2. School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
The Nianzishan A-type granitoid complex (NAGC) is located in the Great Xing'an-Mongolian orogenic belt (XMOB) in NE China, at the eastern end of the Central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB) surrounded by the Siberian massif, Sino-Korean massif, and North China Craton (Ge et al., 1999; Şengör and Natal'in, 1996; Şengör et al., 1993). The complex evolution history and multiple collisions of micro-continental fragments since the Paleozoic make this an important site for studying the tectonic evolution of East Asia (Zhao et al., 2018; Xu et al., 2013; Wu et al., 2011; Zhang Y L et al., 2008).
Loiselle and Wones (1979) characterized A-type granites as anorogenic, mildly alkaline, with anhydrous affinities. Their occurrence has important tectonic implications, providing insights into post-collisional and intraplate extensional magmatic processes (Bornin, 2007; Frost et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2003; King et al., 1997; Eby, 1992, 1990; Creases et al., 1991; Whalen et al., 1987; Collins et al., 1982). Therefore, the Mesozoic A-type granites of NE China have received increasing attention and the NAGC should play a key role in understanding the history of regional extension in East Asia (Tian et al., 2014; Yang et al., 2006; Wu et al., 2002; Jahn et al., 2001).
A change in regional tectonics from compressional to extensional has occurred in NE China since Mesozoic times, but the timing of the transition is controversial. Previous studies suggested that the change had ceased by the Early Cretaceous and was followed by strong lithospheric thinning in the Late Cretaceous (130 to 120 Ma) (Wu et al., 2002; Jahn et al., 2001). The first age to be obtained from the NAGC was by a K-Ar method on biotite and K-feldspar and yielded Cretaceous ages of 123 Ma for miarolitic alkaline granite and 135 Ma for porphyritic syenite (Li and Yu, 1993), constraining the age of A-type granitic magmatism at around 130 Ma in an anorogenic extensional setting (Zhang, 2009; Wu et al., 2002; Jahn et al., 2001; Li and Yu, 1993). However, recent research has obtained younger ages of A-type granites than those reported previously, and the latest U-Pb zircon concordia ages of nearby A-type granites show a broad range from 100 to 120 Ma (Qiu et al., 2014; Qin et al., 2012; Wu et al., 2002). Better constrained dates should improve our understanding of tectonic setting.
We present new petrological, mineralogical, whole-rock geochemical data, Sr-Nd isotopes, and zircon U-Pb ages of the NAGC in this paper. Furthermore, in order to establish a tectonic framework for lithospheric extension and thinning in NE China since the Mesozoic, we have compiled ages of other Mesozoic igneous rocks from this region to construct a spatiotemporal pattern of tectonic evolution.1 REGIONAL GEOLOGY
The Nianzishan A-type granitoid complex is located in the Great Xing'an Range, which is the eastern section of the CAOB. It is bounded by the Great Xing'an Range to the west and the Songliao Basin to the east (Fig. 1a). The regional tectonics and magmatic activity are complex and mark the closure of sutures between several microcontinents (Zhao et al. 2017; Wu et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2006). The study area is in the Huaan depression, the subzone between the Longjiang uplift and the Nenjiang depression, bounded by the Nenjiang-Balihan fault, the Great Xing'an fault, and the Xar Moron River fault. The Yalu River fault is closely spatially related to the NAGC and trends NW to NNW. Fault activity occurred during the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic, and was significantly later than the formation age of the NAGC (Qian et al., 2018). Voluminous volcanic rocks occur in the area. The oldest volcanic stratigraphic units in the study area belong to the Laolongtou Group (T1l) in the NW. Late Mesozoic volcanic units in the region comprise the Manitu Group (J3mn), the Baiyingaolao Group (K1b), and the Meiletu Group (K1m). Sedimentary formations are the Dashizhai Group (P2d), the Zhesi Group (P2z), and Quaternary sediments. Intrusive magmatic rocks are common in the region and comprise Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic monzonitic granites related to the NE-SW closure and extension of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Fig. 1b). Late Mesozoic A-type granite with typical miarolitic cavities is common in the region, and its genesis is attributed to subduction of the Pacific Plate. In addition, dyke swarms of granitic and dioritic porphyries are found within Late Mesozoic strata (K1b).2 PETROLOGY
The study area is near Qiqihaer City in Heilongjiang Province. The NAGC outcrops over an area of approximately 25 km2, and is divided into a central and a marginal facies (Fig. 1b); the boundary between them is gradational. Fresh granite is pale-red and turns brown when weathered (Figs. 2a, 2c). The granite at the center of the complex is medium to coarse- grained with a roughly circular outcrop approximately 4 km in diameter. Miarolitic cavities with diameters from 0.5 to 2.0 cm are uniformly distributed within the coarse-grained granite and infilled with quartz and blue to black hornblende. The marginal facies is of porphyritic alkaline granite, located mainly to the north and southeast and in contact with Early Cretaceous rhyolite. We have not examined these contacts in this study. This fine-grained granite is often weathered from a light color to brown (Fig. 2d). The country rock rhyolite is glassy and contains quartz and plagioclase (15 vol.%).
Alkaline miarolitic granite: The alkaline miarolitic granite is porphyritic, consisting of alkali-feldspar with hypidiomorphic quartz, blue-green pleochroic arfvedsonite and aegirine. Apatite, zircon, and magnetite are accessory phases. Alkali- feldspar phenocrysts are hypidiomorphic to idiomorphic K-feldspar (~45 vol.%) and albite (~20 vol.%) crystals up to ~3 mm, suggesting early crystallization. Feldspar grains have undergone sericitization and kaolinization. Interstitial, subhedral to anhedral quartz grains ranging from 1 to 2 mm in size constitute ~30 vol.% of the granite. Amphibole crystals range from 0.5 to 0.8 mm in size and constitute 5 vol.% to 10 vol.% of the granite. Pyroxene rims are observed around the amphibole grains. The acicular to fibrous amphibole is pleochroic from light brown to dark green. It contains 47.84 wt.% to 51.69 wt.% SiO2, 33.74 wt.% to 35.71 wt.% FeO, and 7.20 wt.% to 7.87 wt.% Na2O. On the basis of 23 oxygen atoms, Si is 7.856 to 8.270, A/(Na+K) is 0.796 to 1.187, and CaB is 0.043 to 0.235, indicating that the amphibole is typical arfvedsonite (Leake et al., 1997). Pyroxene contains 52.82 wt.% to 52.93 wt.% SiO2, 31.3 wt.% to 37.81 wt.% FeO, and 12.51 wt.% to 12.87 wt.% Na2O. Its orthoferrosilite (Fs) content is 49.4 wt.% to 50.0 wt.%, acmite (Ac) is 49.2 wt.% to 49.7 wt.%, and the rest is wollastonite (Wo) and enstatite (En). It is classified as acmite (Morimoto, 1988) (Figs. 2b, 2d).
Porphyritic syenite enclosures (sample NZS-7): Syenite enclosures 2 to 50 mm in size are common in the granite. They consist of fine-grained porphyritic syenite containing ca. 7-mm phenocrysts of K-feldspar (40 vol.%), plagioclase (5 vol.% to 10 vol.%), quartz (< 5 vol.%), and fine-grained groundmass (50 vol.%) (Fig. 2e).
Rhyolite (sample NZS-8): The rhyolite is porphyritic with dark gray phenocrysts, consisting of quartz (10 vol.% to 15 vol.%), and feldspar (5 vol.%) with grain sizes from 0.5 to 1 mm. Most quartz grains are angular and rounded at the margins. The groundmass (70 vol.% to 80 vol.%) is microcrystalline to cryptocrystalline or glassy (Fig. 2f).3 SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS
Five samples were collected from the NAGC for analysis: three samples of miarolitic granite (NZS-3, NZS-4, and NZS-5); one porphyritic syenite (NZS-7); and one rhyolite (NZS-8). All samples were little weathered and appropriate for whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope analyses. Samples NZS-3, NZS-4 and NZS-7 were selected for geochronological dating.3.1 LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Dating
Zircon grains were separated from samples NZS-3, NZS-4 and NZS-7 for U-Pb age dating. The bulk samples were crushed to 60 to 80 meshes size, and zircons were separated using gravity and electromagnetic techniques and finally hand-picked under a binocular microscope. The zircon crystals were then mounted on epoxy resin, smoothed and polished, and finally gold coated. They were examined using transmitted and reflected light and cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy.
Zircon U-Pb ages were determined at the Institute of Mineral Resources, CAGS, Beijing, using a Finnigan, Neptune ICP-MS with a New Wave UP213 laser-ablation system. Helium was used as the carrier gas, and the beam diameter was 30 μm with a 10-Hz repetition rate and a laser power of 2.5 J/cm2. Eight ion counters were used to receive 238U, 235U, 232Th, 208Pb, 207Pb, 206Pb, 204Pb, and 202Hg signals simultaneously, while data for 208Pb, 232Th, 235U, and 238U were collected in a Faraday cage. Zircon GJ-1 was used as standard, and Plešovice zircon was used to calibrate the mass spectrometer. U, Th, and Pb concentrations were calibrated using 29Si as internal standard and zircon M127 (U: 923 ppm; Th: 439 ppm; Th/U: 0.475, Nasdala et al., 2008) as external standard. 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/238U were calculated using the ICP-MS DataCal 4.3 program. No correction was made for common Pb because of a high 206Pb/204Pb ratio. Abnormally high 204Pb data were deleted. The Plešovice zircon was dated as unknown and yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 337±2 Ma (2SD, n=12), which is in good agreement with the recommended 206Pb/238U age of 337.13± 0.37 Ma (2SD) (Sláma et al. 2008). Age calculations were performed, and concordia diagrams generated using the Isoplot/Ex 3.0 software (Ludwig, 2003).3.2 Major and Trace Elements
Major and trace elements were analyzed at the Hubei Testing Center, Wuhan. Relatively fresh samples were selected after examination in thin section under the microscope, sawn into slabs, and the central parts were used in whole-rock analysis. Specimens were crushed in a steel mortar and ground in a steel mill to powders of ~200 meshes. Major elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using the methods of Norrish and Chappell (1977), and ferric and ferrous iron were determined using wet chemical methods.
Trace elements were determined in solution by ICP-MS at the National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing. Approximately 40 mg of sample was dissolved in distilled HF+HClO4 in 15 mL Savillex Teflon screw-cap beakers. Analytical precision for most elements was typically better than 5% relative standard deviation (RSD), and the measured values for Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta were within 10% of the certified values. The sample preparation and instrument operation and calibration were described by Qi et al. (2000).3.3 Sr-Nd Isotope Analysis
Sr-Nd isotope analyses were performed using a Finnigan MAT262 mass spectrometer at China University of Geosciences, Beijing. Approximately 50 mg of whole-rock powdered sample were dissolved in a Teflon bomb using a mixture of HF and HNO3. Sr and rare earth elements (REE) were isolated using a 0.2 mL column filled with Sr and REE-Spec resins (manufactured by Eichrom Industries, Inc.) for selective extraction of Sr and REE, respectively. Nd fractions were further separated and purified using LN resin with HCl as eluent. Procedures for performing mass analyses followed those described by Qiao (1988). Rb and Sr mass fractionations were calibrated using 86Sr/88Sr=0.119 4, and Sr blank was < 100 pg during the entire process. The 87Sr/86Sr of the standard is 0.710 248±0.000 011. Nd blank was < 500 pg, and the 143Nd/144Nd of the standard was 0.512 111±0.000 011 (2σ, n=10); a 146Nd/144Nd=0.721 9 correction was applied to 143Nd/144Nd.4 RESULTS 4.1 Zircon U-Pb Chronology
The zircon grains of samples NZS-3 and NZS-4 exhibit length-to-width ratios between 1 : 1 and 2 : 1 and are 100 to 300 μm in size. Most zircon grains have oscillatory zoning (Fig. 3), suggesting an igneous origin. U content is from 48 ppm to 523 ppm, Th content is from 38 ppm to 543 ppm, and Th/U ratio is > 0.4; all these values are characteristic of typical magmatic zircons (Schulz et al., 2006; Wu and Zhen, 2004; Rubatto, 2002).
The length-to-width ratios of zircon grains in sample NZS-7 and their internal structures are similar to those of the alkaline granite (2 : 1) and are overall > 100 μm (Fig. 3). U contents vary between 34 ppm and 3 525 ppm and Th between 48 ppm and 1 689 ppm; zircon Th/U averaged approximately 0.86. The zircons are grouped into (1) light-colored with U of 71.3 ppm to 357.11 ppm and Th of 75.2 ppm to 358.09 ppm and (2) dark with metamictization and U of 1 365.1 ppm to 1 697.3 ppm and Th of 423.69 ppm to 2 500.3 ppm.4.1.1 Miarolitic alkaline granite (NZS-3 and NZS-4)
Nineteen out of thirty spot analyses of the miarolitic granite sample NZS-3 yielded 206Pb/238U ages of 107 to 133 Ma, with a concordia U-Pb age of 112.95±0.93 Ma (MSWD=1.14). This age provides the best estimate for the crystallization age of the NAGC (Fig. 4a). Thirteen spot analyses of the miarolitic granite sample NZS-4 yielded 206Pb/238U ages of 96 to 135 Ma and a concordia U-Pb age of 114.1±1.7 Ma (MSWD=0.72) (Fig. 4b). Two samples collected from different parts of the rock exhibited almost identical ages within analytical errors. Thus, the Nianzhishan A-type granitic magmatism is Late Cretaceous in age.4.1.2 Porphyritic syenite inclusion (NZS-7)
Twenty-nine spot analyses yielded 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 102 to 131 Ma. The ages for the two zircon groups overlap each other. The age of the light-colored group ranges from 102 to 131 Ma, whereas that of the dark group ranges from 118±1 to 119±1 Ma. Seven of analyses are concordant or nearly concordant and cluster as a single population with weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 118.6±0.51 Ma (MSWD=8.6) (Fig. 4c). Since the porphyritic syenite occurs as an inclusion within the granite, this age suggests that it crystallized somewhat earlier than the granite.4.2 Geochemistry 4.2.1 Major elements
Table 1 lists major and trace element analyses. Miarolitic alkaline granite (samples NZS-3-5) has high SiO2 (71.98 wt.% to 72.90 wt.%), FeOT (2.96 wt.% to 3.39 wt.%), and K/Na > 1; its alkali content is 8 wt.% to 10 wt.%, FeOT/MgO ratios range 23 to 34, Al2O3 is less than 13 wt.%, A/CNK is from 0.95 to 1.01, and A/NK ratio is from 1.0 to 1.04. CIPW normative minerals yield a quartz content of 23.60 wt.% to 27.25 wt.%, plagioclase of 0.5 wt.% to 4 wt.%, alkali-feldspar of 63.2 wt.% to 70.6 wt.%, corundum < 1 wt.%, and pyroxene > 2 wt.%. The porphyritic syenite inclusion (sample NZS-7) has concentrations of 67.47 wt.% SiO2, 17 wt.% Al2O3, 0.24 wt.% MgO, 0.41 wt.% CaO, 5.50 wt.% Na2O, and 6.22 wt.% K2O and is characterized by high ALK (Na2O+K2O) (11 wt.%), and high K/Na ratio (1.13), A/CNK ratio of 1.01 and A/NK ratio of 1.05 point to a weakly peraluminous rock. CIPW normative minerals yielded 10.55 wt.% of quartz, 81.96 wt.% of alkali-feldspar, and 3.99 wt.% of plagioclase. Rhyolite (sample NZS-8) is similar to granite in composition, with high SiO2 and ALK and low Al2O3, MgO, CaO, Mn, Ti, and P contents. Total FeO and FeOT/ MgO are lower than those in the granite. A/CNK and A/NK ratio are 1.19 and 1.24, respectively. The CIPW normative minerals are quartz (39.7 wt.%); alkali-feldspar (54.54 wt.%); plagioclase feldspar (2.1 wt.%), and with corundum > 1 wt.%.
Granite and syenite affinities are displayed in Fig. 5 and calc-alkaline and alkaline (AC) affinities in Fig. 6. Samples of the NAGC have similar geochemical properties to other granitoids in the Great Xing'an-Songliao Basin in Northeast China in the age range 120 to 100 Ma (purple area in Figs. 5 and 6).
The trace elements in all samples have broadly similar patterns with elevated Rb, U, Ta, Ce, Nd, and Hf and depleted Ba, K, La, Sr, P, and Ti (Fig. 7b). Contents of Zr+Nb+Ce+Y are from 1 394 ppm to 1 631 ppm, greater than the mean value of the global A-type granite content of 350 ppm proposed by Whalen et al. (1987). Ratio of 10 000×Ga/Al is > 4, which is close to the global average of 3.75 but higher than the boundary value of 2.6 for A-type granites. K/Rb ratios are from 214 to 263, and Rb/Sr are from 12 to 25. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the granites are similar (Fig. 7a), exhibiting LREE/HREE fractionation [(La/Yb)N from 9.14 to 11.46] and negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* from 0.09 to 0.13). Total REE (from 499 ppm to 744 ppm) and heavy REE (from 48.16 ppm to 71.36 ppm) of the studied samples are higher than typical granites. The heavy rare earth elements vary a little perhaps due to fluid-rock interactions. The contents of Rb, Ga, Zr, and Ta in the porphyritic syenite enclosure (sample NZS-7) are high, whereas Ba and U are low. The 10 000×Ga/Al is 3.15. The content of Zr is 486 ppm, and Zr+Nb+Ce+Y is 696 ppm. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns show weak negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.37) and display fractionation of REE similar to the miarolitic alkaline granite [(La/Yb)N=9.38, Fig. 7b]. The rhyolite (sample NZS-8) has contents of Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Ga, and Zn enriched; Zr is 825 ppm, K/Rb ratio is 194, and Rb/Sr is 5.5. The contents of Zr+Nb+Ce+Y is 991 ppm and 10 000×Ga/Al is approximately 4. There are obvious negative anomalies in mantle-normalized Ba, Sr, Ti, and P concentrations (Fig. 7b). The total REEs are low (ΣREE=272 ppm). A clear Eu anomaly is observed in the chondrite-normalized REE diagram, with Eu/Eu*=0.06. However, fractionation of REE is not obvious, and the trend is relatively gentle [La/Yb)N=1.81].
Compared to igneous rocks at 140 to 120 Ma, the NAGC has an extremely high total rare earth content and a more extreme negative Eu anomaly displayed in Fig. 7a. Again, more significant depletion of trace elements (Ba, Sr, Ti, P, Ta, Nb, etc.) can be recognized easily in Fig. 7b.
Zircon saturation temperature (Tzr) calculations indicate that temperatures of the NAGC A-type granites are from 961 to 981 ℃, with an average of 971 ℃, whereas Tzr values of the enclosure and rhyolite are 875 and 975 ℃. Sui and Chen (2011) obtained Tzr values of 868 to 928 ℃ for the NAGC A-type granites. Their Tzr values are probably slightly lower than ours because they did not measure TFe2O3. Our calculated Tzr value of 971 ℃ should be close to the magma temperature of the A-type granites, and is broadly consistent with temperatures independently constrained by oxygen isotope equilibrium temperatures (Wei et al., 2008).4.3 Sr and Nd Isotopes
Sr-Nd isotopic data for the NAGC are listed in Table 3. The Sr contents of A-type granites are from 6.19 ppm to 9.63 ppm, compared with 17.20 ppm in the porphyritic syenite. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic ratios were back-corrected using ages of 112 and 114 Ma for A-type granites, and 118 Ma for porphyritic syenite. Variable and unreasonable (87Sr/86Sr)0 ratios less than basaltic achondrite best initial (BABI) (0.698 98) were found due to high 87Rb/86Sr ratios. However, the (143Nd/144Nd)0 ratios are robust with positive εNd(t) values ranging from +1.85 to +2.06. TDM1 ranges from 671 to 821 Ma. The εNd(t) values and TDM1 ages for the A-type granite, porphyritic syenite and rhyolite are similar, suggesting a common origin.
Reliable ages of the Nianzishan A-type granitoid complex have been lacking up to now. Li and Yu (1993) obtained an age of 123 Ma for the A-type granites by K-feldspar and biotite Ar-Ar dating, similar to a whole-rock Rb-Sr isochron age obtained by Yan et al. (2000). Li and Yu. (1993) dated porphyritic syenite at 135 Ma from a whole-rock Rb-Sr isochron. This study has obtained high-precision LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 112.95±0.73 and 114.1±1.7 Ma for the A-type granites and 118.77±0.43 Ma for the porphyritic syenite (Table 4). These newly available ages are younger than those previously reported and suggest that the A-type granites and porphyritic syenite are the products of late stage Early Cretaceous magmatism.
Jahn et al. (2001) reported an Rb-Sr isochron age of 125 Ma for the Baerzhe A-type granite, and Qiu et al. (2014) obtained the same age from zircon U-Pb dating. The Shangmachang A-type granite is 106 Ma old (Wu et al., 2002), and the Alongshan A-type granite crystallized 117 Ma ago. The age of the A-type granite in the Longtoushan is 117 Ma, for the Gangshan A-type granite is 107.7 Ma, and for the Baishilazi A-type granite is 123±3 Ma (Wu et al., 2002), respectively. Qin et al. (2012) reported 117.8 Ma for the Shanglüshuiqiao A-type granite in the Jilin Province. Zhang Q F et al. (2007) and Ge et al. (1999) obtained ages of 111 to 120 and 102 to 107 Ma for volcanics of the Yingcheng Formation (K1yc) at Shenping and Xingcheng, respectively. Nearly 100 igneous samples, of which 10 are A- type granite, are compiled in Fig. 8. There were two main peaks of magmatism during the Period from 140 to 100 Ma. The magmatism between 140 and 120 Ma shows obvious calc-alkaline affinity and suggests a large-scale tectonic transformation event in the Mesozoic era. But most of the A-type granites occur in the period 120 to 100 Ma.5.2 Magma Genesis
Nianzishan miarolitic alkaline granite contains sodium- rich pyroxene (aegirine-augite) and arfvedsonite; has high SiO2, FeOT, alkalies, K/Na ratios, and FeOT/MgO ratios; and plots in the alkaline field in Fig. 6. The trace element composition of the Nianzishan miarolitic granite is characteristic of A-type granites. The Nianzishan miarolitic granite is enriched in HFSE (Ga, Zr, Nb, and Y) and REE but depleted in Ba, Sr, P, Ti, and Eu. Zr+Nb+Ce+Y is 1 394 ppm to 1 631 ppm, ∑REE is 560.05 ppm to 866.61 ppm, and 10 000×Ga/Al is 4.10-4.29. All these values are much higher than the lowest values usually observed in A-type granites (Whalen et al., 1987). Affinities with A-type granite were evidenced by geological, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical features of the samples studied. Using various discrimination diagrams to further constrain the type of A-type granite, it can be seen that all samples in this study plot into the A-type granite field (Fig. 9). Whole-rock TZr values suggest that overall magmatic temperatures were higher than 850 ℃ for the NAGC (Table 2), in good agreement with global hot granites (Miller et al., 2003) that originated by low degrees of partial melting of dry source rock(s) by dehydration reactions in extensional settings (e.g., Creaser et al., 1991; Clement et al., 1986).5.3 Magma Source
Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotope data for the Nianzishan A-type granite have previously been published (Wei et al., 2002, 2001a, b; Li and Yu, 1993; Li, 1992), but because of low Sr contents and high 87Rb/86Sr ratios, there were large uncertainties in back- corrected (87Sr/86Sr)0 ratios (Wu et al., 1999; Li, 1992).
Such previous studies in NE China reported positive εNd(t) values, low (87Sr/86Sr)0, and young TDM1 (Li J Y et al., 2014; Li H X et al., 2012; Guo et al., 2010; Zhang J H et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2005; Lin et al., 2003; Jahn et al., 2001; Shao et al, . 1999). The high εNd(t) and low (87Sr/86Sr)0 ratios for granites from the west coast of the United States have been used to constrain mantle material input into the continental margin, but mantle input cannot explain the isotopic distribution of igneous rocks in Northeast China. Wu et al. (1999) and Hong et al. (2000) suggested that the positive εNd(t) and low initial ISr ratios from the Xing'an-Mongolian orogenic belt in NE China might represent new underplating material derived from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust.
As shown in Fig. 10, all samples from the Xing'an- Mongolian orogenic belt plot between CHUR and DM lines. Hong et al. (2000) suggested that the TDM1 ages of the granites in the Xing'an-Mongolian orogenic belt coincided with the expansion of the Paleo-Asian Ocean during the Proterozoic, and the granites were derived from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust. Combined whole-rock Nd and zircon oxygen isotopes (low δ18O values ranging from 3.08‰ to 4.27‰ for non-metamict phases) further indicated that gabbroic oceanic crust could be the source rock of the Nianzishan A-type granites, and their formation contributed to the net continental growth during the Late Mesozoic (Wei et al., 2008, 2002, 2001a, b).5.4 Geological Implications 5.4.1 Tectonic setting
A-type granites were once thought to be rifting related, e.g., in Nigeria and Greenland. However, subsequent studies showed that A-type granites also occur within post-orogenic settings (Eby, 1992). The tectonic setting of the NAGC is therefore constrained by major and trace elements in this study. It can be seen that all available samples fall clearly within the A1-type field (Figs. 11a, 11b, 11c) and the AA field (Fig. 11d) (Hong et al., 1995). Both AA and A1 represent extensional settings. On the tectonic discrimination diagrams of Pearce (1984), samples from the NAGC plot in within plate environments (WPG in Fig. 12).5.4.2 Petrotectonic assemblage
The notion of petrotectonic assemblages was first proposed by Dickinson (1971) to identify ancient tectonic settings (Condie, 2014). The concept reflects a correlation between igneous rocks and tectonic environment (Deng et al., 2007, 2004, 1996).
The NAGC is located on the east side of the XMOB at the junction of the Xing'an and Songnen blocks. In this area Early Cretaceous (140 to 120 Ma) intrusive rocks comprise alkali- feldspar granite, granite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite, tonalite, monzonite, and melteigite (Table 5). The Peacock index results show that they mainly comprise CA and only a small amount of calcium (C) and AC. Exposed intrusive rocks are less common in the later part of the Early Cretaceous (120-100 Ma) and comprise alkali granite, syenogranite, granite, porphyry, diorite, and metamorphic core complexes. Intrusive rocks are predominantly alkaline (A) and AC. The Mesozoic granitoids of Jilin Province are granite and monzonitic granite (CA) at 130 to 120 Ma and alkali-feldspar granite composites (A) at 115 Ma (Sui, 1995).
Volcanic rocks outcrop in the Great Xing'an Range and the western Songliao Basin and range stratigraphically from old to new as follows: Shangkuli Formation (K1s), Illek Group (K1y), Mailer Group (K1m), and Baiyingaolao Group (K1b). The Early Cretaceous (140 to 120 Ma) volcanics are olivine basaltic andesite, mugearite, latite, trachyte, olivine basalt, and rhyolite. Rocks show CA and AC properties, and the olivine basalts are tholeiitic (TH).
Volcanic assemblages at 120 to 100 Ma are composed of rhyolite, alkaline rhyolite, anganite, andesite, and basalt and occur in the Yingcheng Group (K1yc) in the Songliao Basin. The volcanics are mainly alkaline (A). Rhyolite in the margin of the Songliao Basin exhibits A-type characteristics (Wang and Xu, 2003; Ge et al., 2000). The rhyolitic cover of the NAGC has A-type characteristics, and its age and geochemistry are consistent with the volcanics of the Yingcheng Group (K1yc) (Liu et al., 2014; Li and Yu, 1993).
These igneous rocks suggest an active continental margin and arc environment in the Great Xing'an Range and Songliao Basin during the Early Cretaceous (K1-1) and the Ergun Block suggests an extensional setting. The igneous assemblages for the later part of the Early Cretaceous (K1-2) all suggest stretching and thinning.5.4.3 Timing constrains on regional extension
Wang and Xu (2003) studied the formation pressure of Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the Songliao Basin and proposed that basaltic trachyandesite and trachyandensite of the Huoshiling Group formed at 1.0 to 1.2 GPa. The Shahezi Group and Illek Group in the Great Xing'an Range yielded pressures of 1.2 to 1.4 GPa, and the Yincheng Group formed at 0.6 to 1.0 GPa. Differences in pressure suggest that the lithospheric thickness varied from 40 to 20 km and 46 to 90 km and was the thinnest (20 to 30 km) at 120 to 100 Ma.
In summary, igneous rocks related to compressional settings were widespread in the Great Xing'an Range-Songliao Basin at 140 to 120 Ma, and roots of the lithosphere from that period still exist (Fig. 13a). With continuing subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate, large scale delamination occurred in the NE China and the lithospheric thinning reached its peak from 120 to 100 Ma (Fig. 13b).6 CONCLUSIONS
(1) The age of the Nianzishan A-type granite is from 112.95±0.93 to 114.1±1.7 Ma, and the age of the porphritic syenite is 118.6±0.51 Ma. Sr-Nd isotopes and Nd model ages suggest that they originated from partial melting of a common juvenile crust source rock.
(2) The geochemical characteristics of the Nianzishan A-type granitoid complex suggest an affinity with A1- or AA-subtype granite formed within an extensional setting.
(3) The occurrence of the NAGC suggests that the Great Xing'an Range-Songliao Basin underwent lithosphere thinning and extension from 120 to 100 Ma.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This Study was funded by the China Geological Survey (Nos. DD20160123 (DD-16-049, D1522), DD20160346, 1212011121075, 212010911028, 12120114020901) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. NSFC40802020). The authors are grateful to Yu Zhang of the Geological Survey of Heilongjiang Province for their help in the field. For the zircon analyses, the authors thank Kejun Hou and Qian Wang at the Institute of Mineral Resources of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. The authors sincerely thank J. B. Whalen, Suhua Cheng, and Yang Wang for their guidance. Thanks go to two reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-018-0996-9.
Bonin, B., 2007. A-Type Granites and Related Rocks: Evolution of a Concept, Problems and Prospects. Lithos, 97(1/2): 1-29. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2006.12.007
Cheng, R. Y., Wu, F. Y., Ge, W. C., et al., 2006. Emplacement Age of the Raohe Complex in Eastern Heilongjiang Province and the Tectonic Evolution of the Eastern Part of Northeastern China. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 22: 353-376. DOI:10.3321/j.issn:1000-0569.2006.02.009
Clement, J. D., Holloway, J. R., White, A. J. R., 1986. Origin of A Type Granites: Experimental Constraints. Am. Mineral, 71: 317-324.
Collins, W. J., Beams, S. D., White, A. J. R., et al., 1982. Nature and Origin of A-Type Granites with Particular Reference to Southeastern Australia. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 80(2): 189-200. DOI:10.1007/bf00374895
Condie, K. C., 2014. Growth of Continental Crust: A Balance between Preservation and Recycling. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(3): 623-637. DOI:10.1180/minmag.2014.078.3.11
Creaser, R. A., Price, R. C., Wormald, R. J., 1991. A-Type Granites Revisited: Assessment of a Residual-Source Model. Geology, 19(2): 163-166. DOI:10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0163:atgrao>2.3.co;2
Deng, J. F., Luo, Z. H., Su, S. G., et al., 2004. Rock Formation Tectonic Environment and Mineralization. Geological Publishing House, Beijng. 1-381.
Deng, J. F., Xiao, Q. H., Su, S. G., et al., 2007. Igneous Petrotectonic Assemblages and Tectonic Settings: A Discussion. Geological Journal of China Universities, 13: 392-402.
Deng, J. F., Zhao, H. L., Mo, X. X., et al., 1996. Continent Roots-Plume Tectonic of China-Key to the Continental Dynamics. Beijng: Geological Publishing House: 1-100.
Dickinson, W. R., 1971. Plate Tectonics in Geologic History. Science, 174(4005): 107-113. DOI:10.1126/science.174.4005.107
Dong, S. Y., Yang, T. Z., Zhang, Z. C., 2008. Chronology, Geochemistry and Tectonic Background of Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks in Little Xing'an Range Area. Bulletin of Mineralogy Petrology and Geochemistry, 27(Z1): 245-257. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1007-2802.2008.z1.136
Eby, G. N., 1990. The A-Type Granitoids: A Review of Their Occurrence and Chemical Characteristics and Speculations on Their Petrogenesis. Lithos, 26(1/2): 115-134. DOI:10.1016/0024-4937(90)90043-z
Eby, G. N., 1992. Chemical Subdivision of the A-Type Granitoids: Petrogenetic and Tectonic Implications. Geology, 20(7): 641. DOI:10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0641:csotat>2.3.co;2
Fang, W. C., 1989. Granitiod and Minerogenesis of Jilin Province. Jilin Science and Technology Press, Changchun. 9-16.
Frost, C. D., Ramo, O. T., Dallagnol, R., 2007. IGCP Project 510—A-Type Granites and Related Rocks through Time. Lithos, 97(1/2): vii-xiii. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2007.01.006
Ge, W. C., Lin, Q., Sun, D. Y., et al., 1999. Geochemical Characteristics of the Mesozoic Basalts in Da Hinggan Ling: Evidence of the Mantle Crust Interaction. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 15: 397-407. DOI:10.3321/j.issn:1000-0569.1999.03.008
Ge, W. C., Lin, Q., Sun, D. Y., et al., 2000. Geochemical Research into Origins of Two Types of Mesozoic Rhyolites in Daxing'anling. Earth Science--Journal of China University of Geosciences, 25: 172-178. DOI:10.3321/j.issn:1000-2383.2000.02.012
Guo, F., Fan, W. M., Gao, X. F., et al., 2010. Sr-Nd-Pb Isotope Mapping of Mesozoic Igneous Rocks in NE China: Constraints on Tectonic Framework and Phanerozoic Crustal Growth. Lithos, 120(3/4): 563-578. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2010.09.020
Guo, J., Huang, Y. W., Sun, J. G., et al., 2012. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Dating of Giorite-Porphyrite from Sishanlinchang Gold Deposit in Heilongjiang and Its Geological Significance. Global Geology, 31: 20-27. DOI:10.1007/s11783-011-0280-z
Han, Z. Z., Wang, H. J., Zhong, H. L., et al., 2009. Geochemical Characteristics and Tectonic Significance of Early Cretaceous A-Type Granite in Alongshan Area, Northeastern Inner Mongolia. Geology and Mineral Resources of South China, 4: 1-9. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1007-3701.2009.04.001
Hong, D. W., Wang, S. G., Han, B. F., et al., 1995. The Tectonic Setting of the Alkali Granite Classification and Its Identification Marks. Science in China: Series B, 25: 418-426. DOI:10.1007/BF02657001
Hong, D. W., Wang, S. G., Xie, X. L., 2000. Genesis of Positive εNd(t) Granitoids in the Da Hinggan Mts. -Mongolia-Orogenic Belt and Growth Continental Crust. Earth Science Frontiers, 7: 441-456. DOI:10.3321/j.issn:1005-2321.2000.02.012
Jahn, B. M., Wu, F. Y., Capdevila, R., et al., 2001. Highly Evolved Juvenile Granites with Tetrad REE Patterns: The Woduhe and Baerzhe Granites from the Great Xing'an Mountains in NE China. Lithos, 59(4): 171-198. DOI:10.1016/s0024-4937(01)00066-4
Jin, X., 2012. Zircon U-Pb Ages and Zircon Hf Isotopic Composition of Volcanic Rocks in the Northern Songliao Basin: [Dissertation]. Jinlin University, Changchun (in Chinese with English Abstract)
King, P. L., White, A. J. R., Chappell, B. W., et al., 1997. Characterization and Origin of Aluminous A-Type Granites from the Lachlan Fold Belt, Southeastern Australia. Journal of Petrology, 38(3): 371-391. DOI:10.1093/petroj/38.3.371
Leake, B. E., Woolley, A. R., Arps, C. E. S., et al., 1997. Nomenclature of Amphiboles: Report of the Subcommittee on Amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. European Journal of Mineralogy, 9(3): 623-651. DOI:10.1127/ejm/9/3/0623
Li, H. X., Guo, F., Li, C. W., et al., 2012. Petrogenesis of Early Cretaceous Tonalites from the Xiaoxinancha Au-Cu Deposit. Geochemistry, 41: 497-514. DOI:10.1007/s11783-011-0280-z
Li, J. Y., Guo, F., Li, C. W., et al., 2014. Neodymium Isotopic Variations of Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic I- and A-Type Granitoids in NE China: Implications for Tectonic Evolution. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 30: 1995-2008. DOI:10.1016/j.pgeola.2014.02.004
Li, P. Z., 1992. The Relationship between δD and Magma Degassing of the Nianzishan Miarolitic Alkaline Granite Heilongjiang. Geochemisry, 4: 70-76. DOI:10.19700/j.0379-1726.1992.01.00
Li, P. Z., Yu, J. S., 1993. Nianzishan Miarolitic Alkaline Granite Stock, Heilongjiang--Its Ages and Geological Implications. Geochemica, 22: 389-399. DOI:10.19700/j.0379-1726.1993.04.009
Lin, Q., Ge, W. C., Cao, L., et al., 2003. Geochemistry of Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks in Da Hinggan Ling: The Bimodal Volcanic Rocks. Geochemica, 32: 208-222. DOI:10.3321/j.issn:0379-1726.2003.03.002
Lin, Q., Ge, W. C., Wu, F. Y., et al., 2004. Geochemistry of Mesozoic Granites in Da Hinggan Ling Ranges. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 20: 403-412. DOI:10.1007/BF02873097
Liu, C. S., Chen, X. M., Chen, P. R., et al., 2003. Subdivision, Discrimination Criteria and Genesis for A Type Rocks Suites. Geological Journal of China Universities, 9: 573-591. DOI:10.1016/S0955-2219(02)00073-0
Liu, C., Deng, J. F., Xu, L. Q., et al., 2011. A Preliminary Frame of Magma- Tectonic Mo Metallogenic Events of Mesozoic Era in Da Hinggan Mountains and Xiao Hinggan Mountains Areas. Earth Science Frontiers, 18: 166-178. DOI:10.1007/s12182-011-0118-0
Liu, R. P., Gu, X. X., Zhang, Y. M., et al., 2015. Zircon U-Pb Geochronology Petrogeochemistry of Host Ignous Rocks of the Dong'an Gold Deposit in Heillongjiang Province, NE China. Aacta Petrologica Sinica, 31: 1391-1408. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1007-2802.2014.05.011
Liu, W., Siebel, W., Li, X. J., et al., 2005. Petrogenesis of the Linxi Granitoids, Northern Inner Mongolia of China: Constraints on Basaltic Underplating. Chemical Geology, 219(1/2/3/4): 5-35. DOI:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2005.01.013
Liu, W., Sun, D. Y., Li, R. L., 2014. Chronology and Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks in Yingcheng Formation from Changling Depression in Songliao Basin: [Dissertation]. Jilin University, Changchun (in Chinese with English Abstract)
Loiselle, M. C., Wones, D. R., 1979. Characteristics and Origin of Anorogenic Granites. Geol. Soc. Am. Prog. (Abstracts with Programs), 11: 468.
Ludwig. K, R., 2003. Isoplot/Ex, a Geochronological Toolkit for Microsoft Excel, Version 3.00. Berkeley Geochronology Center, Berkeley
Meng, F. C., Liu, J. Q., Cui, Y., et al., 2014. Mesozoic Tectonic Regimes Transition in the Northeast China: Constriants from Temporal-Spatial Distribution and Association of Volcanic Rocks. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 30: 3569-3586.
Meng, G., Xu, W. L., Yang, D. B., 2011. Zircon U-Pb Chronology, Geochemistry of Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks from the Lingquan Basin in Manzhouli Area, and Its Tectonic Implications. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 27: 1209-1226.
Middlemost, E. A. K., 1994. Naming Materials in the Magma/Igneous Rock System. Earth-Science Reviews, 37(3/4): 215-224. DOI:10.1016/0012-8252(94)90029-9
Miller, C. F., McDowell, S. M., Mapes, R. W., 2003. Hot and Cold Granites? Implications of Zircon Saturation Temperatures and Preservation of Inheritance. Geology, 31(6): 529-532. DOI:10.1130/0091-7613(2003)031<0529:hacgio>2.0.co;2
Morimoto, N., 1988. Nomenclature of Pyroxenes. Mineralogy and Petrology, 39: 55-76. DOI:10.1007/bf01226262
Nasdala, L., Hofmeister, W., Norberg, N., et al., 2008. Zircon M257—A Homogeneous Natural Reference Material for the Ion Microprobe U-Pb Analysis of Zircon. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 32(3): 247-265. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-908x.2008.00914.x
Norrish, K., Chappell, B. W., 1977. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. In: Zussman, J., ed., Physical Methods in Determinative Mineralogy: 2nd ed. Academic Press, London. 201-272
Pearce, J. A., Harris, N. B. W., Tindle, A. G., 1984. Trace Element Discrimination Diagrams for the Tectonic Interpretation of Granitic Rocks. Journal of Petrology, 25(4): 956-983. DOI:10.1093/petrology/25.4.956
Qi, L., Hu, J., Gregoire, D. C., 2000. Determination of Trace Elements in Granites by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Talanta, 51(3): 507-513. DOI:10.1016/s0039-9140(99)00318-5
Qian, C., Lu, L., Qin, T., et al., 2018. A Study of the Late Pleistocene Action of Yaluhe fault in Northern DaHinggan Mountains. Geological Bulletin of China, 37(9): 1748-1754.
Qiao, G. S., 1988. Normalization of Isotopic Dilution Analysis--A New Program for Isotope Mass Spectrometric Analysis. Science in China: Series A, 31: 1263-1268.
Qin, J. H., Liu, C., Shi, Y. R., et al., 2019. Formation Age, Characteristics and Geological Significance of Boketu Miarolitic Granite in Inner Mongolia. Earth Science, 44(4): 1295-1310. DOI:10.3799/dqkx.2018.585
Qin, Y., Liang, Y. H., Hu, Z. C., et al., 2012. Geochemical Characteristics and Tectonic Significance of the Shanglvshuqiao Aluminous A-Type Granite Instrusive in the Ji'an Area, Jilin Province. Journal of Jilin University: Earth Science Edition: 1076-1083. DOI:10.13278/j.cnki.jjuese.2012.04.034
Qiu, Z. L., Liang, D. Y., Wang, Y. F., 2014. Zircon REE, Trace Element Characteristics and U-Pb Chonology in the Baerzhe Alkaline Granite: Implications to the Petrological and Mineralization. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 30: 1757-1768.
Rubatto, D., 2002. Zircon Trace Element Geochemistry: Partitioning with Garnet and the Link between U-Pb Ages and Metamorphism. Chemical Geology, 184(1/2): 123-138. DOI:10.1016/s0009-2541(01)00355-2
Schulz, B., Klemd, R., Brätz, H., 2006. Host Rock Compositional Controls on Zircon Trace Element Signatures in Metabasites from the Austroalpine Basement. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70(3): 697-710. DOI:10.1016/j.gca.2005.10.001
Şengǒr, A. M. C., Natal'in, B. A., 1996. Paleotectonics in Asia: Fragments of a Synthesis. In: Yin, A., ed., The Tectonic Evolution of Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 486-640
Şengör, A. M. C., Natal'in, B. A., Burtman, V. S., 1993. Evolution of the Altaid Tectonic Collage and Palaeozoic Crustal Growth in Eurasia. Nature, 364(6435): 299-307. DOI:10.1038/364299a0
Shao, J. A, Zhang, L. Q., Mu, B. L., 1999. Magatism in the Mesozoic Extending Orogenic Process of Dahinggan MTS. Earth Science Frontiers, 6: 339-346. DOI:10.3321/j.issn:1005-2321.1999.04.017
She, H. Q., Li, J. W., Xiang, A. P., et al., 2012. U-Pb Ages of the Zircons from Primary Rocks in Middle-Northern Daxinganling and Its Implications to Geotectonic Evolution. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 28: 571-594.
Sláma, J., Košler, J., Condon, D. J., et al., 2008. Plešovice Zircon—A New Natural Reference Material for U-Pb and Hf Isotopic Microanalysis. Chemical Geology, 249(1/2): 1-35. DOI:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2007.11.005
Sui, Z. M., 1995. The Genesis of Mesozoic Granites in Jilin Province and Its Tectonic Setting. Jilin Geology, 1: 15-22.
Sui, Z. M., Chen, Y. J., 2011. Zircon Saturation Temperatures of Granites in Eastern Great Xing'an Range, and Its Geological Signification. Global Geology, 30: 162-172. DOI:10.1007/s11589-011-0776-4
Sun, J. G., Chen, L., Zhao, J. K., 2008. SHRIMP U-Pb Dating of Zircon from Late Yanshanian Granitic Complex in Xiaoxinancha Gold-Rich Copper Orefield of Yanbian and Its Geological Implications. Mineral Deposits, 27: 319-328. DOI:10.1002/clen.200700058
Sun, S. S., McDonough, W. F., 1989. Chemical and Isotopic Systematics of Oceanic Basalts: Implications for Mantle Composition and Processes. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 42(1): 313-345. DOI:10.1144/gsl.sp.1989.042.01.19
Tian, D. X., Ge, W. C., Yang, H., et al., 2014. Lower Cretaceous Alkali Feldspar Granites in the Central Part of the Great Xing'an Range, Northeastern China: Chronology, Geochemistry and Tectonic Implications. Geological Magazine, 152(3): 383-399. DOI:10.1017/s0016756814000387
Wang, H. Q, Xu, W. L., 2003. The Deep Process of Formation and Evolution of Songliao Basin: Mesozoic Vocanic Rock Probe. Journal of Jilin University: Earth Sicence Eidition, 33: 37-42. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1671-5888.2003.01.007
Wang, L. G., Han, Y. P., Chai, P., 2013. Zircon U-Pb Dating of Diorite Breccias from J0 Ore Body in Jinchang Gold Deposite of Heilongjiang and Its Geological Significance. Global Geology, 32: 515-521. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5589.2013.03.008
Wang, Q. S., Yang, Y. C., Han, S. J., et al., 2015. Geochemical Characteristics and LA-ICP-MS Zircon U-Pb Dating of Xianfengbeishan Gold Deposite in Heilongjiang Province and Their Geological Significance. Mineral Deposits, 34: 675-691. DOI:10.16111/j.0258-7106.2015.04.002
Wang, Y. X., Zhao, Z. H., 1997. Geochemistery and Origin of the Baerzhe REE-Nb-Be-Zr Superlarge Deposit. Geochemica, 26: 24-35. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-6524.2000.04.002
Watson, E. B., Harrison, T. M., 1983. Zircon Saturation Revisited: Temperature and Composition Affects in a Variety of Crustal Magma Types. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64(2): 295-304. DOI:10.1016/0012-821x(83)90211-x
Wei, C. S., Zhao, Z. F., Spicuzza, M. J., 2008. Zircon Oxygen Isotopic Constraint on the Sources of Late Mesozoic A-Type Granites in Eastern China. Chemical Geology, 250(1/2/3/4): 1-15. DOI:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.01.004
Wei, C. S., Zheng, Y. F., Zhao, Z. F., 2001a. Nd-Sr-O Isotopic Geochemistry Constraints on the Age and Origin of the A-type Granites in Eastern China. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 17: 95-111. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-0569.2001.01.010
Wei, C. S., Zheng, Y. F., Zhao, Z. F., et al., 2001b. Oxygen Isotope Evidences of Two-Stage Water-Rock Interaction in Nianzishan A-Type Granite. Chinese Science Bulletin, 46: 8-13. DOI:10.3321/j.issn:0023-074X.2001.01.002
Wei, C. S., Zheng, Y. F., Zhao, Z. F., et al., 2002. Oxygen and Neodymium Isotope Evidence for Recycling of Juvenile Crust in Northeast China. Geology, 30(4): 375. DOI:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0375:oanief>2.0.co;2
Whalen, J. B., Currie, K. L., Chappell, B. W., 1987. A-Type Granites: Geochemical Characteristics, Discrimination and Petrogenesis. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 95(4): 407-419. DOI:10.1007/bf00402202
Wu, F. Y., Sun, D. Y., Ge, W. C., et al., 2011. Geochronology of the Phanerozoic Granitoids in Northeastern China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 41(1): 1-30. DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2010.11.014
Wu, F. Y., Sun, D. Y., Li, H. M., et al., 2002. A-Type Granites in Northeastern China: Age and Geochemical Constraints on Their Petrogenesis. Chemical Geology, 187(1/2): 143-173. DOI:10.1016/s0009-2541(02)00018-9
Wu, F. Y., Sun, D. Y., Lin, Q., 1999. Petrogenesis of the Phanerozoic Granites and Crustal Growth in Northeast China. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 15: 181-189. DOI:10.3321/j.issn:1000-0569.1999.02.003
Wu, G., Chen, Y. J., Zhao, Z. H., 2009. Geochemistry, Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb Age and Petrogenesis of the East Luoguhe Granites at the Northern End of the Great Hinggan Range. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 25: 233-247.
Wu, Y. B., Zhen, Y. F., 2004. Study on Zirconium Gallstone by Mineralogy and Its Restriction on U-Pb Age Explanation. Chinese Science Bulletin, 49: 1589-1604. DOI:10.1360/csb2004-49-16-1589
Xu, W. L., Wang, F., Pei, F. P., et al., 2013. Mesozoic Tectonic Regimes and Regional Ore-Forming Background in NE China: Constraints from Spatial and Temporal Variations of Mesozoic Volcanic Rock Associations. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 29: 339-353. DOI:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.12.001
Xu, Y., Chen, H. L., Zhang, F. Q., et al., 2010. The Upper Age Limitation of Mesozoic Lithospheric Thinning in NE China: Chronology Restriction of Yingcheng Formation in Songliao Basin. Chinese Journal of Geology, 1: 194-206.
Yan, G. H., Mu, B. L., Xu, B. L., et al., 2000. The Chronology, Sr, Nd and Pb Isotopic Characteristics and Significance of the Triassic Alkaline Iintrusive Rocks of Yanliao-Yinshan Area. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 30(4): 383-387. DOI:10.1360/zd2000-30-4-383
Yang, J. H., Wu, F. Y., Chung, S. L., et al., 2006. A Hybrid Origin for the Qianshan A-Type Granite, Northeast China: Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf Isotopic Evidence. Lithos, 89(1/2): 89-106. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2005.10.002
Zhang, J. H., 2009. Geochronology and Geochemistry of the Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks in the Great Xing'an Range, Northeastern China: [Dissertation]. China University of Geosciences, Wuhan (in Chinese with English Abstract)
Zhang, J. H., Ge, W. C., Wu, F. Y., et al., 2008. Large-Scale Early Cretaceous Volcanic Events in the Northern Great Xing'an Range, Northeastern China. Lithos, 102(1/2): 138-157. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2007.08.011
Zhang, L. Q., Shao, J. A., 1998. Metamophic Core Complex in Ganzhuermiao, Inner Mongolia. China Journal of Geology, 2: 140-146.
Zhang, Q. F., Pang, Y. M., Yang, S. F., et al., 2007. Geochronology of Zircon SHRIMP, Geochemistry and Its Implcation of the Volcanic Rocks from Yingcheng Formation in Depression Area, North of Songliao Basin. Acta Geologica Sinica, 81: 1248-1258. DOI:10.1016/s1872-5791(07)60044-x
Zhang, X. B., Wang, K. Y., Wang, C. Y., et al., 2017. Age, Genesis, and Tectonic Setting of the Mo-W Mineralized Dongshanwan Granite Porphyry from the Xilamulun Metallogenic Belt, NE China. Journal of Earth Science, 28(3): 433-446. DOI:10.1007/s12583-016-0934-1
Zhang, X. Z., Yang, B. J., Wu, F. Y., 2006. The Lithosphere Structure in the Hingmong-Jihei (Hinggan-Mongolia-Jilin-Heilongjiang) Region, Northeastern China. Geology of China, 33: 816-823. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-3657.2006.04.011
Zhang, Y. L., Ge, W. C., Liu, X. M., et al., 2008. Isotopic Characteristics and Its Significance of the Xinlin Town Pluton, Great Hinggan mountains. Journal of Jilin University: Earth Science Edition, 38: 177-186. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1671-5888.2008.02.001
Zhang, Y. T., Zhang, L. C., Yin, J. F., et al., 2007. Geochemstry and Source Characteristics of Early Cretaceous Volcanic Rocks in Tahe, North Da Hinggan Mountain. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 23: 2811-2822. DOI:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2007.05.003
Zhao, L. M., Takasu, A., Liu, Y. J., et al., 2017. Blueschist from the Toudaoqiao Area, Inner Mongolia, NE China: Evidence for the Suture between the Ergun and the Xing'an Blocks. Journal of Earth Science, 28(2): 241-248. DOI:10.1007/s12583-017-0721-0
Zhao, L., Gao, F. H., Zhang, Y. L., 2013. Zircon U-Pb Chronology and Its Geological Implications of Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks from the Hailaer Basin. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 29: 864-874. DOI:10.2307/628988
Zhao, X. C., Zhou, W. X., Fu, D., et al., 2018. Isotope Chronology and Geochemistry of the Lower Carboniferous Granite in Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Earth Science, 29(2): 280-294. DOI:10.1007/s12583-017-0942-2