types of orogenic system, namely accretionary and collisional orogenic system respectively. Numerous tectonic models proposed for HT granulite generation are based on the two orogenic systems (e.g., Gorczyk et al., 2016; Sizova et al., 2014; Jamieson and Beaumont, 2013; Wan et al., 2013; Stüwe, 2007). All of them are related to the major Earth recycling and crust-generation process of subduction, showing an apparent temporal relationship to supercontinent assembly (e.g., Kelsey and Hand, 2015). However, the tectonic affinity of those UHT metamorphic rocks is still poorly understood. Especially in the collisional orogenic belt, the overlying and subduction slabs respectively experience different metamorphism with different geological significance. The identification of the slab from which the UHT rocks derive is significant in the study of the thermal structure and evolution of the deep crust of the orogen, which can provide essential information for the study of geodynamics.

5.4 Ages and Duration of UHT Metamorphism

The ages and duration over which the UHT metamorphism occurs have not been well constrained for a long time (e.g., Baldwin and Brown, 2008). But it is necessary that they should be acquired to integrate metamorphic data such as P-T paths into tectonic setting of metamorphism. The petrological framework and P-T evolution have been adequately determined in many UHT terranes which can be linked to P-T point and P-T path segment information (e.g., Kelsey and Hand, 2015; Bhowmik et al., 2014). Zircon and monazite are the most commonly used chronometers for dating geologic processes as well as UHT metamorphism (e.g., Rubatto and Hermann, 2007; Rubatto, 2002; Rubatto et al., 2001; Rubatto and Gebauer, 2000). Some information about the timescale of metamorphism at the scale of the orogeny can be provided by them, such as the duration of the heat source baking orogenic belt and the duration of metamorphism recorded by a specific hand specimen- sized rock sample (e.g., Mitchell and Harley, 2017; Harley, 2016; Ewing et al., 2013; Rubatto et al., 2001). Indeed, TIZ and ZIR thermometers combined with zircon in situ dating and trace element thermometry offer an effective way to the study of the age and duration of UHT metamorphism, which are of great scientific significance to understand the nature, mechanism and tectonic setting of UHT metamorphism and even geodynamics of the orogenic belt.

6 CONCLUSION

UHT metamorphism has been a focus of frontier study of metamorphic geology. Many advances have been made in the past decades. The available results from the petrological and geochemical studies of UHT metamorphic terranes indicate that: (1) UHT metamorphism is accepted as a relatively common regional metamorphism; (2) more and more diagnostic mineral assemblages can be used to identify UHT metamorphism; (3) trace element thermometry has become new approach to recognize UHT metamorphism for non-supracrustal rocks; (4) the P-T path and mineral assemblage evolution of UHT metamorphism can be fully quantified based on phase equilibria modeling. UHT metamorphism can reveal the geodynamics in deep crust although there are still some important issues which have not been solved. To shed an insight on the nature, identification and genesis of UHT metamorphism, further studies need to address the following aspects: (1) the identification of UHT metamorphism for the non-supracrustal rocks; (2) robustness of the trace element geothermometers; (3) tectonic affinity of UHT metamorphic rocks; (4) nature and genesis of UHT metamorphism.

ACKNOWLDGMENTS

This paper is dedicated to Prof. Zhendong You for his 90th birthday. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41772054, 41572039 and 41372076) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) (No. CUGQYZX1704). We thank Prof. Jingbo Liu and other two anonymous reviewers for offering constructive comments, which have helped us to improve the manuscript greatly. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-018-0846-9.

Electronic Supplementary Materials: Supplementary material (Table S1) is available in the online version of this article at https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-018-0846-9.


REFERENCES CITED
Adjerid, Z., Godard, G., Ouzegane, K., et al., 2013. Multistage Progressive Evolution of Rare Osumilite-Bearing Assemblages Preserved in Ultrahigh-Temperature Granulites from In Ouzzal (Hoggar, Algeria). Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 31(5): 505-524. DOI:10.1111/jmg.12031
Arima, M., Gower, C. F., 1991. Osumilite-Bearing Granulites in the Eastern Grenville Province, Eastern Labrador, Canada:Mineral Parageneses and Metamorphic Conditions. Journal of Petrology, 32(1): 29-61. DOI:10.1093/petrology/32.1.29
Baba, S., Hokada, T., Kaiden, H., et al., 2010. SHRIMP Zircon U-Pb Dating of Sapphirine-Bearing Granulite and Biotite-Hornblende Gneiss in the Schirmacher Hills, East Antarctica:Implications for Neoproterozoic Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism Predating the Assembly of Gondwana. The Journal of Geology, 118(6): 621-639. DOI:10.1086/656384
Baba, S., Owada, M., Grew, E. S., et al., 2006. Sapphirine Granulite from Schirmacher Hills, Central Dronning Maud Land. In: Fütterer, D. K., Damaske, D., Kleinschmidt, G., et al., eds., Antarctic Contributions to Global Earth Science. Springer, Berlin. 37-44
Baldwin, J. A., Brown, M., 2008. Age and Duration of Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism in the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex, Southern Brasília Belt, Central Brazil-Constraints from U-Pb Geochronology, Mineral Rare Earth Element Chemistry and Trace-Element Thermometry. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 26(2): 213-233. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2007.00759.x
Baldwin, J. A., Brown, M., Schmitz, M. D., 2007. First Application of Titanium-in-Zircon Thermometry to Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism. Geology, 35(4): 295-298. DOI:10.1130/g23285a.1
Barbosa, J., Nicollet, C., Leite, C., et al., 2006. Hercynite-Quartz-Bearing Granulites from Brej es Dome Area, Jequié Block, Bahia, Brazil:Influence of Charnockite Intrusion on Granulite Facies Metamorphism. Lithos, 92(3/4): 537-556. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2006.03.064
Barnicoat, A. C., O'Hara, M. J., 1979. High-Temperature Pyroxenes from an Ironstone at Scourie, Sutherland. Mineralogical Magazine, 43(327): 371-375. DOI:10.1180/minmag.1979.043.327.09
Berman, R. G., 1988. Internally-Consistent Thermodynamic Data for Minerals in the System Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-H2O-CO2. Journal of Petrology, 29(2): 445-522. DOI:10.1093/petrology/29.2.445
Bertrand, P., Ouzegane, K., Kienast, J. R., 1992. P-T-X Relationships in the Precambrian Al-Mg-Rich Granulites from in Ouzzal, Hoggar, Algeria. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 10(1): 17-31. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1992.tb00069.x
Bhadra, S., 2016. Timing and Duration of Ultra-High Temperature Metamorphism in Sapphirine-Bearing Metapelite Granulite from Kodaikanal, Madurai Block, South India:Constraints from Mineral Chemistry and U-Th-Total Pb EPMA Age of Monazite. Journal of Applied Geochemistry, 18(1): 22.
Bhowmik, S. K., Wilde, S. A., Bhandari, A., et al., 2014. Zoned Monazite and Zircon as Monitors for the Thermal History of Granulite Terranes:An Example from the Central Indian Tectonic Zone. Journal of Petrology, 55(3): 585-621. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egt078
Bradley, D., Kusky, T. M., Haeussler, P., et al., 2003. Geological Signature of Early Tertiary Ridge Subduction in Alaska. In: Sisson, V. B., Roseske, S. M., Pavlis, T. L., eds., Geology of a Transpressional Orogen Developed during Ridge-Trench Interaction along the North Pacifica Margin. Geological Society of America Special Paper, 371: 19-49
Brandt, S., Klemd, R., Okrusch, M., 2003. Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism and Multistage Evolution of Garnet-Orthopyroxene Granulites from the Proterozoic Epupa Complex, NW Namibia. Journal of Petrology, 44(6): 1121-1144. DOI:10.1093/petrology/44.6.1121
Brown, M., 2006. Duality of Thermal Regimes is the Distinctive Characteristic of Plate Tectonics since the Neoarchean. Geology, 34(11): 961-964. DOI:10.1130/g22853a.1
Brown, M., 2007a. Metamorphic Conditions in Orogenic Belts:A Record of Secular Change. International Geology Review, 49(3): 193-234. DOI:10.2747/0020-6814.49.3.193
Brown, M., 2007b. Metamorphism, Plate Tectonics, and the Supercontinent Cycle. Earth Science Frontiers, 14(1): 1-18. DOI:10.1016/s1872-5791(07)60001-3
Brown, M., 2009. Metamorphic Patterns in Orogenic Systems and the Geological Record. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 318(1): 37-74. DOI:10.1144/sp318.2
Brown, M., 2014. The Contribution of Metamorphic Petrology to Understanding Lithosphere Evolution and Geodynamics. Geoscience Frontiers, 5(4): 553-569. DOI:10.1016/j.gsf.2014.02.005
Burg, J. P., Gerya, T. V., 2005. The Role of Viscous Heating in Barrovian Metamorphism of Collisional Orogens:Thermomechanical Models and Application to the Lepontine Dome in the Central Alps. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 23(2): 75-95. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2005.00563.x
Bushmin, S. A., Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, D. V., Lebedeva, Y. M., 2007. Infiltration Metasomatism under High-Pressure Granulite-Facies Conditions Based on Orthopyroxene-Sillimanite Rocks in Shear Zones of the Lapland Granulite Belt. Doklady Earth Sciences, 412(1): 106-109. DOI:10.1134/s1028334x07010242
Carrington, D. P., Harley, S. L., 1995. Partial Melting and Phase Relations in High-Grade Metapelites:An Experimental Petrogenetic Grid in the KFMASH System. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 120(3/4): 270-291. DOI:10.1007/s004100050075
Chen, Z. Y., Zhang, L. F., Du, J. X., et al., 2013. Zr-in-Rutile Thermometry in Eclogite and Vein from Southwestern Tianshan, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 63: 70-80. DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2012.09.033
Clark, C., Fitzsimons, I. C. W., Healy, D., et al., 2011. How does the Continental Crust Get Really Hot?. Elements, 7(4): 235-240. DOI:10.2113/gselements.7.4.235
Collins, W. J., 2002a. Hot Orogens, Tectonic Switching, and Creation of Continental Crust. Geology, 30(6): 535. DOI:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0535:hotsac>2.0.co;2
Collins, W. J., 2002b. Nature of Extensional Accretionary Orogens. Tectonics, 21(4): 6-1. DOI:10.1029/2000tc001272
Dallwitz, W. B., 1968. Co-Existing Sapphirine and Quartz in Granulite from Enderby Land, Antarctica. Nature, 219(5153): 476-477. DOI:10.1038/219476a0
Dasgupta, S., Pal, S., 2005. Origin of Grandite Garnet in Calc-Silicate Granulites:Mineral-Fluid Equilibria and Petrogenetic Grids. Journal of Petrology, 46(5): 1045-1076. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egi010
Dasgupta, S., Sengupta, P., Ehl, J., et al., 1995. Reaction Textures in a Suite of Spinel Granulites from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India:Evidence for Polymetamorphism, a Partial Petrogenetic Grid in the System KFMASH and the Roles of ZnO and Fe2O3. Journal of Petrology, 36(2): 435-461. DOI:10.1093/petrology/36.2.435
Degeling, H. S., 2003. Zr Equilibria in Metamorphic Rocks: [Dissertation]. Australian National University, Melbourne. 231
Diener, J. F. A., Powell, R., 2012. Revised Activity-Composition Models for Clinopyroxene and Amphibole. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 30(2): 131-142. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2011.00959.x
Diener, J. F. A., Powell, R., White, R. W., et al., 2007. A New Thermodynamic Model for Clino-and Orthoamphiboles in the System Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-O. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 25(6): 631-656. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2007.00720.x
Ellis, D. J., 1980. Osumilite-Sapphirine-Quartz Granulites from Enderby Land, Antarctica:P-T Conditions of Metamorphism, Implications for Garnet-Cordierite Equilibria and the Evolution of the Deep Crust. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 74(2): 201-210. DOI:10.1007/bf01132005
Ewing, T. A., Hermann, J., Rubatto, D., 2013. The Robustness of the Zr-in-Rutile and Ti-in-Zircon Thermometers during High-Temperature Metamorphism (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Northern Italy). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 165(4): 757-779. DOI:10.1007/s00410-012-0834-5
Ferrero, S., Axler, J., Ague, J. J., et al., 2017. Preserved Anatectic Melt in Ultrahigh-Temperature (or High Pressure?) Felsic Granulites, Connecticut, US. EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, 19: 9692.
Ferry, J. M., Watson, E. B., 2007. New Thermodynamic Models and Revised Calibrations for the Ti-in-Zircon and Zr-in-Rutile Thermometers. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 154(4): 429-437. DOI:10.1007/s00410-007-0201-0
Fitzsimons, I. C. W., Harley, S. L., 1994. Garnet Coronas in Scapolite-Wollastonite Calc-Silicates from East Antarctica:The Application and Limitations of Activity-Corrected Grids. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 12(6): 761-777. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1994.tb00058.x
Frost, B. R., Chacko, T., 1989. The Granulite Uncertainty Principle:Limitations on Thermobarometry in Granulites. The Journal of Geology, 97(4): 435-450. DOI:10.1086/629321
Ganguly, P., Bose, S., Das, K., et al., 2018. Origin of Spinel+Quartz Assemblage in a Si-Undersaturated Ultrahigh-Temperature Aluminous Granulite and Its Implication for the P-T-Fluid History of the Phulbani Domain, Eastern Ghats Belt, India. Journal of Petrology, 58(10): 1941-1974. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egx078
Gorczyk, W., Smithies, H., Korhonen, F., et al., 2016. Ultra-Hot Mesoproterozoic Evolution of Intracontinental Central Australia. Geoscience Frontiers, 6(1): 23-37. DOI:10.1016/j.gsf.2014.03.001
Gou, L. L., Zhang, C. L., Wang, Q., 2015. Petrological Evidence for Isobaric Cooling of Ultrahigh-Temperature Pelitic Granulites from the Khondalite Belt, North China Craton. Science Bulletin, 60(17): 1535-1542. DOI:10.1007/s11434-015-0872-2
Green, E. C. R., Holland, T. J. B., Powell, R., 2007. An Order-Disorder Model for Omphacitic Pyroxenes in the System Jadeite-Diopside-Hedenbergite-Acmite, with Applications to Eclogitic Rocks. American Mineralogist, 92(7): 1181-1189. DOI:10.2138/am.2007.2401
Green, E. C. R., White, R. W., Diener, J. F. A., et al., 2016. Activity-Composition Relations for the Calculation of Partial Melting Equilibria in Metabasic Rocks. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 34(9): 845-869. DOI:10.1111/jmg.2016.34.issue-9
Grew, E. S., 1982. Osumilite in the Sapphirine-Quartz Terrane of Enderby Land, Antarctica:Implications for Osumilite Petrogenesis in the Granulite Facies. American Mineralogist, 67: 762-787.
Groppo, C., Lombardo, B., Rolfo, F., et al., 2007. Clockwise Exhumation Path of Granulitized Eclogites from the Ama Drime Range (Eastern Himalayas). Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 25(1): 51-75. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2006.00678.x
Guo, J. H., Peng, P., Chen, Y., et al., 2012. UHT Sapphirine Granulite Metamorphism at 1. 93-1.92 Ga Caused by Gabbronorite Intrusions:Implications for Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Margin of the North China Craton. Precambrian Research, 222/223: 124-142. DOI:10.1016/j.precamres.2011.07.020
Hacker, B. R., Gnos, L., Grove, M., et al., 2000. Hot and Dry Xenoliths from the Lower Crust of Tibet. Science, 287: 2463-2466. DOI:10.1126/science.287.5462.2463
Haissen, F., Garcia-Casco, A., Torres-Roldan, R., et al., 2004. Decompression Reactions and P-T Conditions in High-Pressure Granulites from Casares-Los Reales Units of the Betic-Rif Belt (S Spain and N Morocco). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 39(3/4/5): 375-383. DOI:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2004.07.030
Harley, S. L., 1987. A Pyroxene-Bearing Meta-Ironstone and Other Pyroxene-Granulites from Tonagh Island, Enderby Land, Antarctica:Further Evidence for very High Temperature (>980℃) Archaean Regional Metamorphism in the Napier Complex. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 5(3): 341-356. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1987.tb00389.x
Harley, S. L., 1989. The Origins of Granulites:A Metamorphic Perspective. Geological Magazine, 126(3): 215-247. DOI:10.1017/s0016756800022330
Harley, S. L., 1998a. On the Occurrence and Characterization of Ultrahigh-Temperature Crustal Metamorphism. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 138(1): 81-107. DOI:10.1144/gsl.sp.1996.138.01.06
Harley, S. L., 1998b. An Appraisal of Peak Temperatures and Thermal Histories in Ultrahigh-Temperature (UHT) Crustal Metamorphism: The Significance of Aluminous Orthopyroxene. In: Motoyoshi, Y., Shiraishi, K., eds., Origin and Evolution of Continents. Memoir National Institute Polar Research, Tokyo. 53: 49-73
Harley, S. L., 1998c. Ultrahigh Temperature Granulite Metamorphism (1 050 ℃, 12 kbar) and Decompression in Garnet (Mg70)-Orthopyroxene-Sillimanite Gneisses from the Rauer Group, East Antarctica. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 16(4): 541-562. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1998.00155.x
Harley, S. L., 2004. Extending Our Understanding of Ultrahigh Temperature Crustal Metamorphism. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 99(4): 140-158. DOI:10.2465/jmps.99.140
Harley, S. L., 2008. Refining the P-T Records of UHT Crustal Metamorphism. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 26(2): 125-154. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2008.00765.x
Harley, S. L., 2016. A Matter of Time:The Importance of the Duration of UHT Metamorphism. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 111(2): 50-72. DOI:10.2465/jmps.160128
Harley, S. L., Hensen, B. J., Sheraton, J. W., 1990. Two-Stage Decompression in Orthopyroxene-Sillimanite Granulites from Forefinger Point, Enderby Land, Antarctica:Implications for the Evolution of the Archaean Napier Complex. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 8(6): 591-613. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1990.tb00490.x
Hensen, B. J., Harley, S. L., 1990. Graphical Analysis of p-T-x Relations in Granulite Facies Metapelites. In: Ashworth, J. R., Brown, M., eds., High Temperature Metamorphism and Crustal Anatexis. Unwin Hyman, London. 19-56
Hokada, T., 2001. Feldspar Thermometry in Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphic Rocks:Evidence of Crustal Metamorphism Attaining~1 100℃ in the Archean Napier Complex, East Antarctica. American Mineralogist, 86(7/8): 932-938. DOI:10.2138/am-2001-0718
Hokada, T., Suzuki, S., 2006. Feldspar in Felsic Orthogneiss as Indicator for UHT Crustal Processes. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 101(5): 260-264. DOI:10.2465/jmps.101.260
Holland, T. J. B., Powell, R., 1998. An Internally Consistent Thermodynamic Data Set for Phases of Petrological Interest. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 16(3): 309-343. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1998.00140.x
Holland, T. J. B., Powell, R., 2011. An Improved and Extended Internally Consistent Thermodynamic Dataset for Phases of Petrological Interest, Involving a New Equation of State for Solids. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 29(3): 333-383. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2010.00923.x
Hyndman, R. D., Currie, C. A., Mazzotti, S. P., 2005. Subduction Zone Backarcs, Mobile Belts, and Orogenic Heat. GSA Today, 15(2): 4-10. DOI:10.1130/1052-5173(2005)15<4:szbmba>2.0.co;2
Ishii, S., Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., 2006. Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism in the Achankovil Zone:Implications for the Correlation of Crustal Blocks in Southern India. Gondwana Research, 10(1/2): 99-114. DOI:10.1016/j.gr.2005.11.019
Jagoutz, O., Müntener, O., Ulmer, P., et al., 2007. Petrology and Mineral Chemistry of Lower Crustal Intrusions:The Chilas Complex, Kohistan (NW Pakistan). Journal of Petrology, 48(10): 1895-1953. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egm044
Jamieson, R. A., Beaumont, C., 2013. On the Origin of Orogens. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 125(11/12): 1671-1702. DOI:10.1130/b30855.1
Jiao, S. J., Guo, J. H., Mao, Q., et al., 2011. Application of Zr-in-Rutile Thermometry:A Case Study from Ultrahigh-Temperature Granulites of the Khondalite Belt, North China Craton. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 162(2): 379-393. DOI:10.1007/s00410-010-0602-3
Kelly, N. M., Harley, S. L., 2004. Orthopyroxene-Corundum in Mg-Al-Rich Granulites from the Oygarden Islands, East Antarctica. Journal of Petrology, 45(7): 1481-1512. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egh023
Kelsey, D. E., 2008. On Ultrahigh-Temperature Crustal Metamorphism. Gondwana Research, 13(1): 1-29. DOI:10.1016/j.gr.2007.06.001
Kelsey, D. E., Clark, C., Hand, M., et al., 2006. Comment on "First Report of Garnet-Corundum Rocks from Southern India:Implications for Prograde High-Pressure (Eclogite-Facies?) Metamorphism". Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 249(3/4): 529-534. DOI:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.07.048
Kelsey, D. E., Hand, M., 2015. On Ultrahigh Temperature Crustal Metamorphism:Phase Equilibria, Trace Element Thermometry, Bulk Composition, Heat Sources, Timescales and Tectonic Settings. Geoscience Frontiers, 6(3): 311-356. DOI:10.1016/j.gsf.2014.09.006
Kelsey, D. E., White, R. W., Powell, R., 2003a. Orthopyroxene-Sillimanite-Quartz Assemblages:Distribution, Petrology, Quantitative P-T-X Constraints and P-T Paths. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 21(5): 439-453. DOI:10.1046/j.1525-1314.2003.00456.x
Kelsey, D. E., White, R. W., Powell, R., et al., 2003b. New Constraints on Metamorphism in the Rauer Group, Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 21(8): 739-759. DOI:10.1046/j.1525-1314.2003.00476.x
Kemp, A. I. S., Shimura, T., Hawkesworth, C. J., et al., 2007. Linking Granulites, Silicic Magmatism, and Crustal Growth in Arcs:Ion Microprobe (Zircon) U-Pb Ages from the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, Japan. Geology, 35(9): 807-810. DOI:10.1130/g23586a.1
Kihle, J., Bucher-Nurminen, K., 1992. Orthopyroxene-Sillimanite-Sapphirine Granulites from the Bamble Granulite Terrane, Southern Norway. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 10(5): 671-693. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1992.tb00114.x
Kincaid, C., Silver, P., 1996. The Role of Viscous Dissipation in the Orogenic Process. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 142(3/4): 271-288. DOI:10.1016/0012-821x(96)00116-1
Kooijman, E., Smit, M. A., Mezger, K., et al., 2012. Trace Element Systematics in Granulite Facies Rutile:Implications for Zr Geothermometry and Provenance Studies. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 30(4): 397-412. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2012.00972.x
Kusky, T. M., Li, J. H., 2003. Paleoproterozoic Tectonic Evolution of the North China Craton. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 22(4): 383-397. DOI:10.1016/s1367-9120(03)00071-3
Lebedeva, Y. M., Glebovitskii, V. A., Bushmin, S. A., et al., 2010. The Age of High-Pressure Metasomatism in Shear Zones during Collision-Related Metamorphism in the Lapland Granulite Belt:The Sm-Nd Method of Dating the Paragenesises from Sillimanite-Orthopyroxene Rocks of Por'ya Guba Nappe. Doklady Earth Sciences, 432(1): 602-605. DOI:10.1134/s1028334x10050119
Lee, B. C., Oh, C. W., Kim, T. S., et al., 2016. The Metamorphic Evolution from Ultrahigh-Temperature to Amphibolite Facies Metamorphism in the Odaesan Area after the Collision between the North and South China Cratons in the Korean Peninsula. Lithos, 256/257: 109-131. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2016.03.019
Lei, H. C., Xiang, H., Zhang, Z. M., et al., 2014. Paleoproterozoic UHT Granulite in the Sulu Orogen and Its Tectonic Implications. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 30: 2435-2445.
Li, Z. L., Chen, H. L., Santosh, M., et al., 2004. Discovery of Ultrahigh-T Spinel-Garnet Granulite with Pure CO2 Fluid Inclusions from the Altay Orogenic Belt, NW China. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science A, 5(10): 1180-1182. DOI:10.1631/jzus.2004.1180
Li, Z. L., Yang, X. Q., Li, Y. Q., et al., 2014. Late Paleozoic Tectono-Metamorphic Evolution of the Altai Segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt:Constraints from Metamorphic P-T Pseudosection and Zircon U-Pb Dating of Ultra-High-Temperature Granulite. Lithos, 204: 83-96. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2014.05.022
Liu, S. J., Li, J. H., 2007. Review of Ultrahigh-Temperature (UHT) Metamorphism Study:A Case from North China Craton. Earth Science Frontiers, 14(3): 131-137.
Liu, S. J., Li, J. H., Santosh, M., 2010. First Application of the Revised Ti-in-Zircon Geothermometer to Paleoproterozoic Ultrahigh-Temperature Granulites of Tuguiwula, Inner Mongolia, North China Craton. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 159(2): 225-235. DOI:10.1007/s00410-009-0425-2
Liu, S. J., Tsunogae, T., Li, W. S., et al., 2012. Paleoproterozoic Granulites from Heling'er:Implications for Regional Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism in the North China Craton. Lithos, 148(1): 54-70. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2012.05.024
Liu, Y. C., Deng, L. P., Gu, X. F., et al., 2015. Application of Ti-in-Zircon and Zr-in-Rutile Thermometers to Constrain High-Temperature Metamorphism in Eclogites from the Dabie Orogen, Central China. Gondwana Research, 27(1): 410-423. DOI:10.1016/j.gr.2013.10.011
Maidment, D. W., Hand, M., Williams, I. S., 2013. High Grade Metamorphism of Sedimentary Rocks during Palaeozoic Rift Basin Formation in Central Australia. Gondwana Research, 24(3/4): 865-885. DOI:10.1016/j.gr.2012.12.020
McFarlane, C. R. M., Carlson, W. D., Connelly, J. N., 2003. Prograde, Peak, and Retrograde P-T Paths from Aluminium in Orthopyroxene:High-Temperature Contact Metamorphism in the Aureole of the Makhavinekh Lake Pluton, Nain Plutonic Suite, Labrador. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 21(5): 405-423. DOI:10.1046/j.1525-1314.2003.00446.x
McKenzie, D., Priestley, K., 2008. The Influence of Lithospheric Thickness Variations on Continental Evolution. Lithos, 102(1/2): 1-11. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2007.05.005
Meyer, M., John, T., Brandt, S., et al., 2011. Trace Element Composition of Rutile and the Application of Zr-in-Rutile Thermometry to UHT Metamorphism (Epupa Complex, NW Namibia). Lithos, 126(3/4): 388-401. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2011.07.013
Mitchell, R. J., Harley, S. L., 2017. Zr-in-Rutile Resetting in Aluminosilicate Bearing Ultra-High Temperature Granulites:Refining the Record of Cooling and Hydration in the Napier Complex, Antarctica. Lithos, 272/273: 128-146. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2016.11.027
Nabelek, P. I., Liu, M., 2004. Petrologic and Thermal Constraints on the Origin of Leucogranites in Collisional Orogens. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh:Earth Sciences, 95(1/2): 73-85. DOI:10.1017/s0263593300000936
Nabelek, P. I., Whittington, A. G., Hofmeister, A. M., 2010. Strain Heating as a Mechanism for Partial Melting and Ultrahigh Temperature Metamorphism in Convergent Orogens:Implications of Temperature-Dependent Thermal Diffusivity and Rheology. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115(B12). DOI:10.1029/2010jb007727
Nakano, N., Osanai, Y., Owada, M., et al., 2004. Decompression Process of Mafic Granulite from Eclogite to Granulite Facies under Ultrahigh-Temperature Condition in the Kontum Massif, Central Vietnam. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 99(4): 242-256. DOI:10.2465/jmps.99.242
Nicoli, G., Stevens, G., Buick, I., et al., 2014. A Comment on Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism from an Unusual Corundum+ Orthopyroxene Intergrowth Bearing Al-Mg Granulite from the Southern Marginal Zone, Limpopo Complex, South Africa, by Belyanin et al. . Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 167(6): 1022. DOI:10.1007/s00410-014-1022-6
O'Brien, P. J., Rötzler, J., 2003. High-Pressure Granulites:Formation, Recovery of Peak Conditions and Implications for Tectonics. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 21(1): 3-20. DOI:10.1046/j.1525-1314.2003.00420.x
Pape, J., Mezger, K., Robyr, M., 2016. A Systematic Evaluation of the Zr-in-Rutile Thermometer in Ultra-High Temperature (UHT) Rocks. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 171(5): 44. DOI:10.1007/s00410-016-1254-8
Pattison, D. R. M., Chacko, T., Farquhar, J., et al., 2003. Temperatures of Granulite-Facies Metamorphism:Constraints from Experimental Phase Equilibria and Thermobarometry Corrected for Retrograde Exchange. Journal of Petrology, 44(5): 867-900. DOI:10.1093/petrology/44.5.867
Peng, P., Guo, J. H., Zhai, M. G., et al., 2010. Paleoproterozoic Gabbronoritic and Granitic Magmatism in the Northern Margin of the North China Craton:Evidence of Crust-Mantle Interaction. Precambrian Research, 183(3): 635-659. DOI:10.1016/j.precamres.2010.08.015
Peng, S. B., Jin, Z. M., Fu, J., M., 2006. Ultra-High Temperature Granulite Enclaves in the Darongshan-Shiwandashan Granites in South China and Implications. National Symposium on Petrology and Geodynamics, Nanjing (in Chinese)
Perchuk, L., Gerya, T., Nozhkin, A., 1989. Petrology and Retrograde P-T Path in Granulites of the Kanskaya Formation, Yenisey Range, Eastern Siberia. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 7(6): 599-617. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1989.tb00621.x
Prakash, D., Arima, M., Mohan, A., 2006. Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism in the Palni Hills, South India:Insights from Feldspar Thermometry and Phase Equilibria. International Geology Review, 48(7): 619-638. DOI:10.2747/0020-6814.48.7.619
Royden, L. H., 1993. The Steady State Thermal Structure of Eroding Orogenic Belts and Accretionary Prisms. Journal of Geophysical Research:Solid Earth, 98(B3): 4487-4507. DOI:10.1029/92jb01954
Rötzler, J., Romer, R. L., 2001. P-T-t Evolution of Ultrahigh-Temperature Granulites from the Saxon Granulite Massif, Germany. Part I:Petrology. Journal of Petrology, 42(11): 1995-2013. DOI:10.1093/petrology/42.11.1995
Rubatto, D., 2002. Zircon Trace Element Geochemistry:Partitioning with Garnet and the Link between U-Pb Ages and Metamorphism. Chemical Geology, 184(1/2): 123-138. DOI:10.1016/s0009-2541(01)00355-2
Rubatto, D., Gebauer, D., 2000. Use of Cathodoluminescence for U-Pb Zircon Dating by Ion Microprobe: Some Examples from the Western Alps. In: Pagel, M., Barbin, V., Blanc, P., et al., eds., Cathodoluminescence in Geosciences. Springer, Berlin. 373-400
Rubatto, D., Hermann, J., 2007. Experimental Zircon/Melt and Zircon/Garnet Trace Element Partitioning and Implications for the Geochronology of Crustal Rocks. Chemical Geology, 241(1/2): 38-61. DOI:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2007.01.027
Rubatto, D., Williams, I. S., Buick, I. S., 2001. Zircon and Monazite Response to Prograde Metamorphism in the Reynolds Range, Central Australia. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 140(4): 458-468. DOI:10.1007/pl00007673
Sajeev, K., Osanai, Y., 2004. Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism (1 150℃, 12 kbar) and Multistage Evolution of Mg-, Al-Rich Granulites from the Central Highland Complex, Sri Lanka. Journal of Petrology, 45(9): 1821-1844. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egh035
Sajeev, K., Osanai, Y., Santosh, M., 2004. Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism Followed by Two-Stage Decompression of Garnet-Orthopyroxene-Sillimanite Granulites from Ganguvarpatti, Madurai Block, Southern India. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 148(1): 29-46. DOI:10.1007/s00410-004-0592-0
Sandiford, M., McLaren, S., 2006. Thermo-Mechanical Controls on Heat Production Distributions and the Long-Term Evolution of the Continents. In: Brown, M., Rushmer, T., eds., Evolution and Differentiation of the Continental Crust. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 67-91
Sandiford, M., Powell, R., 1986. Pyroxene Exsolution in Granulites from Fyfe Hills, Enderby Land, Antarctica:Evidence for 1 000℃ Metamorphic Temperatures in Archean Continental Crust. American Mineralogist, 71(7/8): 946-954.
Santosh, M., Kusky, T. M., 2010. Origin of Paired High Pressure-Ultrahigh-Temperature Orogens:A Ridge Subduction and Slab Window Model. Terra Nova, 22(1): 35-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3121.2009.00914.x
Santosh, M., Liu, S. J., Tsunogae, T., et al., 2012. Paleoproterozoic Ultrahigh-Temperature Granulites in the North China Craton:Implications for Tectonic Models on Extreme Crustal Metamorphism. Precambrian Research, 222/223: 77-106. DOI:10.1016/j.precamres.2011.05.003
Santosh, M., Omori, S., 2008a. CO2 Flushing:A Plate Tectonic Perspective. Gondwana Research, 13(1): 86-102. DOI:10.1016/j.gr.2007.07.003
Santosh, M., Omori, S., 2008b. CO2 Windows from Mantle to Atmosphere:Models on Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism and Speculations on the Link with Melting of Snowball Earth. Gondwana Research, 14(1/2): 82-96. DOI:10.1016/j.gr.2007.11.001
Santosh, M., Sajeev, K., 2006. Anticlockwise Evolution of Ultrahigh-Temperature Granulites within Continental Collision Zone in Southern India. Lithos, 92(3/4): 447-464. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2006.03.063
Santosh, M., Sajeev, K., Li, J. H., 2006. Extreme Crustal Metamorphism during Columbia Supercontinent Assembly:Evidence from North China Craton. Gondwana Research, 10(3/4): 256-266. DOI:10.1016/j.gr.2006.06.005
Santosh, M., Tsunogae, T., Li, J. H., et al., 2007a. Discovery of Sapphirine-Bearing Mg-Al Granulites in the North China Craton:Implications for Paleoproterozoic Ultrahigh Temperature Metamorphism. Gondwana Research, 11(3): 263-285. DOI:10.1016/j.gr.2006.10.009
Santosh, M., Wilde, S., Li, J. H., 2007b. Timing of Paleoproterozoic Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism in the North China Craton:Evidence from SHRIMP U-Pb Zircon Geochronology. Precambrian Research, 159(3/4): 178-196. DOI:10.1016/j.precamres.2007.06.006
Scrimgeour, I. R., Kinny, P. D., Close, D. F., et al., 2005. High-T Granulites and Polymetamorphism in the Southern Arunta Region, Central Australia:Evidence for a 1.64 Ga Accretional Event. Precambrian Research, 142(1/2): 1-27. DOI:10.1016/j.precamres.2005.08.005
Sengupta, P., Raith, M. M., 2002. Garnet Composition as a Petrogenetic Indicator:An Example from a Marble-Calc-Silicate Granulite Interface at Kondapalle, Eastern Ghats Belt, India. American Journal of Science, 302(8): 686-725. DOI:10.2475/ajs.302.8.686
Shimpo, M., Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., 2006. First Report of Garnet-Corundum Rocks from Southern India:Implications for Prograde High-Pressure (Eclogite-Facies?) Metamorphism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 242(1/2): 111-129. DOI:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.11.042
Sisson, V. B., Poole, A. R., Harris, N. R., et al., 2003. Geochemical and Geochronologic Constraints for Genesis of a Tonalite-Trondhjemite Suite and Associated Mafic Intrusive Rocks in the Eastern Chugach Mountains, Alaska: A Record of Ridge Transform Subduction. In: Sisson, V. B., Roeske, S. M., Pavlis, T. L., eds., Geology of a Transpressional Orogen Developed during Ridge-Trench Interaction along the North Pacific Margin. Geological Society of America Special Paper, 371: 293-326
Sizova, E., Gerya, T., Brown, M., 2014. Contrasting Styles of Phanerozoic and Precambrian Continental Collision. Gondwana Research, 25(2): 522-545. DOI:10.1016/j.gr.2012.12.011
Stüwe, K., 1998. Heat Sources of Cretaceous Metamorphism in the Eastern Alps-A Discussion. Tectonophysics, 287(1/2/3/4): 251-269. DOI:10.1016/s0040-1951(98)80072-3
Stüwe, K., 2007. Geodynamics of the Lithosphere: Quantitative Description of Geological Problems, 2nd Edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Dordrecht. 493
Taylor-Jones, K., Powell, R., 2015. Interpreting Zirconium-in-Rutile Thermometric Results. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 33(2): 115-122. DOI:10.1111/jmg.12109
Thompson, A. B., Connolly, J. A. D., 1995. Melting of the Continental Crust:Some Thermal and Petrological Constraints on Anatexis in Continental Collision Zones and Other Tectonic Settings. Journal of Geophysical Research:Solid Earth, 100(B8): 15565-15579. DOI:10.1029/95jb00191
Tomkins, H. S., Powell, R., Ellis, D. J., 2007. The Pressure Dependence of the Zirconium-in-Rutile Thermometer. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 25(6): 703-713. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2007.00724.x
Tong, L. X., Chen, Y. B., Xu, Y. G., et al., 2013. Zircon U-Pb Ages of the Ultrahigh-Temperature Metapelitic Granulite from the Altai Orogen, NW China, and Geological Implications. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 29(10): 3435-3445.
Tong, L. X., Xu, Y. G., Cawood, P. A., et al., 2014. Anticlockwise P-T Evolution at~280 Ma Recorded from Ultrahigh-Temperature Metapelitic Granulite in the Chinese Altai Orogenic Belt, a Possible Link with the Tarim Mantle Plume?. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 94: 1-11. DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2014.07.043
Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., 2006. Spinel-Sapphirine-Quartz Bearing Composite Inclusion within Garnet from an Ultrahigh-Temperature Pelitic Granulite:Implications for Metamorphic History and P-T Path. Lithos, 92(3/4): 524-536. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2006.03.060
Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., 2011. Sapphirine+Quartz Assemblage from the Southern Granulite Terrane, India:Diagnostic Evidence for Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism within the Gondwana Collisional Orogen. Geological Journal, 46(2/3): 183-197. DOI:10.1002/gj.1244
Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., Ohyama, H., et al., 2008. High-Pressure and Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism at Komateri, Northern Madurai Block, Southern India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 33(5/6): 395-413. DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2008.02.004
Vilà, M., Fernández, M., Jiménez-Munt, I., 2010. Radiogenic Heat Production Variability of Some Common Lithological Groups and Its Significance to Lithospheric Thermal Modeling. Tectonophysics, 490(3/4): 152-164. DOI:10.1016/j.tecto.2010.05.003
Wan, Y. S., Xu, Z. Y., Dong, C. Y., et al., 2013. Episodic Paleoproterozoic (~2.45, ~1.95 and~1.85 Ga) Mafic Magmatism and Associated High Temperature Metamorphism in the Daqingshan Area, North China Craton:SHRIMP Zircon U-Pb Dating and Whole-Rock Geochemistry. Precambrian Research, 224: 71-93. DOI:10.1016/j.precamres.2012.09.014
Wang, W., Wei, C. J., Wang, T., et al., 2009. Confirmation of Pelitic Granulite in the Altai Orogen and Its Geological Significance. Chinese Science Bulletin, 54(14): 2543-2548. DOI:10.1007/s11434-009-0041-6
Watson, E. B., Wark, D. A., Thomas, J. B., 2006. Crystallization Thermometers for Zircon and Rutile. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 151(4): 413-433. DOI:10.1007/s00410-006-0068-5
Wei, C. J., 2012. Advance of Metamorphic Petrology during the First Decade of the 21st Century. Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, 31: 415-427.
Wei, C. J., 2016. Granulite Facies Metamorphism and Petrogenesis of Granite (Ⅱ):Quantitative Modeling of the HT-UHT Phase Equilibria for Metapelites and the Petrogenesis of S-Type Granite. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 32(6): 1625-1643.
Wei, C. J., Guan, X. J., Dong, J., 2017. HT-UHT Metamorphism of Metabasites and the Petrogenesis of TTGs. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 33: 1381-1404.
Wei, C. J., Powell, R., Clarke, G. L., 2004. Calculated Phase Equilibria for Low-and Medium-Pressure Metapelites in the KFMASH and KMnFMASH Systems. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 22(5): 495-508. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2004.00530.x
Wei, C. J., Zhou, X. W., 2003. Progress in the Study Of Metamorphic Phase Equilibrium. Earth Science Frontiers, 10: 341-351.
Wei, C. J., Zhu, W. P., 2016. Granulite Facies Metamorphism and Petrogenesis of Granite (I):Metamorphic Phase Equilibria for HT-UHT Metapelites/Greywackes. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 32(6): 1611-1624.
White, R. W., Powell, R., 2010. Retrograde Melt-Residue Interaction and the Formation of Near-Anhydrous Leucosomes in Migmatites. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 28(6): 579-597. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2010.00881.x
White, R. W., Powell, R., Holland, T. J. B., 2001. Calculation of Partial Melting Equilibria in the System Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCKFMASH). Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 19(2): 139-153. DOI:10.1046/j.0263-4929.2000.00303.x
White, R. W., Powell, R., Holland, T. J. B., 2007. Progress Relating to Calculation of Partial Melting Equilibria for Metapelites. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 25(5): 511-527. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1314.2007.00711.x
Whittington, A. G., Hofmeister, A. M., Nabelek, P. I., 2009. Temperature-Dependent Thermal Diffusivity of the Earth's Crust and Implications for Magmatism. Nature, 458(7236): 319-321. DOI:10.1038/nature07818
Xiang, H., Zhang, Z. M., Lei, H. C., et al., 2014a. Paleoproterozoic Ultrahigh-Temperature Pelitic Granulites in the Northern Sulu Orogen:Constraints from Petrology and Geochronology. Precambrian Research, 254: 273-289. DOI:10.1016/j.precamres.2014.09.004
Xiang, H., Zhong, Z. Q., Li, Y., et al., 2014b. Sapphirine-Bearing Granulites from the Tongbai Orogen, China:Petrology, Phase Equilibria, Zircon U-Pb Geochronology and Implications for Paleozoic Ultrahigh Temperature Metamorphism. Lithos, 208/209: 446-461. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2014.08.017
Yang, C., Wei, C. J., 2017. Ultrahigh Temperature (UHT) Mafic Granulites in the East Hebei, North China Craton:Constraints from a Comparison between Temperatures Derived from REE-Based Thermometers and Major Element-Based Thermometers. Gondwana Research, 46: 156-169. DOI:10.1016/j.gr.2017.02.017
Yang, Q. Y., Santosh, M., Tsunogae, T., 2014. Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism under Isobaric Heating:New Evidence from the North China Craton. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 95: 2-16. DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2014.01.018
Yang, X. Q., Li, Z. L., 2013. Fluid Characteristics of Late Paleozoic Ultrahigh-Temperature Granulites from the Altay Orogenic Belt, Northwestern China and Its Significance. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 29(10): 3446-3456.
Yoshino, T., Okudaira, T., 2004. Crustal Growth by Magmatic Accretion Constrained by Metamorphic P-T Paths and Thermal Models of the Kohistan Arc, NW Himalayas. Journal of Petrology, 45(11): 2287-2302. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egh056
Yu, S. Y., Zhang, J. X., Gong, J. H., 2011. Zr-in-Rutile Thermometry in HP/UHT Granulite in the Bashiwake Area of the South Altun and Its Geological Implications. Earth Science Frontiers, 18(2): 140-150.
Zack, T., Moraes, R., Kronz, A., 2004. Temperature Dependence of Zr in Rutile:Empirical Calibration of a Rutile Thermometer. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 148(4): 471-488. DOI:10.1007/s00410-004-0617-8
Zhai, M. G., Liu, W. J., 2001. The Formation of Granulite and Its Contribution to Evolution of the Continental Crust. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 17(1): 28-38.
Zhang, G. B., Ellis, D. J., Christy, A. G., et al., 2010. Zr-in-Rutile Thermometry in HP/UHP Eclogites from Western China. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 160(3): 427-439. DOI:10.1007/s00410-009-0486-2
Zhang, J. X., Meng, F. C., 2005. Sapphirine-Bearing High Pressure Mafic Granulite and Its Implications in the South Altyn Tagh. Chinese Science Bulletin, 50(3): 265-269. DOI:10.1007/bf02897537
Zhao, G. C., Wilde, S. A., Cawood, P. A., et al., 2000. Petrology and P-T Path of the Fuping Mafic Granulites:Implications for Tectonic Evolution of the Central Zone of the North China Craton. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 18(4): 375-391. DOI:10.1046/j.1525-1314.2000.00264.x
Zhao, L., Guo, F., Fan, W. M., et al., 2011. Late Paleozoic Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism in South China:A Case Study of Granulite Enclaves in the Shiwandashan Granites. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 27(6): 1707-1720.