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2007年  18卷  第3期

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Implications of the Precambrian Non-stromatolitic Carbonate Succession Making up the Third Member of Mesoproterozoic Gaoyuzhuang Formation in Yanshan Area of North China
Mei Mingxiang* (梅冥相)
2007, 9(3).
摘要:
Aparticularnon-stromatoliticcarbonatesuccessionmakingupthethirdmemberoftheMesoproterozoicGaoyuzhuang(高于庄)FormationmightdemonstratethatastromatolitedeclineoftheMesoproterozoicoccurringatca.1450MabesidesotherthreeeventsoftheProterozoic,respectively,occurredatca.2000Ma,ca.1000Ma,andca.675Ma.Theformingdurationofthisnon-stromatoliticcarbonatesuccessioncanbegenerallycorrelativetothatofasimilardepositionalsuccessioninNorthAmerica,i.e.anon-stromatoliticcarbonatesuccessionmadeupbytheHelenaFormationoftheBeltSupergroup,whichsuggeststhatthestromatolitedeclineoccurringatca.1450Mamaybeaglobalevent.Thisinformationendowsthenon-stromatoliticcarbonatesuccessionmakingupthethirdmemberoftheGaoyuzhuangFormationintheYanshan(燕山)areawithimportantsignificanceforthefurtherunderstandingofPrecambriansedimentology.TheMesoproterozoicGaoyuzhuangFormationinYanshanareaisasetofmorethan1000mthickcarbonatestratathatcanbedividedintofourmembers(orsubformations).Thefirstmember(ortheGuandi(官地)subformation)ismarkedbyasetofstromatoliticdolomitesoverlyingasetoftransgressivesandstones;thesecondmember(ortheSangshu’an(桑树鞍)subformation)isasetofmanganesedolomiteswithafewstromatolites;thethirdmember(ortheZhangjiayu(张家峪)subformation)ischieflymadeupofleioliteandlaminitelimestonesandischaracterizedbythedevelopmentofmolar-toothstructuresinleiolitelimestone;thefourthmember(ortheHuanxiusi(环秀寺)subformation)iscomposedofasetofdolomitesofstromatoliticreefsorlithoherms.Sequence-stratigraphicdivisionsattwosections,i.e.theJixian(蓟县)SectioninTianjin(天津)andtheQiangou(千沟)SectionofYanqing(延庆)CountyinBeijing(北京),demonstratethataparticularlynon-stromatoliticsuccessionmakingupthethirdmemberoftheMesoproterozoicGaoyuzhuangFormationisdevelopedintheYanshanareaofNorthChina,inwhichlotsofgrotesquematgroundstructures(wrinklestructuresandpalimpsestripples)aredevelopedinbedsofleiolitelimestoneattheQiangouSectionandlotsofmolar-toothstructuresaredevelopedinbedsofleiolitelimestonea
Detrital Zircon Ages of Hanjiang River: Constraints on Evolution of Northern Yangtze Craton, South China
杨婕, 高山, 袁洪林, 弓虎军, 张红, 谢士稳
2007, 9(3).
摘要:
Clasticsedimentaryrocksarenaturalsamplesoftheexposedcontinentalcrustoverlargeareas.TheHanjiang(汉江)RiverdrainsthenorthernYangtzecraton,includingtheSouthQinling(秦岭)beltandthenorthernpartsoftheYangtzecraton.DetritalzirconsfromthisriverthusprovideanidealsampleforstudyingtheformationandevolutionofthenorthernYangtzecraton.HerewereportlaserablationinductivelycoupledplasmamassspectrometerU-Pbagesof122detritalzirconsfromonesandsampleoftheHanjiangRiver.The110concordantzirconsrevealfourmajoragegroupsof768,444,212,and124Ma,whichwellcorrelatewithknownmagmaticeventsinthenorthernYangtzecraton.Aminorgroupispresentat1536Ma,whichislessknowninthestudyarea.Onlysevenzirconshaveagesof>1750Ma.OurresultsshowthattheEarlyPaleozoic,LateTriassic,andEarlyCretaceousareimportantepisodesofzircongrowthandcrustalgrowth/reworkinginadditiontothepreviouslydocumentedNeoproterozoicevent.OurresultssuggestverylimitedexposuresofPaleoproterozoicandArcheanrocksinthenorthernpartsoftheYangtzecraton.
The Relationship between Fractures and Tectonic Stress Field in the Extra Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoir at the South of Western Sichuan Depression
曾联波, 漆家福, 李跃纲
2007, 9(3).
摘要:
Theformationanddistributionoffracturesarecontrolledbypaleotectonicstressfield,andtheirpreservativestatusandeffectsondevelopmentaredominatedbythemodernstressfield.SinceTriassic,ithasexperiencedfourtectonicmovementsanddevelopedfoursetsoftectonicfracturesintheextralow-permeabilitysandstonereservoiratthesouthofwesternSichuandepression.ThestrikesoffracturesareintheS-N,NE-SW,E-W,andNW-SEdirectionsrespectively.AttheendofTriassic,underthehorizontalcompressiontectonicstressfield,forwhichthemaximumprincipalstressdirectionwasNW-SE,thefractureswerewelldevelopedneartheS-NfaultsandattheendofNE-SWfaults,becauseoftheirstressconcentration.AttheendofCretaceous,inthehorizontalcompressionstressfieldsoftheNE-SWdirection,thestresswasobviouslylowerneartheNE-SWfaults,thus,fracturesmainlydevelopedneartheS-Nfaults.AttheendofNeogene–EarlyPleistocene,underthehorizontalcompressiontectonicstressfieldsofE-Wdirection,stressconcentratedneartheNE-SWfaultsandfracturesdevelopedattheseplaces,especiallyattheendoftheNE-SEfaults,thecrosspositionsofNE-SW,andS-Nfaults.Therefore,fracturesdevelopedmostlynearS-NfaultsandNE-SWfaults.Atthecrosspositionsoftheabovetwosetsoffaults,thedegreeofdevelopmentofthefractureswasthehighest.UnderthemodernstressfieldoftheNW-SEdirection,theNW-SEfracturesweremainlytheseepageoneswithtensionalstate,thebestconnectivity,thewidestaperture,thehighestpermeability,andtheminimumopeningpressure.
Effect of Overpressure on Rock Frame and Its Implications for Overpressure Evolution
石万忠, 徐辉龙, 何生, 陈红汉
2007, 9(3).
摘要:
Overpressureisahottopicinthestudyofsedimentarybasins.Itisimportantingeneration,maturationmigration,andaccumulationofhydrocarbon,buttheeffectsofoverpressureonrockframehavenotbeeninvestigated.Inthisstudy,experimentswerecarriedouttostudytheeffectsofoverpressureonrockframestructuresusingfivecoresamplesfromtheJunggarbasin,NorthwestChina.Thedeformationsandvelocitiesforthesamplesweremeasuredatdifferenteffectivepressuresrelatedtonon-equilibriumcompactionandfluidexpansionoverpressuremechanisms.Theresultsshowthattheeffectofoverpressureonrockframesgraduallyincreaseswhentheeffectivepressuredropsdowntoacertainvalue(calledcriticalpressure).Moreover,non-equilibriumcompactionmechanismhasmoreeffectsonrockframesthanfluidexpansionmechanismunderthesameeffectivepressure.Furthermoretostudyrockframestructuralchanges,weuseKusterandToks?z’sexpressionstosimulatetheeffectiveaspectratiosofinclusionsα(pennyshapes)fordifferenteffectivepressures.Theresultsshowthattheαdecreasesdramaticallywhentheeffectivepressuredecreasesfromthecriticalpressure.Changesofαcanbeinterpretedasresponsestotherockframechangeswhengrainsconformoneanotherbyrotatingandself-adjusting.However,differentmechanismsofoverpressurehavedifferenteffectsonrockframes.Therockframecanbeaffectedmoreeasilybyoverpressureinshallowregionsgeneratedbynon-equilibriumcompactionmechanism.Oncethiskindofrockframesarepreservedafteroverpressurereleasestoanormalhydrostaticpressure,theycanbeidentifiedbytheirspecificrockframecharacters.Thismethodprovidesanewwaytostudyoverpressurereleaseandfluidmigrationandaccumulation.
Integration of Tracer Test Data to Refine Geostatistical Hydraulic Conductivity Fields Using Sequential Self-Calibration Method
胡晓农, 蒋小伟, 万力
2007, 9(3).
摘要:
Onthebasisoflocalmeasurementsofhydraulicconductivity,geostatisticalmethodshavebeenfoundtobeusefulinheterogeneitycharacterizationofahydraulicconductivityfieldonaregionalscale.However,themethodsarenotsuitedtodirectlyintegratedynamicproductiondata,suchas,hydraulicheadandsoluteconcentration,intothestudyofconductivitydistribution.Thesedata,whichrecordtheflowandtransportprocessesinthemedium,arecloselyrelatedtothespatialdistributionofhydraulicconductivity.Inthisstudy,athree-dimensionalgradient-basedinversemethod—thesequentialself-calibration(SSC)method—isdevelopedtocalibrateahydraulicconductivityfield,initiallygeneratedbyageostatisticalsimulationmethod,conditionedontracertestresults.TheSSCmethodcanhonorbothlocalhydraulicconductivitymeasurementsandtracertestdata.Themismatchbetweenthesimulatedhydraulicconductivityfieldandthereferencetrueone,measuredbyitsmeansquareerror(MSE),isreducedthroughtheSSCconditionalstudy.Incomparisonwiththeunconditionalresults,theSSCconditionalstudycreatesthemeanbreakthroughcurvemuchclosertothereferencetruecurve,andsignificantlyreducesthepredictionuncertaintyofthesolutetransportintheobservedlocations.Further,thereductionofuncertaintyisspatiallydependent,whichindicatesthatgoodlocations,geologicalstructure,andboundaryconditionswillaffecttheefficiencyoftheSSCstudyresults.
Three-Dimensional P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Crust of North China
Wei Wenbo* (魏文博), Ye Gaofeng (叶高峰), Li Yanjun (李艳军), Jin Sheng (金胜), Deng Ming (邓明), Jing Jian’en (景建恩)
2007, 9(3).
摘要:
SincetheXingtai(邢台)earthquakein1966,ChinaEarthquakeAdministrationhascarriedoutasurveycampaignalongmorethanthirtydeepseismicsounding(DSS)profilesaltogetherabouttwentythousandkilometerslonginNorthChinatostudythevelocitystructureofthecrustandtheuppermantleinthisregion,andhasobtainedagreatnumberofresearchfindings.However,theseresearcheshavenotprovideda3DvelocitystructuremodelofthecrustofNorthChinaandcannotprovideseismicevidenceforthestudyofthedeeptectoniccharacteristicsofthecrustofthewholeregion.Hence,basedontheinformationfromthepublisheddataoftheDSSprofiles,wehavechosen14profilestoobtaina3DvelocitystructuremodelofNorthChinausingthevectorizationfunctionoftheGISsoftware(Arc/Info)andtheKrigingdatagriddingmethod.Withthisvelocitystructuremodel,wehavedrawnthefollowingconclusions:(1)TheP-wavevelocityoftheuppermostcrustofNorthChinachangesdramatically,exhibitingacomplicatedvelocitystructureinplaneview.Itcanbedividedintothreevelocityzonesmainlytrendingtowardsnorth-west.Intheresearcharea,thelowest-velocityzoneslieintheHaihe(海河)plainandBohai(渤海)Bay.Althoughthegeologicalstructureofthesedimentaryoverburdeninthestudyareaissomewhatinheritedbytheuppercrust,therearestillseveraldifferencesbetweenthem.(2)Generally,theP-wavevelocityofthecrustincreaseswithdepthinthestudyarea,buttherestillexistslocalvelocityreversion.Intheeast,low-velocityanomaliesoftheHaiheplaingraduallydisappearwithincreasingdepth,andtheShanxi(山西)grabeninthewestismainlycharacterizedbyrelativelylowvelocityanomalies.BoundedbytheTaihang(太行)Mountains,theeasternandwesternpartsdifferinstructuraltrendofstratumabovethecrystallinebasement.ThestructuraltrendoftheHuanghuaihai(黄淮海)blockintheeastismainlynorth-east,whilethatoftheShanxiblockandtheeasternedgeoftheOrdosblockismainlynorth-west.(3)AccordingtothemorphologicalfeaturesofMoho,thecrustofthestudyareacanbedividedintosixblocks.IntheShanxiblock,Moho
Prediction of Apparent Equivalent Thickness Using the Spontaneous Potential Method and Its Application to Oilfield Development
王君恒, 潘竹平, 孙树文, 郭雷
2007, 9(3).
摘要:
Theupperspontaneouspotentialproducedbyoilandgasaccumulationisofastablepotentialfield,anditsintensityisdirectlyproportionaltothecontentofthesourceandinverselyproportionaltotheradiusapartfromthesource.Theoreticalresearchandpracticalresultsshowthatanomaliesofspontaneouspotentialcanindicateoil-bearingsandstonebodiesandlocatetheareasofoilandgasaccumulation.Inoilareaswhichhavefewerreservoirbeds,thepetroleumreservoirthicknesscanbepredictedbydeterminingthelinearrelationshipbetweenpotentialintensityandapparentequivalentthickness.IntheWeixing(卫星)oilfield,whichisdevoidofsufficientreservoirbeds,itsapparentequivalentthicknesscanbepredictedbythelinearequationh=-0.19x+0.74.Onthebasisofgeologicalresearch,weusethespontaneouspotentialmethodtopredicttheequivalentthickness,helpingintheselectionofthemostappropriatedrillsitestoenhancetheprobabilityofsuccessfulwellboringsoastoservethenextrounddevelopmentoftheoilfield.
Forward Modeling of Gravity, Gravity Gradients, and Magnetic Anomalies due to Complex Bodies
骆遥, 姚长利
2007, 9(3).
摘要:
Onthebasisoftheresultsofimprovedanalyticalexpressionofcomputationofgravityanomaliesduetoahomogeneouspolyhedralbodycomposedofpolygonalfacets,andapplyingtheforwardtheorywiththecoordinatetransformationofvectorsandtensors,wededucedboththeanalyticalexpressionsforgravitygradienttensorsandformagneticanomaliesofapolygon,andobtainednewanalyticalexpressionsforcomputingverticalgradientsofgravityanomaliesandverticalcomponentofmagneticanomaliescausedbyapolyhedralbody.Andalsowedevelopedexplicitlythecompleteunifiedexpressionsforthecalculationofgravityanomalies,gravitygradient,andmagneticanomaliesduetothehomogeneouspolyhedron.Furthermore,wededucednewanalyticalexpressionsforcomputingverticalgradientsofgravityanomaliesduetoafiniterectangularprismbyapplyingthenewlyobtainedexpressionsforgravitygradienttensorsduetoapolyhedraltargetbody.Comparisonwithforwardcalculationofmodelsshowsthecorrectnessofthesenewexpressions.Itwillreduceforwardcalculationtimeofgravity-magneticanomaliesandimprovecomputationalefficiencybyapplyingourunifiedexpressionsforjointforwardmodelingofgravity-magneticanomaliesduetohomogeneouspolyhedralbodies.