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2003年  14卷  第3期

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Application of Weights of Evidence to Mineral Potential Mapping of Yujiacun Ore Field in Northwest Yunnan Province, China
Xia Qinglin, Zhao Pengda, Zhang Shouting
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
The multivariate information comprehensive processing technique is especially important at present to the digital mineral prospecting. However, the GIS~based weights of evidence have provided us with a powerful tool for the quantitative assessment of mineral resource potential. In this paper, the mineralization model is established, based on the achievements made by previous researchers, to mend such deficiencies as few references on ore fields in Yujiacun, Yunnan Province and the shortage of quantitative prediction and assessment of mineral resources. In addition, the weights of evidence are used to make a systematic quantitative prediction and assessment of mineral resources there, so that 2 mineral prospecting target areas of grade 1 and 8 mineral prospecting target areas of grade Ⅱ are delineated, providing the further mineral resource exploration with the basis for the selection of mineral deposits.
Grade~Tonnage Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits of China
Wang Xueping, Wei Min, Yang Lipei, Zhao Jingman
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Agrade~tonnagemodelisestablishedaccordingtotheanalysisof72porphyrycopperdepositsrecordedin“TheMineralResourcesDataBaseofChina”.Basedontheanalysisoffrequencyhistogram,thecumulativefrequencydistributinggraphandthetheoreticalmodelwithdoublelogarithmiccoordinatesofcopperdeposits,thetypicalmathematicalcharacteristicsofgradetonnagemodelofporphyrycopperdepositsareclarified.
Image Processing on Geological Data in Vector Format and Multi~Source Spatial Data Fusion
Liu Xing, Hu Guangdao, Qiu Yubao
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Thegeologicaldataareconstructedinvectorformatingeographicalinformationsystem(GIS)whileotherdatasuchasremotesensingimages,geographicaldataandgeochemicaldataaresavedinrasterones.Thispaperconvertsthevectordatainto8bitimagesaccordingtotheirimportancetomineralizationeachbyprogramming.Wecancommunicatethegeologicalmeaningwiththerasterimagesbythismethod.Thepaperalsofusesgeographicaldataandgeochemicaldatawiththeprogrammedstratadata.Theresultshowsthatimagefusioncanexpressdifferentintensitieseffectivelyandvisualizethestructurecharactersin2dimensions.Furthermore,italsocanproduceoptimizedinformationfrommulti~sourcedataandexpressthemmoredirectly.
GIS Predictive Model for Producing Hydrothermal Gold Potential Map Using Weights of Evidence Approach in Gengma Region, Sanjiang District, China
Bassam F Al Bassam
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Gengmaregion,Sanjiangdistrictisknowntohavesomelarge~scalegolddeposits.GISpredictivemodelforhydrothermalgoldpotentialwascarriedoutinthisregionusingweightsofevidencemodelingtechnique.Datasetsusedincludelarge~scalehydrothermalgolddepositrecords,geological,geophysicalandremotesensingimagery.BasedonthegeologicalandmineralcharacteristicsofareaswithknowngoldoccurrencesinSanjiang,severalgeologicalfeatureswerethoughttobeindicativeofareaswithpotentialfortheoccurrenceofhydrothermalgolddeposits.Indicativefeatureswereextractedfromgeoexplorationdatasetsforuseasinputinthepredictivemodel.Thefeaturesincludehostrocklithology,geologicstructures,wallrockalterationandassociated(volcanic~plutonic)igneousrocks.Todeterminewhichoftheindicativegeologicalfeaturesareimportantspatialpredictorsofareawithpotentialforgolddeposits,spatialanalysiswasdonethroughthemodelingmethod.Theinputmapswerebufferedandtheoptimumdistanceofspatialassociationforeachgeologicalfeaturewasdeterminedbycalculatingthecontrastandstudentizedcontrast.Fivefeaturemapswereconvertedtobinarypredictorpatternsandusedasevidentiallayersforpredictivemodeling.Thebinarypatternswereintegratedintwocombinations,eachofwhichconsistsoffourpatternsinordertoavoidoverpredictionduetotheeffectofduplicatefeaturesinthetwostructuralevidences.Thetwoproducedpotentialmapsdefinealmostsimilarfavorablezones.Areasofintersectionsbetweenthesezonesinthetwopotentialmapsplacedthehighestpredictivefavorablezonesintheregion
Vertical Electrical Sounding Investigation in East River Nile Area (Khartoum State), Sudan
Eldawi M G, Farwa A G, Liu Tianyou
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Verticalelectricalsounding(VES)wascarriedoutintheeastoftheRiverNile.Themainobjectivesoftheresistivitysurveyaretodeterminethetypesandthicknessesofsedimentaryunitsinthearea,todefinethecontactseparatingthesedimentsfromthecrystallinebasementcomplex,andtodeterminethestructuralfeaturesofthesubsurfaceformations.Severallocaldepressions,whosemaximumdepthtothebasementsurfaceisabout160m,arerevealedasanoutcomeoftheVESmethod,andsuggestedtohavebeeninfilledwithundifferentiatedunitsoftheNubianGroupinparticularOmdurmanFormation.Thus,adepthtothebasementcomplexiscalculatedandtheassociatedstructuralmapoftheeastoftheRiverNileisdrawn.Themapisusefulforthegroundwaterdrilling,asfarasthepresenceorabsenceoftheaquiferisconcerned.
Past and Future of Mathematical Geology
Frederik P Agterberg
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Thisisabriefreviewofalternativemethodsofproblem~solvingingeosciencewithemphasisontheroleofmathematicalgeology.Itisdesirabletomaintainaclear~cutdistinctionbetweenreliablefactswhichcanbestoredindatabanksandconceptsthatcanbeincorporatedinthespecificationsofstatisticalmodelsdesignedforspecificpurposes.Ifpossible,subjectiveprobabilitiesshouldbeincorporatedinhypothesesthataretobetestedbystatisticalinference.
Fractal and Multifractal Modeling of Hydrothermal Mineral Deposit Spectrum: Application to Gold Deposits in Abitibi Area, Ontario, Canada
Cheng Qiuming
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Anumberoffractal/multifractalmethodsareintroducedforquantifyingthemineraldepositspectrumwhichincludeanumber~sizemodel,gradetonnagemodel,powerspectrummodel,multifractalmodelandaneigenvaluespectrummodel.Thefirsttwomodelscharacterizemineraldepositsspectrabasedonrelationshipsamongthemeasuresofmineraldeposits.Theseincludethenumberofdeposits,sizeofdeposits,concentrationandvolumeofmineraldeposits.Thelastthreemethodsthatdealwiththespatial~temporalspectraofmineraldepositstudiesareallexpectedtobepopularizedinnearfuture.AcasestudyofhydrothermalgolddepositsfromtheAbitibiarea,aworld~classmineraldistrict,isusedtodemonstratetheprincipleaswellastheapplicationsofmethodsproposedinthispaper.Ithasbeenshownthatfractalandmultifractalmodelsaregenerallyapplicabletomodelingofmineraldepositsandoccurrences.Clustersofmineraldepositswereidentifiedbyseveralmethodsincludingthepowerspectralanalysis,singularityanalysisandtheeigenvalueanalysis.TheseclusterscontainmostoftheknownmineraldepositsintheTimminsandKirklandLakecamps.
Theory and Method of Mineral Resource Prediction Based on Synthetic Information
Wang Shicheng, Ye Shuisheng, Zhou Dongdai
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Metallogenicprognosisofsyntheticinformationusesthegeologicalbodyandthemineralresourcebodyasastatisticalunittointerpretsyntheticallytheinformationofgeology,geophysics,geochemistryandremotesensingfromtheevolutionofgeologyandputsalltheinformationintooneentiresystembydrawingupdigitalizedinterpretationmapsofthesyntheticinformation.Onsuchbasis,differentgradesandtypesofmineralresourceprospectingmodelsandpredictivemodelsofsyntheticinformationcanbeestablished.Hence,anewintegratedpredictionsystemwillbeformedofmetallogenicprognosis(qualitativeprediction),mineralresourcesstatisticprediction(determiningtargets)andmineralresourcesprediction(determiningresourcesamount).
Simulating Some Complex Phenomena in Hydrothermal Ore~Forming Processes by Reaction~Diffusion CNN
Xu Deyi, Yu Chongwen, Bao Zhengyu
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Complexityphenomenalikedynamicandstaticpatterns,orderfromdisorder,chaosandcatastropheweresimulatedbytheapplicationof2~Dreaction~diffusionCNNoftwostatevariablesandtwodiffusioncoefficientstransformedfromZhabotinksiimodel.Theyrevealedsomehowthemechanismofhydrothermalore~formingprocesses,andansweredseveralquestionsabouttheonsetoforeforming
Spatial Database of Geological Survey Extent in 20th Century in China
Wang Quanming, Ye Tianzhu, Fang Yiping, Chen Jianguo, Li Shuyu, Zhang Daquan
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
During the whole 20th century in China, especially the latest 50 years, we have gotten much geological information about geological mapping, geophysics, geochemistry, mineral exploration, remote sensing, environmental geology, hydrogeology, engineering geology and oceanic geology etc. by our geologists and explorers. All the information has been accumulated and can be used as a decision making foundation for the future plan of geological survey. The spatial database of geological survey extents has been established by using computer technology. The database contained all kinds of exploration sections and collected about 160 000 records in this database. This paper introduces the data construction, contents and applying system of this database, and trys to let people know what kinds of geological survey were finished, when the exploration were carried out, and how and where you can get this information
Theoretical Study on Stochastic Modeling of Combined Gravity~Magnetic~Electric~Seismic Inversion and Its Application
Yan Hanjie, Yan Hong, Li Yunping, Zhang Xiaofeng
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
As gravity field, magnetic field, electric field and seismic wave field are all physical fields, their object function, reverse function and compound function are certainly infinite continuously differentiable functions which can be expanded into Taylor (Fourier) series within domain of definition and be further reduced into solving stochastic distribution function of series and statistic inference of optimal approximation. This is the basis of combined gravity~magnetic~electric~seismic inversion of stochastic modeling. It is an uncertainty modeling technology of combining gravity~magnetic~electric~seismic inversion built on the basis of separation of field and source gravity~magnetic difference~value (D~value) trend surface, taking distribution independent fault system as its unit, depths of seismic and electric interfaces of interests as its corresponding bivariate compound reverse function of gravity~magnetic anomalies and using high order polynomial (high order trigonometric function) approximating to its series distribution. The difference from current dominant inversion techniques is that, first, it does not respectively create gravity~seismic, magnetic~seismic deterministic inversion model from theoretical model, but combines gravity~magnetic~electric~seismic stochastic inversion model from stochastic model; second, after the concept of equivalent geological body being introduced, using feature of independent variable of gravity~magnetic field functions, taking density and susceptibility related to gravity~magnetic function as default parameters of model, the deterministic model is established owing to better solution to the contradiction of difficulty in identifying strata and less test analytical data for density and susceptibility in newly explored area; third, under assumption of independent parent distribution, a real modeling by strata, the problem of difficult plane closure arising in profile modeling is avoided. This technology has richer and more detailed fault and strata information than sparse pattern seismic data in newly explored area, successfully inverses and plots structural map of Indosinian discontinuity in Hefei basin with combined gravity~magnetic~electric~seismic inversion. With development of high precision gravity~magnetic and overall geophysical technology, it is certain for introducing new methods of stochastic modeling and computational intelligence and promoting the development of combined gravity~magnetic~electric~seismic inversion to open a new substantial path.
Application of GIS in Mineral Resource Prediction of Synthetic Information
Ye Shuisheng, Wang Shicheng, Li Deqiong
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
This paper introduces the formation mechanism and synthetic information prediction of large and superlarge deposits in Shandong Province by analyzing and studying on the GIS platform. The authors established a prospecting model of synthetic information from large and superlarge gold deposit concentration region, and the multi~source spatial database from concentration region of deposits and anomalies. On the basis of the spatial database, a target map layer, a model map layer and a predictive map layer were set up. Based on these map layers, geological variables of the model unit and predictive unit were extracted, then launched location and quantitative prediction of the gold deposit concentration region. The achievement of predicting large and superlarge deposits by the GIS platform has enabled the authors to design automation (or semi~automatic) interpretation subsystems, namely geophysics, geochemistry, geologic prospecting and comprehensive prognosis, and a set of the applicable GIS software for mineral resources prognosis of synthetic information.
An Improved Dynamic Programming Method for Automatic Stratigraphic Correlation
Yan Hanjie, Yan Hong, Xiang Zhucong, Wang Yanjiang
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Animproveddynamicprogrammingalgorithmisproposedforreducingthepossiblemismatchingoflayerinmulti~wellcorrelation.Comparedwiththestandarddynamicprogrammingalgorithm,thismethodrestrictsthesearchingrangeduringlayermatching.Itcannotonlyavoidpossiblemismatchingbetweensampleandtargetlayer,butalsoreducethetimespentonlayercorrelation.Theresultofapplyingtheimprovedmethodsonthedataprocessedbystandardmethodbeforeindicatesthattheimprovedoneismoreeffectiveandtimesavingforthemulti~wellcorrelationsystemthanconventionaldynamicprogrammingalgorithm.
Quantitative Prediction of Concentrated Regions of Large and Superlarge Deposits in China
Wang Shicheng, Zhao Zhenyu, Wang Yutian
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Identification and quantitative prediction of large and superlarge mineral deposits of solid mineral resources using the mineral resource prediction theory and method with comprehensive information is carried out nationwide in China at a scale of 1 ∶ 5 000 000. Using deposit concentrated regions as the model units and concentrated mineralization anomaly regions as prediction units, the prediction is performed on GIS platform. The technical route and research method of locating large and superlarge mineral deposits and principle of compiling attribute table of independent variables and functional variables are proposed. Upon methodology study, the qualitative locating and quantitative predicting mineral deposits are carried out with quantitative theory Ⅲ and characteristic analysis, respectively, and the advantage and disadvantage of two methods are discussed. This research is significant for mineral resource prediction in ten provinces of western China.
Spatial Database Management System of China Geological Survey Extent
Chen Jianguo, Chen Zhijun, Wang Quanming, Fang Yiping
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
ThespatialdatabasemanagementsystemofChinageologicalsurveyextentisasocialservicesystem.Itsaimistohelpthegovernmentandthewholesocialpublictoexpedientlyusethespatialdatabase,suchasquerying,indexing,mappingandproductoutputting.ThemanagementsystemhasbeendevelopedbasedonMAPGIS6.xSDKandVisualC++,consideringthespatialdatabasecontentsandstructureandtherequirementsofusers.Thispaperintroducesthesoftwarestructure,thedataflowchartandsomekeytechniquesofsoftwaredevelopment
An Approach to Spectral Discrimination of Rocks Using ASAI and Rough Sets
Zhang Zhenfei, Hu Guangdao, Yang Mingguo, Liu Xing, Wang Zhenhai, Li Wenhui, Zhang Xiaobing, He Li
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Field data of outcrop spectrums provide important basis for modeling of hyper~spectral remote sensing aiming at mineral prospecting. We make an approach to the application of rough set theory in spectral discrimination of rocks. We build a decision table with an adequate number of samples (outcrops) of known rock type (the universe), of which the conditional attributes are discretized “area spectrum absorption indexes” (ASAI) corresponding to wavelength intervals, and the decision attribute is rock type. We search to obtain the exhaustive set of reducts of the table, each of which will serve as a variable number of deduction rules. Suppose we have n ( usually a very big number ) rules in total and there are m types of rocks in our universe, for any unknown sample, we judge its rock type by each of those rules. An unknown sample may be recognized as a different type by different rules because it is outside our universe, and we accept the most frequent judgment result and ignore the other m~1 types of results. Our ASAI is an improvement upon the traditional spectrum absorption index (SAI), better applicable to field spectrums: given a spectrum curve and a wavelength interval, we take the average reflectance within the interval as a base line and let ASAI = abelow / (aabove+ abelow ), where abelow and aabove stand for total areas, bounded by the curve, the base line and the borders of the intervalbelow and above the base line respectively. With the equipments of FieldSpectr Fr (made by ASD Co., US), we collected data from Baiya gold deposit, Yunnan, and applied the above method to discriminate altered rocks as an experiment. The results show satisfactory performance of the method.
Development of Geological Data Warehouse
Li Zhenhua, Hu Guangdao, Zhang Zhenfei
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
Data warehouse (DW), a new technology invented in 1990s, is more useful for integrating and analyzing massive data than traditional database. Its application in geology field can be divided into 3 phrases: 1992~1996, commercial data warehouse (CDW) appeared; 1996~1999, geological data warehouse (GDW) appeared and the geologists or geographers realized the importance of DW and began the studies on it, but the practical DW still followed the framework of DB; 2000 to present, geological data warehouse grows, and the theory of geo spatial data warehouse (GSDW) has been developed but the research in geological area is still deficient except that in geography. Although some developments of GDW have been made, its core still follows the CDW~organizing data by time and brings about 3 problems: difficult to integrate the geological data, for the data feature more space than time; hard to store the massive data in different levels due to the same reason; hardly support the spatial analysis if the data are organized by time as CDW does. So the GDW should be redesigned by organizing data by scale in order to store mass data in different levels and synthesize the data in different granularities, and choosing space control points to replace the former time control points so as to integrate different types of data by the method of storing one type data as one layer and then to superpose the layers. In addition, data cube, a wide used technology in CDW, will be no use in GDW, for the causality among the geological data is not so obvious as commercial data, as the data are the mixed result of many complex rules, and their analysis always needs the special geological methods and software; on the other hand, data cube for mass and complex geo~data will devour too much store space to be practical. On this point, the main purpose of GDW may be fit for data integration unlike CDW for data analysis.
Accessing Multi~Source Geological Data through Network in MORPAS Software System
Mei Hongbo, Hu Guangdao, Chen Jianguo, Li Zhenhua
2003, 5(3).
摘要:
MORPASisaspecialGIS(geographicinformationsystem)softwaresystem,basedontheMAPGISplatformwhoseaimistoprospectandevaluatemineralresourcesquantificationallybysynthesizinggeological,geophysical,geochemicalandremotesensingdata.Itoverlaysgeologicaldatabasemanagement,geologicalbackgroundandgeologicalabnormalityanalysis,imageprocessingofremotesensingandcomprehensiveabnormalityanalysis,etc..ItputsforwardanintegrativesolutionfortheapplicationofGISinbasic~levelunitsandtheconstructionofinformationengineeringinthegeologicalfield.Asthepopularizationofcomputernetworksandtherequestofdatasharing,itisnecessarytoextenditsfunctionsindatamanagementsothatallitsdatafilescanbeaccessedinthenetworkserver.ThispaperutilizessomeMAPGISfunctionsfortheseconddevelopmentandADO(accessdataobject)techniquetoaccessmulti~sourcegeologicaldatainSQLServerdatabases.ThenremotevisitingandcongruousmanagementwillberealizedintheMORPASsystem.