Journal of Earth Science  2018, Vol. 29 Issue (5): 1219-1235   PDF    
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Metamorphic Evolution and Zircon U-Pb Ages of the Nanshankou Mafic High Pressure Granulites from the Jiaobei Terrane, North China Craton
Shuang Chen, Xu-Ping Li, Fanmei Kong, Qingda Feng    
Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Depositional Mineralization & Sedimentary Minerals, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
ABSTRACT: Petrological analysis and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating were conducted on high-pressure mafic granulites, which occured as xenolith within TTG gneisses, from the Nanshankou Village of the Jiaobei terrane, Shandong Peninsula in the north-eastern part of the North China Craton (NCC). The mafic HP granulite is composed of garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, amphibole and symplectitic clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, ilmente and magnetite which were formed after the decomposition of porphyroblastic garnet and clinopyroxene. Four stages of metamorphic mineral assemblages for the mafic HP granulites were constrained by detail petrological and mineralogical investigations. The early prograde assemblage is represented by the mineral inclusions within garnet and clinopyroxene porphyroblasts (Opx1+Pl1+Qtz1), recording the metamorphic conditions at~754-757℃, 0.63-0.71 GPa; peak metamorphic conditions were determined at~874-891℃, 1.32-1.35 GPa with the mineral assemblage of Grt2+Cpx2+Amp2+Pl2+Qtz2. Retrograde minerals derived from symplectitic assemblage Opx3+Cpx3+Amp3+Pl3+Qtz3+Ilm3±Mag3 were formed at 693-796℃, 0.60-0.84 GPa. A final greenschist to sub-greenschist facies event was recorded by the exsolution of actinolite and albite within a retrograded clinopyroxene, as well as the occurrence of prehnite, chlorite and calcite minerals. Accordingly, a clockwise P-T path was concluded on the basis of the different stages of mineral asseblage. Cathodoluminescence imaging, trace element and U-Pb dating of zircons from the mafic HP granulites recorded similar charactistics for three episodes of Paleo-Meso Proterozoic metamorphic events. These are the metamorphic events preserved in mafic and pelitic granulites in the Jiao-Liao-Ji belt (JLJB) with 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2.0-1.9 Ga for peak metamorphism and of 1.86-1.84 Ga for decomposing process, followed by a retrograde amphibolite facies metamorphic event related to the post-orogenic extension at the age of 1.76-1.74 Ga, resulting the exhumation of the granulite to the upper crust level.
KEY WORDS: metamorphism    zircon U-Pb age    mafic HP granulite    Jiaobei terrane    North China Craton    

0 INTRODUCTION

The North China Craton (NCC) represents a significant Precambrian core terrane in Asia. Basement rocks of the NCC have been divided into the Eastern and Western blocks separated by the trans-North China Orogen on the basis of lithologic associations, structures, metamorphism and isotopic ages (Fig. 1) e.g., (Zhao and Zhai, 2013; Wan et al., 2006; Zhao et al., 2005, 2001, 1998). The Western Block is represented by an NW-trending khondalite-dominated supracrustal belt of Early Paleoproterozoic age and Late Archean tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses (Fig. 1) (Li X-P et al., 2013, 2011; Santosh et al., 2010; Yin et al., 2009; Zhao et al., 2005). The Eastern Block is predominantly composed of TTGs, minor amounts of supracrustal rocks of Early to Mid-Archean, and the NE-trending Early Paleoproterozoic JLJB, which is characteristic by high-pressure (HP) pelitic granulite and mafic granulite lithology (Zhao and Zhai, 2013; Jahn et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2005). The central trans-North China orogenic zone consists of Late Archean TTGs, granitoids, metamorphosed ultramafic to felsic volcanic rocks and metasediments, and represents a collision zone resulting from amalgamation of the Eastern and Western blocks (Liu S W et al., 2012, 2002; Zhao et al., 2005, 2001, 2000a, b; Kusky and Li, 2003; Zhai and Liu, 2003). There are general views as to the timing of the assembling of the Eastern and Western blocks which form the central orogen. Some researchers considered that the final collision of the NCC took place at ~2.5 Ga with a later deformation at ~1.85 Ga (Zhai and Santosh, 2011; Kusky et al., 2007a; Kusky and Li, 2003; Zhai and Liu, 2003). Others suggested that the collision of these two blocks occurred at ~1.85 Ga resulting the high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism and formation of the trans-North China Orogen (Zhao et al., 2010, 2001; Xia et al., 2009, 2006; Kröner et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2006; Wan et al., 2006; Wilde and Zhao, 2005).

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Figure 1. Sketch map showing the tectonic subdivision of the North China Craton (after Zhao et al., 2005).

The Jiaobei terrane, located at the Shandong Peninsula, is exposed in the Qixia area of the Eastern Block of the NCC (Figs. 1 and 2a). Its Precambrian basement consists of Archean metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, Archean TTGs, and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary sequences; within the Archean TTGs there are various inclusions or lenses of metamorphic and mafic-ultramafic rocks (Jiang et al., 2016; Liu S J et al., 2015; Liu F L et al., 2014; Liu P H et al., 2014, 2013; Liu J H et al., 2013; Zhao and Zhai, 2013; Tam et al., 2011; Jahn et al., 2008; Zhai and Liu, 2003).

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Figure 2. Schematic geological maps of the Eastern Block of the North China Craton. (a) Structural sketch diagram of the Eastern Block of the North China Craton (modified after Zhou X W et al., 2008); (b) distribution of Precambrian rocks in the Jiaobei terrane and sample localities (modified after Li X-P et al., 2013).

Great progress has been made in the last twenty years with the following points to represent the development of the JLJB. (1) The JLJB was formed during a rifting event in the period ~2.3-1.9 Ga, that involved the emplacement of A-type granitoids (Liao-Ji granites). The granitoids lead to the opening of an incipient ocean that broke up the Eastern Block into the two small blocks (i.e., the Longgang and Nangrim blocks) (Lan et al., 2015, 2014; Zhao L et al., 2015; Li S Z et al., 2012; Zhao G C et al., 2011; Luo et al., 2008, 2004; Li and Zhao, 2007; Wan et al., 2006; Zhang and Yang, 1988). (2) Supracrustal rocks and meta-pelitic rocks from the Jingshan and Fenzishan groups rocks of the Jiaobei terrane and Liaohe Group rocks of the Liao-Ji area were deposited in a rift basin that developed in the period 2.3-2.0 Ga on an Archean (~2.5 Ga) basement within the Paleoproterozoic JLJB. Subsequently, these rocks experienced amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism, following a clockwise P-T path that resulted from subduction and collision, related to the closure of the rift basin during the period 1.92-1.76 Ga (Kusky et al., 2016; Zhao and Zhai, 2013; Li S Z et al., 2011, 2006; Tam et al., 2011; Luo et al., 2008, 2004; Zhou X W et al., 2008; Tang et al., 2007; Lu et al., 2006; Wan et al., 2006). (3) Geochronological studies on the mafic granulites suggest that the protolith ages of the mafic HP granulite are mainly in the range of ~2.7-2.5 Ga. The peak metamorphism ranges from 1.95 to 1.85 Ga, whereas medium-pressure-low-pressure (MP-LP) granulite-amphibolite facies retrogression occurred at 1.85-1.82 Ga (Liu S J et al., 2015; Liu P H et al., 2014, 2013; Liu Q S et al., 2013; Tam et al., 2011; Li et al., 1997). The mafic granulites also record a clockwise metamorphic P-T path (Liu S J et al., 2015; Liu P H et al., 2014, 2013; Tam et al., 2011; Li et al., 1997). (4) Large volumes of A-type granites were intruded in the JLJB at 2.2-2.1 Ga. The deposition of the Jingshan and Fenzishan supracrustal rocks was accompanied by an extensive emplacement of A-type granites, gabbroic and doleritic dykes within an extensional setting (Lan et al., 2015; Li S Z et al., 2011, 2004, 2001; Li and Zhao, 2007; Luo et al., 2004).

Studies involving metamorphic petrology and geochronology in the JLJB are primarily based on HP pelitic and mafic granulites (Guo et al., 2014; Liu P H et al., 2014, 2013; Tam et al., 2012a, b, c, 2011; Zhou J B et al., 2008; Zhou X W et al., 2008; Liu W J et al., 1998). The Archean supracrustal rocks, named the Jiaodong Group, occur sparsely within TTGs (Zhao and Zhai, 2013; Jahn et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2005; Zhai and Liu, 2003); they comprise 2.8-2.7 Ga old lithotectonic assemblages and are reported from the Qixia complex in eastern Shandong within the JLJB (Jiang et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2014; Liu J H et al., 2013; Jahn et al., 2008). The exposure of these assemblages is much less volumetric than that of the 2.55-2.5 Ga lithotectonic assemblages, which occupy more than 80% of the Archean basement in the NCC (Zhao and Zhai, 2013). The 2.8-2.7 Ga old supracrustal rocks, however, are well exposed in the vicinity of Nanshankou Village which is our research area (Fig. 2a). In this study, we report petrological and geochronological results from the mafic HP granulite, including within the TTG suite of the Precambrian basement of the Jiaobei terrane. The metamorphic evolution is discussed on the basis of the mineral assemblages and reaction textures and P-T conditions calculated by conventional geothermobarometry and pseudosection modeling. Especially, we found unfrequent recorded age group of 1.76-1.74 Ga from HP mafic granulite which have experienced HP metamorphic, afterwards isothermal decompressional retrogression and late cooling process. How to explain the petrological coupled with geochronological characteritics of these rocks for the contribution of the development of Jiao-Liao-Ji orogenic belt? These quetions are expected to help to understand the metamorphic evolution during the early stage development of the North China Craton.

1 GEOLOGICAL SETTINGS AND PETROGRAPHY

The Jiaobei terrane is located in the Eastern Block of the NCC, bordered by the Bo Sea in the north, by the Tanlu fault in the west side and Wulian-Yantai fault to the southeast, which lay between the Jiaobei terrane and the Sulu HP-UHP orogenic belt, and northeast extended over the Jiaobei terrane to link with Liaoji terrane. The Jiaobei terrane is dominated by Late Archean TTGs and the Paleoproterozoic Jingshan and Fenzi- shan groups, the Neoproterozoic Penglai Group, some lenses and sheets of metamorphic mafic-ultramafic rocks and miscellaneous rock types (Figs. 2a, 2b). TTGs, exposed in the central and eastern parts of the Jiaobei terrane, contain mafic granulite and amphibolite lenses, and are in tectonic contact with minor occurrences of supracrustal rocks.

The TTG and granitic gneisses are widespread in the Jiaobei terrane which extends from northern Qixia to the south of Laixi-Laiyang. They are extensively deformed, migmatized and widely metamorphosed which can be up to granulite facies. The Jiaobei TTG and granitic gneisses have magmatic ages of ~2.9, 2.75-2.7, 2.55-2.50 Ga, and record two high-grade metamorphic events at ~2.5 and ~1.86 Ga, respectively (Liu J H et al., 2013; Liu P H et al., 2013; Wan et al., 2011a, b; Jahn et al., 2008; Zhou J B et al., 2008; Zhou X W et al., 2008; Tang et al., 2007). The Paleoproterozoic khondalite series in the Jiaobei terrane is composed of the Jingshan and Fenzishan groups, which uncomformably overlie the Archean banded orthogneisses. The lithological types of the Jingshan Group are mainly Sil-Grt-Bt schist-gneiss and quartzo-feldspathic gneiss, intercalated with amphibolite, mafic granulite and marble. Metamorphic studies have shown that these pelitic granulites in the Jingshan Group reached peak P-T conditions of 1.25-1.66 GPa and 830-890 ℃, and record magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 2.9 to 2.1 Ga, and metamorphic ages of 1.95-1.80 Ma (Zou et al., 2017; Liu P H et al., 2013; Tam et al., 2012a, b, c, 2011; Zhou X W et al., 2008; Wan et al., 2006). The Fenzishan Group comprises pelitic schists, marble, calcsilicate marble and minor metabasites, which record upper greenschist to lower amphibolite-facies metamorphism (Tam et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2010; Zhou X W et al., 2008). Detrital zircons of the the Fenzishan Group have similar geochronological characteristics as those of the Jingshan Group in that they have silimilar magmatic intrusion ages and metamorphic ages (Tam et al., 2011; Wan et al., 2006). Locally rocks of the Neoproterozoic Penglai Group, which are mainly composed of meta-limestone, slates, and quartzites, unconformably overlies the Paleoproterozoic Fenzishan and Jingshan groups. In situ U-Pb ages obtained from detrital zircons of the Penglai Group range from 1 700 to 1 100 Ma, probably indicating Late Mesoproterozoic deposition (Chu et al., 2011; Li X H et al., 2007).

Previous studies have indicate that the protoliths of the high-pressure mafic granulites were formed in the Neoarchean (2.9- 2.5 Ga) and metamorphosed in the Paleoproterozoic at ~1.95-1.90 and ~1.86-1.80 Ga (Liu F L et al., 2014; Liu P H et al., 2014, 2013; Tam et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2007; Li et al., 1997). The mafic HP granulites and the nearby meta-calcsilicates used for this study were collected in the vicinity of Nanshankou Village in Maliangzhuang Town, in the northern part of Laixi District, Shandong Province. Mafic HP granulite occurs as inclusions within TTG gneiss and is deformed along with the TTG gneisses (Fig. 3h). The rocks are mainly composed of garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, amphibole and symplectitic plagioclase, or orthopyroxene, ilmente and magnetite formed after the decomposition of porphyroblastic garnet and clinopyroxene (Figs. 4a-4c, 4e). Field observations show that the mafic HP granulites are retrogressed with white-eye structures which are characterized by garnet porphyroblasts rimmed by symplectitic Cpx+Pl (Figs. 3e-3g). Mineral abbreviations used are after Whitney and Evans (2010).

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Figure 3. Field outcrops of mafic HP granulites from the Nanshankou, Jiaobei terrane, eastern Shandong Province. (a) Mafic HP granulite with typical "white-eye structures" in which garnet grains are surrounded by plagioclase+pyroxene/hornblende symplectic coronas; dark colored layers are enriched in hornblende; and (b) mafic granulite included within TTG gneiss.
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Figure 4. Microphotographs of the mafic HP granulite from the Nanshankou, Jiaobei terrane. (a)-(b) Textures of the HP mafic granulites; (c)-(d) minerals inclusions Opx (M1) and "false pre-peak mineral inclusions" (actually is symplectitic assemblage as Pl3 and Cpx3 (M3)) within Grt; (e) retrograde stage (M3) symplectitic intergrowth textures Cpx+Pl+Opx; (f) symplectite of amphibole (M4) occurred as exsolution in association with exsolved plagioclase (Pl4) from the retrograde stage clinopyroxene (Cpx3). Photo (a) was taken under plane-polarized light, (b)-(f) are BSE images.
2 ANALYTICAL METHODS

Electron microprobe analyses were performed using JEOL JXA-8100 at Peking University, operated at an acceleration voltage of 15 kV with a beam current of 20 nA; and a CAMECA SX100 electron microprobe (EMP) at the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, operated at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV with a beam current of 20 nA and focussed beam. The natural minerals jadeite (Si), forsterite (Mg), hematite (Fe), albite (Na, Al), diopside (Ca), rutile (Ti), rhodonite (Mn) and sanidine (K) served as analytical standards. Microprobe analysis of the representative minerals are listed in Table S1.

Bulk-rock geochemical analysis was performed using a Philips PW1400 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer at Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. Total iron was determined as Fe2O3T wt.%. Water content was determined using Coulomb Karl-Fischer titration method (Johannes and Schreyer, 1981); the analysis of CO2 was performed by heating in an O2 atmosphere at 1 100 ℃, using Coulomb determination and titration methods.

Zircon grains from various metamorphic rock samples were collected using magnetic separator and heavy liquid techniques; they were subsequently purified by hand-picking under a binocular microscope. Zircon grains were mounted in epoxy discs that were polished and gold coated. Cathodoluminescence (CL) images of zircon grains were obtained using a chroma cathodoluminescence emitter on a HITACHI S-3000N scanning electron microscope at the Beijing SHRIMP Centre, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, China. Zircon U-Pb dating and in situ trace element analyses were carried out at the State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Northwest University, Xi'an, China. Zircon U-Th-Pb measurements were made on 30 µm diameter regions of single grains using an ICP-MS (Agilient 7500a) and an excimer laser-ablation system (193 nm, Geolas 200M, Lambda Physic); trace element and U-Th-Pb isotopic data were acquired simultaneously using the same spot. The analytical procedure is similar to that reported by Yuan et al. (2008). Isotopic ratios and trace element element concentration of zircons were calculated using GLITTER 4.4.1 and calibrated using 29Si as an internal normalizing isotope and NIST612 as an external standard reference material. Concordia ages and diagrams were obtained using software Isoplot 3 (Ludwig, 2003). Isotopic ratios and single ages reported are with 1σ errors, whereas mean ages are at a 95% confidence level. A common lead correction was applied using LA-ICP-MS common lead correction (ver. 3.15) following the method of Anderson (2002).

3 MINERAL CHEMISTRY 3.1 Garnet

The garnets from sample 09LY19 are generally almandine-and grossular-dominant (Alm42.03-52.82Grs53.74-24.91Prp11.58-13.3Spe8.70-5.47Adr1.04-2.98; Table S1-1). A profile through a garnet grain, which contains numerous inclusions, and surrounded by Cpx-Pl- symplectite is shown in Figs. 4a-4c and 4e. The garnet is clearly zoned, showing a core-rim increasement of almandine-, accompanied by a decrease of grossular- and spessartine-components, pyrope- and andradite-components show only a slight change (Fig. 5). The increases of almandine component at the outermost rim of the garnet porphyroblast is indicative of Fe-Mg re-exchange between the garnet and the nearby Cpx-Pl-symplectite (Table S1-1). The cores of hypidioblastic grains (Grt-c) are indicative of the pre- peak stage (M1); the mantle composition (Grt-m) possibly represents the peak HP granulite-facies stage (M2). The outermost rims of garnet (Grt-r) and fine-grained garnet (Grt3) intergrowth with symplectites of Cpx and Pl, having low grossular and high almandine contents, which reflect diffusional resetting and net transfer reaction during post-peak decompression (M3).

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Figure 5. Garnet compositional profile (rim via core to rim as shown in Fig. 4b) of the HP granulite from the Nanshankou in the Jiaobei terrane.
3.2 Clinopyroxene

Three generations of clinopyroxene are recognized in the HP granulites. They are all diopsidic, but their compositions vary in different rock samples (Table S1-2). Pre-peak stage (M1) clinopyroxene (Cpx1) occurs as inclusions in garnet where it is associated with plagioclase (Pl1) (Figs. 4c, 4d). Clinopyroxene formed under peak metamorphic conditions (M2) is pervasive in all samples; the mantle domain is representative of its composition (Cpx2). Clinopyroxene (Cpx3) of the retrograde stage (M3) forms symplectitic intergrowth textures with plagioclase and orthopyroxene (Figs. 4a-4c and 4e). Among the three types of clinopyroxene there is no significant compositional variation but a general decrease in FeO and increase in MgO, especially obvious in symplectic clinopyroxene (Table S1-2). The Al2O3 content is higher in clinopyroxene of the peak metamorphic stage, i.e in the core of the porphyroblastic clinopyroxene (2.26 wt.%-2.60 wt.%) (Table S1-2). All clinopyroxenes are low in TiO2 (< 0.28 wt.%) and Cr2O3 (< 0.07 wt.%).

3.3 Orthopyroxene

Orthopyroxenes are ferrohypersthenes and occur as two generations. The first generation (Opx1) is associated with plagioclase and forms inclusions in garnet (Figs. 4c, 4d). This type of orthopyroxene contains about 2.6 wt.% Al2O3 and is part of the pre-peak metamorphic stage assemblage (M1). The second generation consists of fine grains, which are associated with fine-grained garnet and symplectites of plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and has slightly lower Al2O3 (0.81 wt.%-0.99 wt.%); it was formed during retrograde metamorphism (M3, Figs. 4a, 4e). Early orthopyroxenes contain slightly lower amounts of CaO (0.23 wt.%) and higher amounts of Na2O (0.35 wt.%) than late stage ones (~0.62 wt.%-0.81 wt.% and ~0.01 wt.%-0.06 wt.%, respectively; Table S1-2).

3.4 Amphibole

Most of the amphiboles in the granulites are hornblende with a slightly variable composition and occur in two retrogressive stages. Retrograde stage (M3) occurs in the symplectite associated with plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene (Table S1-3, Fig. 4a); this variety contains 1.82 wt.%-2.11 wt.% Na2O and has Mg# of 0.38-0.48. Amphibole (M4) occurs as exsolution lamellae? Hornblende (Amp3) formed during the first retrograde stage (M3) occurs in the symplectite associated with plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene (Table S1-3, Fig. 4a); this variety contains 1.82 wt.%-2.11 wt.% Na2O and has Mg# of 0.38-0.48. Amphibole (M4) occurs as exsolution lamellae in association with exsolved plagioclase (Pl4) from the retrograde stage clinopyroxene (Cpx3) (Fig. 4f), is actinolite in composition (Amp4) and is associated with prehnite, chlorite and albite. This occurrence is interpreted as the product of late sub-greenschist facies metamorphism.

3.5 Plagioclase

Four textural types of plagioclase are identified and summarized in Table S1-4. They are inclusion-related plagioclase (Pl1), cores of plagioclase porphyroblasts in the matrix (Pl2), plagioclase (Pl3) associated with symplectitic orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, and plagioclase exsolutions (Pl4) associated with amphibole exsolutions (Amp4). The generations of Pl1 and Pl3 have higher An compositions of about 83.26-87.51 and 76.47-86.74, than those of Pl2 (47.09-54.16). The exsolved Pl4 intergrown with actinolite (Amp4) is nearly pure albite (An=3.16-7.16) (Tables S1-3, S1-4).

3.6 Other Minerals

Epidote, mostly < 0.1-0.5 mm in diameter, has an average composition of ~0.49-0.72 Fe3+ a.p.f.u. (Table S1-5). Fine- grained titanite and ilmenite are common accessories found in the HP granulite mineral assemblages as well as in the calc-silicates. Prehnite and chlorite occur during the final stage (M4) of sub-greenschist facies metamorphism associated with albite and actinolite (Table S1-5). Calcite occurs in almost all samples, but usually less than 5% volumetrically and rarely close to 10%. Sometimes rutiles occur in the mafic HP granulite although they are mostly retrograded into titanite.

4 BULK ROCK COMPOSITIONS

The bulk compositions of mafic HP granulite are characterized by 48.04 wt.%-53.1 wt.% SiO2, 0.85 wt.%-1.12 wt.% TiO2 and 0.01 wt.%-0.07 wt.% P2O5. Compared with the composition of MOR basalt (McDonough and Sun, 1995). They have slightly high in MgO and low in Al2O3, variable from 7.33 wt.% to 9.61 wt.%, and 7.36 wt.% to 12.95 wt.%, respectively. On a Ti-Zr-Y×3 diagram (Fig. 6a) and a Zr/Y vs. Zr diagram (Fig. 6c), data for all samples plot in the MORB, island arc and within plate basalts or at the boundary between the fields of MORB and volcanic arc basalts, respectively, and display a tholeiitic evolution. In a (Fetot+Ti)-Al-Mg diagram, the rocks plot into the field of high-Fe tholeiite basalt (Fig. 6b). CO2varies from 0.02 wt.% to 0.56 wt.%, and FeO/Fe2O3is high ~3.05-4.21, indicating that the granulites are still fresh (Dixon and Batiza, 1979). In a Zr/Y vs. Ti/Y diagram, data from all the samples plot in the field of plate margin basalt (Fig. 6d).

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Figure 6. Discrimination diagrams for mafic HP granulites of the Jiaobei terrane (after Rollinson, 1993). (a) Ti-Zr-Y×3 diagram; A. island-arc tholeiites; B. MORB, island-arc tholeiites and calc-alkali basalts; C. calc-alkali basalts; D. within-plate basalts. (b) (Fetot+Ti)-Al-Mg diagram diagram; AT, AD, AR. tholeiitic series; CB, CA, CD, CR. calc-alkaline series; HFT. high-Fe tholeiite basalt; HMT. high-Mg tholeiite basalt; KB. komatiitic basalt; K. komatiite. (c) Zr/Y-Zr diagram. (d) Zr/Y-Ti/Y diagram.
5 P-T PSEUDOSECTION MODELING

The system NCFMASHCO (Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3- SiO2-H2O-CO2-O) is chosen. The bulk chemical composition from the XRF analysis is given in Table 1. It has been recalculated on a basis of wt.% oxide by using thermodynamic data from Berman (1988) for making the P-T pseudosection (Fig. 7).

Table 1 Major element (wt.%) and trace element (ppm) concentrations of the mafic HP rocks from the Nanshankou, Jiaobei terrane, northeastern NCC
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Figure 7. P-T pseudosection (calculated by THERIAK/DOMINO software, datafiles used by Berman (1988)) using the NCFMASHO system to calculate the equilibrium among minerals from the high-pressure mafic granulite (09LY18) with bulk compositions in wt.% of SiO2=49.94, Al2O3=12.95, CaO=13.39, MgO=9.42, Fe2O3T=11.54, Na2O=1.01, H2O=1.02, CO2=0.09 (total=100). A for amphibolite facies; G for granulite-facies; yellow thick line for boundary of amphibolite-facies and granulite-facies (after Chen et al., 2018). Red crosses for P-T conditions of M2 used Grt+Cpx geothermometer of Ravna (2000) and Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qtz geobarometry of Eckert et al. (1991); yellow crosses for P-T conditions of M3 calculated by the Cpx+Opx geothermometer of Ravna (2000) and Grt-Opx-Pl-Qtz geobarometer of Eckert et al. (1991). Black and dotted lines represent the metamorphic evolution P-T path of the studied mafic HP granulites (dotted line is estimated and black line is calculated).

The calculated P-T pseudosection of the sample within the P-T range of 0.4-1.5 kbar and 650-950 ℃ is shown in Fig. 7, in which the results of conventional geothermobarometry for the pre-peak, peak and post-peak metamorphic conditions are also shown (Table 2). Water and quartz are stable in all the fields.

Table 2 Estimates of P-T conditions of different metamorphic stages for the mafic HP granulites of the Nanshankou, Jiaobei terrane
5.1 Pre-Peak Stage (M1)

This stage is defined by relict minerals that are included within garnet cores (Grt1) (Fig. 4b). These minerals are orthopyroxene (Opx1), clinopyroxene (Cpx1), plagioclase (Pl1) and quartz (Qtz1) (Figs. 4a-4d). Some mineral inclusions in the garnet seemly look like "false pre-peak mineral inclusions" that are same as symplectitic assemblage Cpx3+Pl3 in the stage M3 (Figs. 4c, 4d); however, Opx1 and Pl1 are looked more like prograde mineral inclusions according to the mineral texture and compositions (Fig. 4d). No fracture was obsevered cutting across garnet grain to reach Opx1and Pl1. The pre-peak mineral assamblage, thus, include obsevered Opx and Pl, the stage M1, therefore, was plotted in the mineral assemblage at least in the Grt-Di-Opx-Hb-Pl domain (Fig. 7). The P-T path is presented by using dotted line for prograding process (Fig. 7).

5.2 Peak HP Granulite-Facies Stage (M2)

The peak (M2) metamorphic stage is defined by the relatively Ca-rich and inclusion-free garnet mantle (Grt2), coarse- grained Al-rich clinopyroxene (Cpx2), Na-rich plagioclase (Pl2), quartz, rutile and titanite (Tables S1-1-S1-5)), with the absence of coarse-grained orthopyroxene in the matrix (Figs. 4a-4c). The large clinopyroxene porphyroblasts (Cpx2) and plagioclase (Pl2) are xenoblastic with various sizes (0.5-1 mm) (Figs. 4b-4c), and are in contact with matrix quartz. The peak minerals represent a typical high-pressure granulite-facies assemblage (Grt2+Cpx2+Pl2+Qtz2).

To estimate peak metamorphic conditions, temperatures were calculated using Grt-Cpx geothermometer and the following formulae on the basis of Ravna (2000)

$ T{\rm{ (}}^\circ {\rm{C) = }}\frac{{1\;504 + 1\;784(X_{{\rm{Ca}}}^{{\rm{Grt}}} + X_{{\rm{Mn}}}^{{\rm{Grt}}})}}{{\ln \;K_{D({\rm{F}}{{\rm{e}}^{2 + }}/{\rm{Mg}})}^{{\rm{Grt - Hbl}}} + 0.720}} - 273 $

Pressures were calculated using Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qz geobarometer and use the following formulae, allowed us to estimate metamorphic pressures (Eckert et al., 1991)

$P\left({{\rm{kbar}}} \right) = 2.60 + 0.017\;18\;\mathit{T}\left({\rm{K}} \right) + 0.003\;596T\left({\rm{K}} \right) \cdot {\rm{ln}}\;\mathit{KD} $

Using Grt+Cpx geothermometer of Ravna (2000) and Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qtz geobarometry of Eckert et al. (1991), P-T conditions obtained are 874 ℃, 1.32 GPa and 891 ℃, 1.35 GPa (Fig. 7, M2).

5.3 Post-Peak near Isothermal Decompression Granulite- Facies Stage (M3)

The post-peak (M3) stage is represented by the development of the clinopyroxene (Cpx3)+orthopyroxene (Opx3)+plagioclase (Pl3) symplectites that occur at the rims of garnet (Grt-r for Grt3) porphyroblasts; Grt3 is also present as fine-grained matrix garnet (Figs. 4c and 4e). This type of symplectite is usually regarded as an indicator that the rock had once experienced near-isothermal decompression after peak metamorphism (Liu P H et al., 2013; Guo et al., 2002; Zhao et al., 2001). Using the Cpx+Opx geothermometer of Ravna (2000) and Grt-Opx-Pl-Qtz geobarometer of Eckert et al. (1991), P-T conditions of 0.60-0.84 GPa, 693-887 ℃ were calculated.

The calculed results of different stage P-T conditions are projected onto a phase diagram constructed by pseudosection modeling (Fig. 7).

5.4 Late Sub-Greenschist Facies Stage (M4)

A very late, low-temperature hydrothermal overprint is interpreted as a sub-greenschist facies stage, which for simplicity is not presented in Fig. 7. The typical mineral assemblage of this stage is Act-Prh-Chl-Ab-Cal; a typical feature formed during this stage is the exsolution of amphibole (Amp4 for act) and plagioclase (Pl4) within clinopyroxene (Cpx3).

6 U-Pb DATING AND CORRESPONDING REE CHARACTERISTICS OF ZIRCONS

Zircons from three high-pressure mafic granulites show variable characteristics in terms of morphology, CL images, Th/U ratios, and U-Pb ages. The U-Pb isotopic dating results and trace element analyses of zircons are listed in Tables S2 and S3.

Zircons from these granulites are subhedral to euhedral medium-grained (~100-250 μm) and mostly spherical to weakly elongated in shape. CL images reveal that majority of zircon grains are bright luminescent and structureless; some show patchy or weak zoned internal structures (Fig. 8). Most zircons only record one geological (metamorphic) event, but two grains have big enough rims which are possible to date the second age and to analyze chemical compositions (Fig. 8, 09LY19-2c, 2r and Fig. 9). Most rims are too small to be dated.

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Figure 8. Representative CL images of zircons from the Late Neoarchean HP granulite samples 09LY19, 09LY21, 09LY23, and 10LX09, collected from the Jiaobei terrane, North China Craton. The circles mark the areas of the LA-ICP-MS measurements for 206Pb/238Pb age dating.
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Figure 9. Concordia diagrams of U-Pb zircon ages and zircon REE patterns for the Late Neoarchean high pressure granulite zircons from samples 09LY19 (a)-(b), 09 LY 23 (c)-(d), and 10LX09 (e)-(f).

The age populations of concordant weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb defined by 51 zircon grains from three samples are present in Fig. 9.

Zircons of sample 09LY19 yields 207Pb/206Pb ages between 1 907-1 724 Ma, clustering two ages of 1 863±13 Ma (MSWD=0.13), and 1 780±12 Ma (MSWD=0.21), which are commonly accepted as paleo-mesoproterozoic metamorphic events in the North China Craton (e.g., Wu et al., 2016, 2014; Liu S J et al., 2015; Tam et al., 2011; Li and Zhao, 2007; Luo et al., 2004). Zircons of sample 09LX23 also show Paleo- Mesoproterozoic metamorphic age populations which are between 1 973-1 694 Ma, remove the youngest age and oldest age respectively, clustering concordant age at 1 841±9.4 Ma (MSWD=0.16). A Mesoproterozoic metamorphic concordant age was also recorded by zircons from sample 10LY09 at 1 735±6.9 Ma (MSWD=0.87) (Fig. 9b and Table S2).

The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of zircons from mafic HP granulites show weak negative Eu anomalies in some analyses of sample 09LY19. Ce anomalies are mostly weak to moderate positive REE values are generally low and the pattern yields rather flat HREE in all three samples (Table S3 and Fig. 9b); such characteristics are similar to those observed in metamorphic zircon that crystallized contemporaneously with garnet (Liu J H et al., 2013; Hoskin and Schaltegger, 2003; Belousova et al., 2002; Rubatto, 2002). REE patterns tend to show small and almost constant HREE concentrations of (Lu/Gd)N=1.72-19.86 (except one analuses is 47.44) (Fig. 9b, Table S3).

The zircons show very low contents of U (2.35 ppm-77.33 ppm) and Th (0.05 ppm-8.06 ppm) and a variable Th/U ratio from 0.02 to 0.55.

6 DISCUSSION 6.1 Jiao-Liao-Ji Orogenic Belt in the NCC and Metamorphic Rocks

The Jiao-Liao-Ji belt is composed of sedimentary and volcanic successions, which are deformed and metamorphosed under greenschist to lower amphibolite facies conditions at around 2.55-2.1 Ga (Wu et al., 2016, 2014; Liu J H et al., 2013; Jahn et al., 2008; Zhou J B et al., 2008; Lu et al., 2006; Luo et al., 2004), and tectonically associated with granitoid and gabbroic intrusions (She et al., 2016; Kong et al., 2015; Lan et al., 2015, 2014; Liu S J et al., 2015; Li and Chen, 2014; Liu P H et al., 2013; Tang et al., 2007; Lu et al., 2006). The sedimentary and volcanic successions represent the Fenzishan and Jingshan groups of the Jiaobei terrane (Fig. 2a), the North and South Liaohe groups in the eastern Liaoning Peninsula, the Ji'an and Laoling groups in the southern Jilin, and the Macheonayeong Group in North Korea (from SW to NE along the JLJB). There is a corresponding sedimentary and volcanic succession named the Wuhe Group in the Anhui Province in the south of the JLJB and to the west side of the great Tanlu fault (see Fig. 1). The sedimentary and volcanic successions include, from the bottom to the top, a lower siliciclastic sequence, a bimodal-volcanic complex, a carbonate sequence, and an upper siliciclastic sequence (Tam et al., 2012a, b, c, 2011; Luo et al., 2008, 2004; Zhou J B et al., 2008; Zhou X W et al., 2008; Li and Zhao, 2007; Lu et al., 2006; Li S Z et al., 2004, 2001). The Paleoproterozoic Fenzishan and Jingshan groups of the Jiaobei terrane are unconformably overlain by the Meso- Neoproterozoic Penglai Group that is composed of meta- limestone, slates and quartzite, located at the northeast of Qixia County on small islands north of Yantai in the Jiaobei terrane (Fig. 2a, Chu et al., 2011; Tam et al., 2011; Zhou X W et al., 2008; Li and Zhao, 2007; Faure et al., 2004). The Penglai Group was reported to have experienced greenschist facies metamorphism only (Zhou J B et al., 2008 and references therein).

The metamorphic evolution of the studied mafic HP granulites of the Jiaobei massif which represent the southern segment of the JLJB, is characterized by a clockwise P-T path involving the early prograde (M1) and peak (M2) metamorphisc events following isothermal decompression (M2-M3) and late nearly isobaric cooling (M3-M4) as shown in Fig. 7. Such a P-T path suggests that the mafic high pressure granulites underwent a initial crustal thickening, documented by the prograde assemblage of garnet core and its inclusions (Grt-c+ Opx+Pl) (M1) and the peak HP granulite-facies assemblage of Grt-m+Cpx+Pl+Rt+Ttn+Qz (M2). Following the peak metamorphism, the mafic HP granulites encountered rapid exhumation/uplift, producing the isothermal decompression assemblage (M3) of Grt-r+Cpx+Opx+Pl+Ttn+Ilm+Mag+Qz. Finally, the mafic HP granulites experienced greenschist- subgreenschist facies metamorphism, forming the Act+Ab symplectites after Cpx3 presented a mineral assemblage of Act+Prh+Chl+Ab+Cal (M4). The mafic HP granulites which experienced a clockwise P-T path involving peak P-T conditions at 874-891 ℃, 1.32-1.35 GPa are interpreted to be the result from subduction/ collision-related processes down to a deepth of lithosphere at least 45 km with subsequent crustal thickening (compare to e.g., Brown, 2006, 2001; O'Brien and Rötzler, 2003). In the Jiao-Liao-Ji orogenic belt, this high temperature under relative low pressure is not a rare case. For example, when working on the high-pressure mafic granulites nearby our current study, the peak assemblage consists of high-Ca cores in garnet, high-Al cores in clinopyroxene, and high-Na cores in plagioclase in the matrix, which obtain P-T conditions under 850-880 ℃ and 1.45-1.65 GPa (Liu P H et al., 2013). Working on the spinel-bearing granulites in the khondalite belt, North China Craton, the P-T conditions of 870 ℃, 8 kbar were reported during the post-peak decompressional stage, which was produced by partial melting and introduced by the biotite dehydration events (Cai et al., 2017). In current case, peak P-T conditions are estimated under 874-891 ℃ and 1.32-1.35 GPa, similar P-T conditions in comparison with above, U-Pb dating indicates that 1.99-1.85 Ga age obtained in this study only have two spots; peak conditions, therefore, may have higher pressure, or already effected by the decomposing process, on the other hand, adjacent to the sample location of this study, there is a diabasite body, which could provide additional heat for the granulite of this study.

The mafic HP granulites studied provide further constraints on the above tectonic models for the JLJB. Even though the JLJB formed by the opening and closing of a rift basin (e.g., Zhao and Zhai, 2013; Zhao and Guo, 2012; Zhao et al., 2011; Luo et al., 2008; Li and Zhao, 2007), this rift basin must have developed into an ocean basin at least at its southern segment, where the oceanic lithosphere was subducted, leading to the final closure of the ocean basin with the formation of the high-pressure granulites (Liu P H et al., 2014, 2013; Li X-P et al., 2013, 2011, and unpublished data).

The geochemical signature of the mafic HP granulites documents that the TiO2 content is mostly less than 1%, Nb/Y < 2 and Zr/Y < 3, indicating an island arc and active continental margin setting (Table 1, Fig. 6, Rollinson, 1993). This conclusion is consistent with the occurrence of metabasalt from eastern Liaodong Peninsula, which was interpreted to have formed in an active continental margin setting and which was subsequently deformed and metamorphosed to amphibolite facies conditions due to the arc-continental collision at ca. 1.9 Ga (Li and Chen, 2014; Meng et al., 2014).

6.2 Geochronology of the Mafic HP Granulites

Previous studies suggest that the Neoarchean basement in the Jiaobei terrane as well as in the NCC formed mainly during 2.9 to 2.5 Ga, which is recorded by polyphase magmatic events (Zhai et al., 2015; Liu P H et al., 2014; Liu J H et al., 2013; Zhao and Zhai, 2013; Tam et al., 2011; Xia et al., 2009; Jahn et al., 2008; Zhou J B et al., 2008; Kröner et al., 2005a, b). The Neoarchean TTG, granitoid rocks and mafic magmas in the NCC were formed during two distinct periods: 2.9-2.7 and 2.6-2.5 Ga, of which the former is considered as a major period of juvenile crustal growth in the NCC as evidenced by Nd and zircon Hf isotopic data, and mainly exposed in the eastern part of the NCC (Liu S J et al., 2015; Zhao et al., 2015; Liu J H et al., 2013; Liu P H et al., 2013; Zhao and Zhai, 2013; Wan et al., 2011a, c; Xia et al., 2009; Faure et al., 2003). The 2.6-2.5 Ga rocks make up ~80% of the Precambrian basement of the NCC, and are widespread over the whole NCC (Zhao and Zhai, 2013 and the references therein). According to the lithological rock types, the 2.6-2.5 Ga rocks can be divided into high-grade gneiss complexes and low to medium-grade granite-greenstone belts (Zhao and Zhai, 2013 and references therein); and the rocks underwent polyphase deformation and greenschist to granulite facies metamorphism at ~2.5 Ga in the eastern and western parts of the NCC. There is also an important Late Neoarchean magmatic event at ~2.55-2.50 Ga (Liu S J et al., 2015; Liu J H et al., 2013; Tam et al., 2011; Wan et al., 2011a, b; Zhou X W et al., 2008) by the occurrence of ~2.5 Ga syntectonic charnockites and granites with minor amounts of 2.55-2.50 Ga bimodal volcanic rocks and sedimentary supracrustal rocks (Liu S J et al., 2015; Zhao et al., 2015; Zhao and Zhai, 2013 and references therein; Liu S W et al., 2012; Peng et al., 2012).

The mafic HP granulites record consistent zircon 207Pb/206Pb ages around 2 520-2 500 Ma, which supports the Jiaobei terrane experienced an important metamorphic event at Late Neoarchean at this time. The pervasive ~2.5 Ga zircons in a variety of rocks seem to support that the Jiaobei terrane was already part of a coherent tectonic unit at such time (Zhao et al., 2015; Zhao and Zhai, 2013; Wan et al., 2011a, b, c; Zhai and Santosh, 2011; Zhai et al., 2001). Both high-pressure pelitic and mafic granulites have been discovered in the Jiaobei massif, which are located in the southern segment of the JLJB, and represent the timing of the peak prograde metamorphism of the Jiaobei HP granulites at 1 950-1 860 Ma, suggesting that the Jiaobei terrane underwent initial crustal thickening during this time, followed by subduction-collision related tectonic processes; and retrogression occurred mainly at 1 860-1 820 Ma (Wan et al., 2015; Zhao et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2014; Liu F L et al., 2014; Liu P H et al., 2013; Tam et al., 2011; Zhou J B et al., 2008; Zhou X W et al., 2008; Li et al., 1997).

Three samples from current study provide zircon U-Pb ages of ~1 997 Ma (09LY23), 1 863-1 841 Ma (09LY19, 09LY23) and 1 780-1 735 Ma (10LY09). New zircon ages, therefore, enable the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic events to be sub-divided into three groups: at ~1 863-1 841, ~1 780-1 735 Ma, and, more rarely, at ~1 997-1 869 Ma (Fig. 9, Table S2). All these samples show flat HREE patterns with characteristics of metamorphic zircon that crystallized contemporaneously with garnet, and the ages represent metamorphic events as discussed below.

The metamorphic zircon age in current study at ~1 973- 1 869 Ma is rare presented here, and only two analyses of 50 plots were abtained from three samples. Previous studies suggest that the ages of ~1.95-1.85 Ga represents the timing of the peak prograde metamorphism of the Jiaobei HP granulites (Liu P H et al., 2013; Tam et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2007). The zircon ages of 1 863-1 841 Ma may represent the decomposing prosses at metamorphic stage M3 (i.e., Liu P H et al., 2013), whiles 1 780-1 735 Ma is not rare, several similar ages are reported from both mafic HP granulites and TTGs (Zhou X W et al., 2008; Tang et al., 2007; Lu et al., 2006; Li et al., 1997), which represents a cooling process after decomposing stage or amphibolite facies retrogression (i.e., Zou et al., 2017; Zhao et al., 2015; Zhou X W et al., 2008; Tang et al., 2007; Lu et al., 2006). During the exhumation, HP granulites experience isothermal decomposing, which lead to the anatexis producing anatexis zircon age at ~1.82-1.86 Ga (i.e., Cai et al., 2017, 2015; Liu F L et al., 2015, 2014). Abundant U-Pb dating results of anatexis zircons show that a regional partial melting event happened at 1.84 to 1.86 Ga, indicating that the widespread anatexis should occur at the post-peak granulite-facies metamorphic stage during exhumation of the Jiao-Liao-Ji orogenic belt (i.e., Cai et al., 2017; Liu F L et al., 2015). The anatexis event also took place in the Khondalite belt of the Westen Block, NCC (Zhai and Santosh, 2011). Further more, ~1.85-1.80 Ga metamorphic event represents a late cooling process or anorogenic extensional event (Cai et al., 2017; Tam et al., 2011).

The timing of the high grade metamorphism has been documented by SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircons from TTG and granitic gneisses, meta-mafic rocks, and various meta-sedimentary rocks in the Jiaobei terrane over the past 10 years. Most researchers present data for mafic HP granulites which preserved inherited ages of 2 900-2 500 Ma, and which yield metamorphic ages at 1 956-1 884, 1 860-1 820, and ~1 790-1 735 Ma (Liu P H et al., 2014, 2013; Tam et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2007; Li et al., 1997; this study). The granulite facies metamorphism, therefore, ranges from 1 947 to 1 735 Ma, covering at least two episodes of metamorphism. Another type mafic HP granulite, however, present similar pressure-temperature conditions and clockwise P-T path, but show the inherited age at 2 527±12 Ma, and metamorphic age at 2 473±6 Ma (Liu S J et al., 2015), which means that zircon not necessarily records all stages, as the final collisional process of the Jiao-Liao-Ji orogenic belt at ~1.95-1.85 Ga which many previous studies have documented (e.g., Wan et al., 2015; Zhao et al., 2015; Liu F L et al., 2014; Liu H P et al., 2014, 2013; Tam et al., 2011; Zhou J B et al., 2008; Zhou X W et al., 2008). Zircon CL images of these two types mafic granulites are distinguishable in that the former type, experienced 1.95-1.85 Ga metamorphism, show that zircons are rounded or irregular in shape and have patchy and sector zoning according to CL studies, structures which resemble those of metamorphic origin, with or without small magmatic ghost zoning in the cores (Zhao L et al., 2015; Liu P H et al., 2014, 2013; Tam et al., 2011; this study). CL images of zircons belonging to the late type of mafic granulite are euhedral and prismatic and show clear dark oscillatory core zones which are surrounded by overgrowth or recrystallized rims (Liu S J et al., 2015).

7 CONCLUSIONS

(1) Four metamorphic episodes were identified for the Nanshankou mafic HP granulites of the Jiaobei terrane in the North China Craton. By means of mineral assemblages, P-T peudosentions in the NCFMASHO-CO2 system, Grt-Cpx-Pl- Qtz and Grt-Opx-Pl-Qtz thermobarometers, mafic HP granulites recorded prograde metamorphic conditions at ~754-757 ℃, 0.63-0.71 GPa, peak conditions at ~874-891 ℃, 1.32-1.35 GPa, retrograde conditions derived from symplectitic assemblage decomposing from garnet at 693-796 ℃, 0.60-0.84 GPa and a final greenschist to sub-greenschist facies event. A clockwise P-T path accordingly is concluded.

(2) On the mafic HP granulite three groups' distinguishing zircon 207Pb/206Pb ages were obtained: ages of 2.0-1.9 Ga occur unfrequent in this study; ages of 1.86-1.84 Ga and a youngeat group of 1.78-1.745 Ga are all representative of metamorphic events in the JLJB of the NCC.

(3) The oldest age ~2.0-1.9 Ga represents the timing of the peak prograde metamorphism of the Jiaobei HP granulites in current study; the group 1.86-1.84 Ga age is consistent with a HP metamorphic event that previous studies also presented from other mafic and pelitic granulites in the JLJB, representing a decomposing prosses after peak metamorphism. The youngest age group of 1.78-1.74 Ga was interpreted a late cooling and retrograde amphibolite facies metamorphism when the HP granulites were exhumed to the upper crust.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank Guiming Shu and Dr. Niels Jöns for their helps during operation of the electron microprobe and processing of the analytical results. We thank anonymous reviewers and the editors for their comments and suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41272072), the NSFC/NRF Research Cooperation Programm (No. 41761144061), and the SDUST Research Fund (No. 2015TDJH101). The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-017-0956-9.

Electronic Supplementary Materials: Supplementary materials (Tables S1-S3) are available in the online version of this article at https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-017-0956-9.


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