Advanced Search

Indexed by SCI、CA、РЖ、PA、CSA、ZR、etc .

Volume 28 Issue 1
Feb 2017
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Şükrü Koç, Özge Kavrazlı, İsmail Koçak. Geochemistry of Kestelek Colemanite Deposit, Bursa, Turkey. Journal of Earth Science, 2017, 28(1): 63-77. doi: 10.1007/s12583-015-0616-x
Citation: Şükrü Koç, Özge Kavrazlı, İsmail Koçak. Geochemistry of Kestelek Colemanite Deposit, Bursa, Turkey. Journal of Earth Science, 2017, 28(1): 63-77. doi: 10.1007/s12583-015-0616-x

Geochemistry of Kestelek Colemanite Deposit, Bursa, Turkey

doi: 10.1007/s12583-015-0616-x
More Information
  • The Kestelek borate deposit has been the subject of geological and mineralogical research over the last decades, but major and trace element geochemistry of this deposit was first investigated in the present study. A total of 22 samples collected from surface exposures and different depths of deposit in boreholes (e.g., lower, middle and upper) comprise the material of this study. Major, trace and REE element analyses of samples were conducted with ICP-MS and ICP-ES methods. The Kestelek borate deposit of Miocene age was formed in playa lakes in an intermountain closed basin which was developed in volcanically and seismically active areas associated with growth faults and grabens affected the whole Anatolia at the beginning of Paleogene. Only colemanite was found as the borate mineral accompanied in lesser amount by calcite, aragonite, smectite, illite, chlorite, corrensite, heulandite and quartz. In colemanite samples, all major elements, except for Ca, show depletion trends with respect to average of earth crust and andesite. For the trace elements, Li, Cs, Sb, As, Sr and Se are characterized by significantly high concentrations. Evaluation of element concentrations and geochemical characteristics reveal that As, Cs, Sb and Li are of detrital origin, Se together with B and Ca are of non-detrital and Sr is indicative of both detrital and non-detrital origin. REE distributions indicate that at least two different depositional regimes prevail in the environment. Corrensite, a clay mineral forming in lake waters, is derived from volcanism. Negative Ce and positive Eu anomalies are indicative of contribution from hydrothermal solutions and fluids.

     

  • Supplementary materials (Tables S1-S4) are available in the online version of this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12583-015-0616-x.
  • loading
  • Abollino, O., Aceto, M., Buoso, S., et al., 2004. Distribution of Major, Minor and Trace Elements in Lake Environments of Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 16(3): 277-291. doi: 10.1017/s0954102004002111
    Akçay, M., 2002. Jeokimya Trabzon. Karadeniz Technical University Publications, Trabzon. 506 (in Turkish)
    Akyol, E., Akgün, F., 1990. Palynology of Bigadiç, Kestelek, Emet and Kırka Borate-Bearing Neogene Deposits. MTA Bulletin, 111: 165-173 (in Turkish)
    Atan, O., 1981. Geology of the Devecikonağı (Bursa) Region and Sedimentologic Characteristics of Some Formations. Can Press, Ankara (in Turkish)
    Bau, M., 1991. Rare-Earth Element Mobility during Hydrothermal and Metamorphic Fluid-Rock Interaction and the Significance of the Oxidation State of Europium. Chemical Geology, 93(3/4): 219-230. doi: 10.1016/0009-2541(91)90115-8
    Baysal, O., Ataman, G., 1975. A New Borate Mineral in Turkey: Discussion on Kernite Occurrence. Turkish Geological Survey Bull., 18: 3-10 (in Turkish)
    Bhatia, M. R., 1985. Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Australian Paleozoic Graywackes and Mudrocks: Provenance and Tectonic Control. Sedimentary Geology, 45(1/2): 97-113. doi: 10.1016/0037-0738(85)90025-9
    Boggs, S., 2009. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 600
    Bonatti, E., Kraemer, T., Rydell, H., 1972. Classification and Genesis of Submarine İron-Mangenese Deposits. In: Horn, D. R., ed., Ferromanganese Deposits on the Ocean Floor. Natt. SCI Found, Washington, D.C.. 149-166
    Bowser, C. J., 1964. Geochemistry and Petrology of the Sodium Borates in the Non-marine Evaporite Environment: [Dissertation]. University of California, Los Angeles. l10
    Bürküt, Y., 1977. Distribution of Li, Rb, Cs and Sr in Ortho-and Para-gneiss and Some Petrologic Results: [Dissertation]. Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Mining, Istanbul. 68 (in Turkish)
    Canet, C., Prol-Ledesma, R. M., Proenza, J. A., et al., 2005. Mn-Ba-Hg Mineralization at Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal Vents in Bahía Concepción, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Chemical Geology, 224(1-3): 96-112. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2005.07.023
    Cantrell, K. J., Byrne, R. H., 1987. Rare Earth Element Complexation by Carbonate and Oxalate Ions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51(3): 597-605. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(87)90072-x
    Choi, J. H., Hariya, Y., 1992. Geochemistry and Depositional Environment of Mn Oxide Deposits in the Tokoro Belt, Northeastern Hokkaido, Japan. Economic Geology, 87(5): 1265-1274. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.87.5.1265
    Christ, C. L., Truesdell, A. H., Erd, R. C., 1967. Borate Mineral Assemblages in the System Na2O-CaO-MgO-B2O3-H2O.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 31(3): 313-337. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(67)90045-2
    Constantopoulos, J., 1988. Fluid Inclusions and Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Fluorite from South-Central Idaho. Economic Geology, 83(3): 626-636. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.83.3.626
    Crerar, D. A., Namson, J., Chyi, M. S., et al., 1982. Manganiferous Cherts of the Franciscan Assemblage: I, General Geology, Ancient and Modern Analogues, and Implications for Hydrothermal Convection at Oceanic Spreading Centers. Economic Geology, 77(3): 519-540. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.77.3.519
    Elkin, E. M., Margrave, J. L., 1968. Selenium and Selenium Compounds. Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 17: 809-833 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284702598_Selenium_and_Selenium_Compounds
    Erkül, F., Helvacı, C., Sözbilir, H., 2005. Stratigraphy an Geochronology of the Early Miocene Volcanic Units in the Bigadiç Borate Basin Western Turkey Turkish. Journal of Earth Sciences, 14: 227-253 http://www.academia.edu/1616674/Stratigraphy_and_geochronology_of_the_Early_Miocene_volcanic_units_in_the_Bigadi%C3%A7_Borate_Basin_western_Turkey
    Fee, J. A., Gaudette, H. E., Lyons, W. B., et al., 1992. Rare-Earth Element Distribution in Lake Tyrrell Groundwaters, Victoria, Australia. Chemical Geology, 96(1/2): 67-93. doi: 10.1016/0009-2541(92)90122-l
    Floyd, P. A., Helvacı, C., Mittwede, S. K., 1998. Geochemical Discrimination of Volcanic Rocks Associated with Borate Deposits: An Exploration Tool? Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 60(3): 185-205 doi: 10.1016/S0375-6742(97)00047-2
    Fu, X. G., Wang, J., Zeng Y. L., et al., 2011. Geochemistry and Origin of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) in the Shengli River Oil Shale, Northern Tibet, China. Chemie Der Erde-Geochemistry, 71(1): 21-30. doi: 10.1016/j.chemer.2010.07.003
    Gale, G. H., Dabek, L. B., Fedikov, M. A. F., 1997. The Application of Rare Earth Element Analyses in the Exploration for Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposits: Mining Geology, 6(3): 233-252 http://www.gov.mb.ca/iem/geo/field/roa99pdfs/gs-02-99.pdf
    Graf, J. L., 1977. Rare Earth Elements as Hydrothermal Tracers during the Formation of Massive Sulfide Deposits in Volcanic Rocks. Economic Geology, 72(4): 527-548. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.72.4.527
    Halilova, H., 2004. Biogeochemistry of Microelements (I, Zn, Co, Mn, Cu, Se). İlke-Eker Press, Ankara. 110 (in Turkish)
    Helke, A., 1955. Examination of Turkish Mineral Deposits Ⅱ. N. Jb. Min. Abh., 88: 178-180 (in German)
    Helvacı, C., 1983. Mineralogy of the Turkish Borate Deposits. Geol. Eng. Bull., 17: 37-54 (in Turkish)
    Helvacı, C., Dora, Ö., 1985. New Opinions on the Formation of Bigadiç Borate Deposits. Proceedings of the 39th Turkish Geological Congress, February, 1985, Ankara. 75-76 (in Turkish with English Abstract)
    Helvacı, C., Alaca, O., 1991. Geology and Mineralogy of Bigadiç Borate Deposits. MTA Bulletin, 113: 61-92 (in Turkish) http://www.mta.gov.tr/v2.0/eng/dergi_pdf/113/3.pdf
    Helvacı, C., 1992. Mineral Assemblages and Formation of the Kestelek and Sultançayırı Borate Deposits. Proceedings of the 29th International Geological Congress, Part A, Kyoto. 245-264
    Helvacı, C., Stamatakis, M., Zagouroğlou, C., et al., 1993. Borate Minerals and Related Authigenic Silicates in Northeastern Mediterranean Late Miocene Continental Basins. Exploration and Mining Geology, 2(2): 171-178 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267938753_Borate_Minerals_and_Related_Authigenic_Silicates_in_Northeastern_Mediterranean_Late_Miocene_Continental_Basins
    Helvacı, C., 1995. Stratigraphy, Mineralogy, and Genesis of the Bigadic Borate Deposits, Western Turkey. Economic Geology, 90(5): 1237-1260. doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.90.5.1237
    Helvacı, C., Orti, F., 1998. Sedimentology and Diagenesis of Miocene Colemanite-Ulexite Deposits (Western Anatolia, Turkey). Journal of Sedimentary Research, 68(5): 1021-1033. doi: 10.2110/jsr.68.1021
    Helvacı, C., Alonso, R. N., 2000. Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina: A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9: 1-27 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281974023_Borate_Deposits_of_Turkey_and_Argentina_A_Summary_and_Geological_Comparison?_sg=yWjWL3AfSGhIISYXhWpsoKQilDvLMKAoQjdhM36aU_focnjaqgJWWS9xZBiIKYFxy-HCa4UfqeRkdjaDw8MWEA
    Helvacı, C., 2001. Turkish Borate Deposits. Chambers of Geological Engineers Publications, 71: 34 (in Turkish)
    Helvacı, C., Mordogan, H., olak, M., et al., 2004. Presence and Distribution of Lithium in Borate Deposits and some Recent Lake Waters of West-Central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2): 177-190. doi: 10.2747/0020-6814.46.2.177
    Helvacı, C., 2003. Turkish Borate Deposits: Their Geologic Setting, Economic İmportance and Boron Policy. Balıkesir University Bulletin, 5(1): 4-41 (in Turkish)
    Helvacı, C., 2004. Turkish Borate Deposits: Their Geologic Setting, Economic İmportance and Boron Policy. 5th Industrial Raw Materials Symposium, 13-14 May, Izmir. 11-27 (in Turkish)
    İnan, K., 1975. A Model for Formation of Hydrous Borate Minerals. Turkish Geological Survey Bull., 18: 165-168 (in Turkish)
    Istanbul Technical University (ITU), 1982. Exploration and Pre-Feasibility Project of the Etibank Kestelek Colemanite. İTÜ Faculty of Mine, Mineralogy-Mineral Deposits Section, Istanbul (in Turkish)
    Istanbul Technical University, 1985. Investigation of Zeolitization around the Etibank Kestelek Colemanite Deposit. İTÜ Earth Sciences and Underground Sources UYG-AR Center, Istanbul (in Turkish)
    Johannesson, K. H., Lyons, W. B., Yelken, M. A., et al., 1996. Geochemistry of the Rare-Earth Elements in Hypersaline and Dilute Acidic Natural Terrestrial Waters: Complexation Behavior and Middle Rare-Earth Element Enrichments. Chemical Geology, 133(1-4): 125-144. doi: 10.1016/s0009-2541(96)00072-1
    Kistler, R. B., Helvacı, C., 1994. Boron and Borates. In: Donald, D. C., ed., Industrial Minerals and Rocks. 6th Edition. Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc., Littleton, Colarado. 171-186
    Krauskopf, K. B., 1989. Introduction to Geochemistry. McGraw-Hill International Editions, London. 617
    Koç, Ş., Birey, M., Kavrazlı, Ö., et al., 2008a. Geochemical Properties of Kestelek Borate Deposits and Their Changes of Depending on Depth and High Technological Material İnvestigations on Borate Samples. TÜBİTAK Project No: 105M356 (in Turkish)
    Koç, Ş., Kavrazlı, Ö., Koçak, İ., 2008b. Geochemistry of Colemanite Deposit of Kestelek, Bursa, Turkey. 33rd. International Geological Congress, August 6-14, Oslo, Norway. Abstracts MRB-01
    Koç, Ş., Kavrazlı, Ö., Koçak, İ., 2008c. Trace Elements Concentrations of Colemanite in Kestelek Borate Deposit. 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials. September 7th-12th, Matsue, Shimane, Japan. 57-58
    Koçak, N., 1989. Geologic İnvestigation of Kestelek Neogene Basin. Etibank Mineral Research Exploration Department Report, Ankara (in Turkish)
    Koçak, İ., Koç, Ş., 2009. Trace Element Enrichment of Bigadiç Borates Deposits, Balikesir, Turkiye. Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2009, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(Suppl.): A671 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258357639_Trace_element_enrichment_of_Bigadic_Borates_deposits_Balikesir_Turkiye
    Koçak, İ., Koç, Ş., 2011. Trace Element Contents of Bigadiç and Kestelek Borate Deposits. 17th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials, September 11-17, İstanbul. 232
    Koçak, İ., Koç, Ş., 2012. Major and Trace Element Geochemistry of the Bigadiç Borate Deposit, Balikesir, Turkiye. Geochemistry International, 50(11): 926-951. doi: 10.1134/s0016702912090030
    Meixner, H., 1956. New Borate Site in İskeleköy, Bigadiç Town, Balıkesir City Sonderabdruck aus Kali und Steinsalz, Essen, Verlag Glöckauf, Essen. Part 2. 43-47 (in German)
    Nicholson, K., 1990. Stratiform Manganese Mineralisation near Inverness, Scotland: A Devonian Sublacustrine Hot-Spring Deposit? Mineralium Deposita, 25(2): 126-131. doi: 10.1007/bf00208855
    Nance, W. B., Taylor, S. R., 1977. Rare Earth Element Patterns and Crustal Evolution-II. Archean Sedimentary Rocks from Kalgoorlie, Australia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 41(2): 225-231. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(77)90229-0
    Özpeker, I., 1969. Comparative Genetic Survey on the Western Anatolian Borate Deposits: [Dissertation]. I. T. U. Press, Istanbul. 116 (in Turkish)
    Özpeker, I., İnan, K., 1978. Mineral Assemblages in Western Anatolian Borate Deposits and Their Relations with Deposit Occurrence. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Turkey, 21: 1-10 (in Turkish)
    Petrascheck, E. W., Pohl, W., 1982. Mineral Deposits. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany. 441 (in German)
    Roy, S., Dasgupta, S., Mukhopadhyay, S., et al., 1990. A Typical Ferromanganese Nodules from Pelagic Areas of the Indian Basins, Equatorial Indian Ocean. Marine Geology, 92: 269-283 doi: 10.1016/0025-3227(90)90008-8
    Sant'Anna, L. G., Clauer, N., Cordani, U. G., et al., 2006. Origin and Migration Timing of Hydrothermal Fluids in Sedimentary Rocks of the Paraná Basin, South America. Chemical Geology, 230(1/2): 1-21. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2005.11.009
    Schroll, E., 1975. Analytical Geochemistry. Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart. 292 (in German)
    Sunder, M., 1980. Geochemistry of Sarıkaya (Kırka-Eskişehir) Borate Deposits. Turkish Geological Survey Bull., 2: 19-34 (in Turkish)
    Şahinci, A., 1991. Geochemistry of Natural Waters. Reform Press, Izmir. 548 (in Turkish)
    Taylor, S. R., McLennan, S. M., 1985. The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution. Blackwell, Oxford. 312
    Weaver, C. E., Pollard, L. D., 1973. The Chemistry of Clay Minerals. Elsevier Scientific, New York. 213
    Yalçınkaya, S., Afşar, Ö., 1980. Geology of Mustafa Kemalpaşa and Surrounding Region. MTA Report, Ankara (in Turkish)
    Yılmaz, O., Gündoğdu, M., Gümüş, S., 1982. Geology of Neogene Bigadiç Volcano Sedimentary Basin. Etibank Project, Ankara. 89 (in Turkish)
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(10)  / Tables(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article views(820) PDF downloads(249) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return