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Organic matter occurrence and its effects on pore structure and methane adsorption capacity capacity: A case study of the Niutitang black shale in Guizhou, China
Peng Xia, Fang Hao, Jinqiang Tian, Yong Fu, Chuan Guo, Zhen Yang, Yuliang Mou, Ke Wang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1688-z
[Abstract](528) [PDF 5313KB](17)
The black shale samples from the Niutitang Formation in the Yangtze Block were sequentially treated using organic solvent extraction and wet chemical oxidation. The organic matter (OM) in the shales includes physically mobile OM (PmOM), chemically mobile OM (CmOM), and stable OM (StOM). The CmOM has the strongest CH4 adsorption capacity because it has the largest volume of micropores and mesopores. In contrast, the PmOM has a very negative effect on the CH4 adsorption because it is poreless. The XD shale is a siliceous shale, in which the quartz particles wrap partly OM, preventing extraction and oxidation. The SL shale is an argillaceous shale, in which most of the OM is combined with clay minerals to form organo-clay composites. In both the SL and XD shales, the OM that is extractable via organic solvents is distributed among the mineral particles and is interconnected. The conceptual model of marine black shale in different environments needs to be perfected in the future because quantitative and qualitative methods should be combined to clarify the relationship between the known OM types (e.g., pyrobitumen, solid bitumen, and solid kerogen) and the OM types identified in this study.
Multivariate statistical analysis of dominating groundwater mineralization and hydrochemical evolution in Gao, northern Mali
TRAORE ADIARATOU, Xumei Mao, Alhousseyni Traore, YAHAYA YAKUBU, Aboubacar Sidibe
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1689-y
[Abstract](20) [PDF 1783KB](6)
Population growth and expanding urbanization have caused persistent shortages and contamination of groundwater resources in Mali, Africa. The increase in groundwater salinity makes it more difficult for residents to obtain drinking water, it is necessary to clarify the causes and control factors of groundwater mineralization in Gao region, northern Mali. Based on the analysis of the hydrochemical composition of groundwater in 24 boreholes, Piper and Schöeller diagrams, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) are used to carry out multivariate statistical analysis on the main ions. The results show that the groundwater samples are weakly alkaline, with pH values ranging from 5.83 to 8.40, and the average values of boreholes are 7.50, respectively. The average electrical conductivity (EC) value is 354.4 (µS/cm), and the extreme value is between 124.0 and 1247 (µS/cm). Water is usually mineralized and presents nine types of water phase. The three principal components explain 84.42% of the total variance for 13 parameters. The factor F1 (58.85%), the factor F2 (16.88%) and the factor F3 (8.69%) present for the majority of the total data set. In addition, multivariate statistical analysis confirmed the genetic relationship among aquifers and identified three main clusters. Clustering related to groundwater mineralization (F1), clustering related to oxide reduction and iron enrichment (F2), and clustering of groundwater pollution caused by nitrate and magnesium (F3). We found that agriculture, weathering activities and dissolution of geological materials promote the mineralization of groundwater. Groundwater quality in the Gao region is becoming less and less potable because of increasing salinity.
Spatial and temporal evolution of lithospheric mantle beneath the eastern North China Craton: Constraints from mineral chemistry of peridotite xenoliths from the Miocene Qingyuan basalts and a regional synthesis
Jian-Fang Guo, Qiang Ma, Jianping Zheng, Yuping Su
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1691-4
[Abstract](47) [PDF 5165KB](16)
Mineralogical data are presented for the peridotite xenoliths from Miocene (~19Ma) Qingyuan basalts in the eastern North China Craton (NCC), with the aim of constraining on property of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the northern Tan-Lu Fault zone (TLFZ) during the Cenozoic. The Qingyuan peridotites are dominated by spinel lherzolites with moderate-Mg# olivines (89.4 to 91.2), suggesting that the regional SCLM is mainly transitional and fertile. Light rare earth element (LREE)-depleted, slightly depleted and enriched clinopyroxenes (Cpx) are identified in different peridotites. Chemical compositions of the LREE-enriched Cpx and the presence of phlogopite suggest that the Qingyuan SCLM has experienced silicate-related metasomatism. The synthesis of available mineral chemical data of the mantle xenoliths across the NCC confirms the SCLM beneath the NCC is highly heterogeneous in time and space. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic SCLM beneath the TLFZ and neighboring regions are more fertile and thinner than that beneath the region away from the fault zone. The fertile and refractory peridotite xenoliths experienced varying degrees of silicate and carbonatite metasomatism, respectively. The spatial-temporal lithospheric mantle heterogeneity in composition, age and thickness suggest that the trans-lithosphere fault zone played an important role in heterogeneous replacement of refractory cratonic lithospheric mantle.
Trace element mobility in subducted marble and associated eclogite: constraints from UHP rocks in the Shuanghe area, central-east China
Xingao Hou, Zhiqiang Yu, Shefa Chen, Lei Liu, Yilin Xiao
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1692-3
[Abstract](17) [PDF 5167KB](6)
In order to decipher element mobility in UHP meta-sedimentary rocks in the continental subduction zone, major and trace element compositions are investigated for a continuous profile from a representative UHP region in the Dabie Mountains. Among the lithologic contact zone, contents of K, Ca, LREE, and LILE exhibit varying degrees of downward trends in both marble and eclogite toward the contact zone, indicating that marble and their associated eclogite can release a large amount of K, Ca, and a small amount of LILEs and LREEs. Titanite is the main Ti phase in both marble and eclogite. Titanite rims around rutile can occasionally be seen in eclogite. Contents of Ti and HFSE exhibit a well-coupled relation among marble and eclogite, indicating that substantial Ti and HFSEs were migrated from eclogite to marble, in accord with the capacity of a melt medium. Rutiles and titanites in marble exhibit a relatively limited variation in Nb/Ta ratios (12.9-16.2), similar to those of titanites in eclogite (14.2-16.7), which demonstrates that rutiles and titanites in marble were sourced from eclogite because of short-distance migrations of Ti and HFSEs. According to the P-T path and the temperature and pressure conditions of the peak metamorphism reported by previous studies, the eclogite associated with marble may not form supercritical fluids in the subduction zone because of the addition of carbonate minerals.
Limitation of the Application of Heat Tracer in Investigating Groundwater and River Interactions under Dynamic Flow Conditions
Mengyan Ge, Rui Ma, Ziyong Sun
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1683-4
[Abstract](28) [PDF 3970KB](4)
The groundwater (GW) in the floodplain riparian area frequently interacts intensely with surface water (SW). Heat as a tracer is one of the hot research fields in investigating GW-SW interactions, and analytical approaches have been proposed for the calculation of exchange flow velocity. However, few studies have considered the effects of very dynamic flow conditions and monitoring instrumentation on the calculation with field measured data. Herein, taking the middle reaches of the Heihe River as the study area, different types of monitoring wells were constructed under the riverbed and near the river, and multiple methods (Darcy’s law, heat tracing, and isotopic mixing methods) were employed to trace the exchanges between the river and groundwater. The results indicate that different methods demonstrate diverse information with obvious unevenly distributed flux along the vertical direction. And the combination of multiple methods has an important role in studying the interaction between GW and SW. Fully screened wells produce intraborehole flow and disturb the heat transport, which is relevant to flow velocity, and further affects the temperature distribution, impacting the temperature-based flow velocity calculation. Dynamic flow conditions aggravate riverbed sediment disturbances, e.g., scour and deposition, and additionally affect the interaction and monitoring data.
Geochemical Modeling of Fluid–Rock Interactions in Shallow buried Carbonate Reservoirs based on the Water Bath Instrument
Jiayi Ma, Anjiang Shen, Shuyun Xie, Min She, Huayun Tang, Emmanuel M. CARRANZA, Tianfu Zhang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1690-5
[Abstract](16) [PDF 2439KB](3)
Fluid–rock interaction plays a critical function in physical and chemical processes associated with the formation and evolution of oil and gas reservoir space. In the diagenetic stage of shallow burial, the dissolution of carbonate rocks by acidic fluids is conducive to the development of secondary pore space in reservoirs. In contrast, the free drift experiment based on water bath instrument can simulate the dissolution process of carbonate rocks in shallow burial environment effectively. In order to study the shallow burial dissolution mechanism of carbonate rocks in different acid solutions, 14 samples of typical carbonate rocks of Sinian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Permian and Triassic ages in the Tarim and Sichuan Basins, China were used. The dissolution experiments on carbonate rocks in sulfuric acid, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, silicic acid and carbonic acid at shallow burial temperature (30℃≤T≤90℃) were carried out using a water bath instrument. The PHREEQC software was used to simulate the dissolution of carbonate minerals, in order to compare the results of constant temperature water bath experiment. The results show that acid solutions have significant dissolution effect on shallow burial carbonate rocks when T = 50–60℃, which corresponds to the burial depth of 1500–2000 m in the Tarim Basin and 1110–1480 m in the Sichuan Basin. However, there were obvious differences in the dissolution and reformation of carbonate rocks in different acids. In particular, sulfuric acid solution produced by thermochemical sulfate reduction can significantly promote the dissolution of carbonate rocks, especially dolomitic limestone. Moreover, the dissolution of limestone reservoirs is stronger than that of dolomite reservoirs in shallow burial. The results will provide new insights into the study of dissolution laws and influencing factors of carbonate reservoir space and the evaluation and prediction of carbonate reservoir in China.
Chronology, geochemistry and isotopic compositions of the Cretaceous Zhangjiakou diabase: Magmatic derivation and geodynamic implications
peng li, Dazhao Wang, guanzhong shi
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1684-3
[Abstract](20) [PDF 6259KB](4)
Zircon U–Pb ages, major and trace elements and Sr–Nd–Hf isotope data of the diabase in the Zhangjiakou district were studied to investigate its derivation and tectonic implications. Zircon U–Pb ages indicate that the diabase was emplaced at ~130 Ma or younger, and captured zircons cluster at ~147 Ma, ~240 Ma, ~430 Ma and ~465 Ma. The diabase is characterized by minor variations in SiO2 (49.35–52.10 wt.%), TiO2 (1.65–1.77 wt.%), Al2O3 (17.00–18.26 wt.%), MgO (4.28–4.93 wt.%), CaO (6.69–7.90 wt.%) and Mg# (48–54). It has no significant Eu anomaly and displays enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba and Sr) and depletion in high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, P and Ti). The diabase exhibits homogeneous Sr ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70606–0.70701) and Nd (εNd(t) =–13.6 to –13.2) isotopic compositions. These features suggest that the parental magma was derived from partial melting of the ancient lower crust, relating to mantle upwelling that triggered by stagnant slabs or lithospheric detachment associated with the westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. The Early Paleozoic inherited igneous zircons in the diabase suggest that the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) likely underwent southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean.
Characteristics of connected pores and evaluation of shale oil mobility in the Qianjiang Formation, Qianjiang Sag, Jianghan Basin,China
SUN Zhongliang, LI Zhiming, HE Chencheng, ZHU Feng, SHEN Baojian, LU Longfei
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1699-9
[Abstract](277) [PDF 2527KB](18)
The connectivity of shale pores and the occurrence of movable oil in shales have long been a focus of research. In this paper, samples from Wells BX7 and BYY2 in the Eq34-10 cyclothem of Qianjiang Formation in the Qianjiang Depression, were analyzed. A double mercury injection method was used to distinguish between invalid and effective connected pores. The pore characteristics for occurrence of retained hydrocarbons and movable shale oil were distinguished based on comparison of pore changes in low temperature nitrogen adsorption and high pressure mercury injection experiments before and after extraction and the change in the mercury injection amounts in the pores between two separate mercury injections.. The results show that less than 50% of the total connected pores in the Eq34-10 cyclothem samples are effective. The development of effective connected pores affects the mobility of shale oil but varies with different lithofacies. The main factor limiting shale oil mobility in Well BX7 is the presence of pores with throat sizes less than 15nm. In Well BYY2, residual mercury in injection testing of lamellar dolomitic mudstone facies was mainly concentrated in pores with throats of 10~200 nm, and in bulk argillaceous dolomite facies it was mainly concentrated at 60~300nm. The throats of hydrocarbon-retaining pores can be 5nm or even smaller, but pores with movable shale oil in the well were found to have have throat sizes greater than 40nm. Excluding the influence of differences in wettability, the moveability of shale oil is mainly affected by differences in lithofacies, the degree of pore deformation caused by diagenesis, the complexity of pore structures, and the connectivity of pore throats. Dissolution and reprecipitation of halite also inhibit the mobility of shale oil.
In-situ fluid phase variation along the thermal maturation gradient in shale petroleum system and its impact on well production performance
Qianyou Wang, Wei Yang, Yaohua Li, Zhenxue Jiang, Ming Wen, Rusi Zuo, Xin Wang, Zixin Xue, Yaohua Wang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1693-2
[Abstract](26) [PDF 6411KB](5)
In-situ fluid phase behavior is important in determining hydrocarbon contents and the multiphase flow through shale reservoirs. The gas-to-oil ratio (GOR) has been recognized as the critical indicators of fluid types. However, little is known about the impact of fluid phase variation across the thermal maturity on shale oil/gas production (e.g., estimated ultimate recovery, EUR). According to the specific gravity ratio of oil/gas, the producing GOR was converted and normalized into a mass fraction of gas in total hydrocarbons (MGOR) to compare North American shale oil/gas plays with Chinese shale oil and hybrid gas-condensate plays. A correlation between MGOR, the fluid phases and production data was established to identify five phase stages of flow. MGOR varies systematically with the different production zones, which shows promise in rapidly indicating the well production performance and high-production stages of shale oil/gas plays. The hybrid shale gas-condensate index, Tmax, total gas contents were integrated to present the fluid types and maturity of shale gas-condensates, which indicates fluid phase and production variation across thermal evolution. The results offer a unique perspective on the shale oil reservoir producibility based on the impact of GOR on fluid phases and EUR from the global dominant oil/gas plays.
Formation Mechanism of the Paleocene basal conglomerate, southwest Tarim Basin
yong Yue, Jingchun Tian, Chuanyan Huang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1696-z
[Abstract](25) [PDF 8039KB](4)
Abstract: Most knowledge about the Cretaceous-Paleogene strata in the Tarim Basin is mainly inferred from the outcrops at the basin’s margin,but first time in the basin. The formation mechanism of the Paleocene basal conglomerate was determined using geochemical isotopes of the breccia from well PBX1 in the southwestern Tarim Basin. The results showed that the global K/Pg (i.e., Cretaceous/Paleogene) clay layer boundary was located in the middle of the Paleocene basal conglomerate at the depth of 7066.75m in well PBX1. In the Late Cretaceous, associated with volcanic activities and earthquakes, the caldera in the PBX1 well block formed an annular depression with large elevation differences in response to the Pamir block collision. As a result, the collapsed breccia with storm tide genesis deposited at the periphery and inside of the depression, characterized by syn-sedimentary deformation. During the Paleocene, multiple sets of interbedded carbonate and collapsed breccia deposited in response to multi-phased transient transgression-regression cycles. The transportation of breccia exhibited near-source accumulation/extremely close or in-situ rapid accumulation. The studied region is located in the eastern end of the Tethys Sea, the Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene breccia is of great significance for reconstructing the paleogeography of the Tarim basin in Tethys. Key words: South-western Tarim;Paleogene system;Breccia;Attribution and genesis
Contrasting behavior for Li-Mg isotopes during subduction: Insights from garnet in the Yardoi schists, Tibet
Xing Li, Yilin Xiao, Olivier Nadeau, Dongyong Li, Haiyang Liu, Zhang Zeming, Zhenhui Hou
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1697-y
[Abstract](37) [PDF 4022KB](17)
It has long been recognized that garnet has the capacity to preserve the trace element and isotopic signature of distinct metamorphic growth zones because of its high closure temperature. Combined with the large size of certain garnet porphyroblast, this allows investigating variations in metamorphic conditions such as pressure, temperature, deviatoric stress, and fluid composition, which occur during subduction-related metamorphism. Here, one garnet porphyroblast of 6 cm diameter was sampled from the Yardoi schists of Tibet, and the major-, trace-, and Li-Mg isotopic compositions of distinct growth zones were determined in situ. The δ7Li values range from +6.0 ‰ to +4.1 ‰ and follow ‘S-shape’ patterns on both sides of the garnet’s core, revealing a two-stage growth process corresponding to the fluid-assisted sequential recrystallization of chlorite and micas during prograde metamorphism. By contrast, once corrected for the overprinting by retrograde metamorphism, the δ26Mg values vary monotonously from -1.73 ‰ in the core to -1.32 ‰ in the outer rim, reflecting a single-step process interpreted to result from increasing temperature and the solid-state recrystallization of chlorite-biotite during prograde metamorphism. This different behavior of Li and Mg isotopes is interpreted to result from the fact that Li is more fluid-mobile than the major element Mg.
Arsenic Removal from Groundwater using Iron Pyrite: Influences Factors and Removal Mechanism
Muhammad Yousuf Jat Baloch, Chun Su, Shakeel Ahmed Talpur, Javed Iqbal, Kulvinder Bajwa
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1698-x
[Abstract](73) [PDF 1474KB](15)
Iron pyrite has been reported as a kind of potential material for arsenic (As) removal from the groundwater because it exhibits a strong attraction in groundwater for both arsenite and arsenate species. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions for As adsorption by the iron pyrite adsorbent, including the initial concentration, adsorbent dosage ratio, pH, temperature and stirring rate. Precisely characterization methods were employed to identify the mechanism of As removal. Maximum removal efficiency for As(III) was observed 93% at pH=7, and for As(V) was 95% observed at pH=5. Langmuir model resulted in the maximum adsorption capacity (qm) for As(III) and As(V) were 571.7 μg/g and 671.1 μg/g respectively, as well as the experiments were found to be favorable as separation factor RL < 1. The value of "n" 2.68 and 2.47 for As(III) and As(V) obtained by Freundlich model (n > 1) indicates favorable adsorption. The pseudo-first and second-order kinetic models also fitted well. The addition of oxalate on the adsorbent surface plays an important role for the recycling of Fe(II)/Fe(III) to minimize the arsenic concentration. Specific surface area, ion exchange mechanism and structure of adsorbent confirmed that addition of oxalate could enhance the surface area of adsorbent.
Zircon Ages of Metasedimentary Rocks in the Wuwamen Ophiolitic Mélange, Chinese South Tianshan: Implications for the Paleozoic Subduction-Accretion in the Southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt
Xinshui Wang, Fei Yang, Reiner Klemd, Tuo Jiang, Jun Gao
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1695-0
[Abstract](51) [PDF 4395KB](19)
High-temperature and high-pressure (high-grade) metamorphic complexes of variable ages are common in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and their precise geochronology and origin are essential to unravel the orogenic architecture and crust-production rate of the CAOB. Hereby it is essential to differentiate between pre-orogenic Precambrian basement and Paleozoic arc-accretionary complexes. This study provides precise in situ zircon U–Pb ages for the metasedimentary rocks in the Wuwamen ophiolitic mélange, which is traditionally thought to represent the pre-orogenic basement of the southwestern CAOB. A meta-sandstone from the meta-flysch sequence revealed a widespread ca. 1.8 Ga high-grade metamorphic overprint similar to that of the underlying orthogneisses and, thus, was interpreted to represent pre-orogenic basement fragments that occur as tectonic blocks in the Paleozoic ophiolitic mélange. In contrast, a schist from the mélange matrix is characterized by a ca. 333 Ma high-grade metamorphic overprint, indicating that the northward subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean was still active at this time. The thrust-imbricated high-grade metamorphic rocks of contrasting origins in an accretionary complex have important implications for the understanding the accretionary history and crustal growth of the CAOB. Furthermore, the strongly deformed ophiolitic mélange was intruded by an undeformed granite dyke with an emplacement age younger than ca. 294 Ma, thus providing a minimum age limit for the final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean.
Provenance of the southeastern South China Block in the Late Triassic and initiation of Paleo-Pacific subduction: Evidence from detrital zircon U–Pb geochronology
Jintao Kong, zhongjie Xu, Rihui Cheng, Duo Wan
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1694-1
[Abstract](25) [PDF 7438KB](9)
During the late Paleozoic–early Mesozoic era, the sediment transport system and tectonic regime in the southeastern margin of the South China Block (SESCB) all changed, significantly affected by the Paleo-Pacific subduction. This study uses detrital zircon geochronology to discuss the Late Triassic source-to-sink system in the SESCB and provides some references for the Paleo-Pacific subduction process. The paleogeography and similarity of detrital zircon age distribution reveal three sinks in the SESCB during the Late Triassic: 1. the Yangchun–Kaiping–Gaoming area, comprising major age ranges of 260–220, 460–400, and 1,200–800 Ma, which might be sourced from the Yunkai Terrane; 2. the Jiexi–Kanshi–Nanjing area, characterized by the significant age component of 2,000–1,800 Ma, which corresponded to the Wuyi Terrane; 3. the Xinan area, consisting of significant age groups of 290–250 Ma and 380–320 Ma, which might be sourced from the magmatic rocks formed by the Huinan Movement and Paleo-Pacific subduction. The Upper Triassic strata contain many 290–250 Ma zircons, and their trace elements suggested a magmatic arc existed near the SESCB during the 290–250 Ma. Thus, we propose that the Paleo-Pacific subduction might have begun in the Early Permian.
Investigation on the deformation and failure patterns of loess cut slope based on the unsaturated triaxial test in Yan'an, China
Lina Ma, Shengwen Qi, Songfeng Guo, Qiangbing Huang, Xiaokun Hou, Linxin Zhang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1554-4
[Abstract](177) [PDF 5628KB](6)
The large-scale implementation of the Gully Stabilization and Land Reclamation (GSLR) project induces various failures of loess slopes due to excavation in Yan'an, China. However, the deformation and failure behavior of these excavated loess slopes have not been fully understood. In this study, field investigation was undertaken for analyzing the distributions and failure features of excavation-induced loess slope failures. It is found that plastic failure mainly occurs in Q3 loess layers and brittle failure in Q2. To understand the underlying failure mechanism, a series of triaxial shear tests were conducted on intact Q3 and Q2 loess samples that with different water contents, namely natural water content (natural), dry side of the natural value (drying 5%), and wet side (wetting 5%). The characteristics of stress-strain curves and failure modes of the samples were analyzed. Results show that the stress-strain curves of Q2 samples are dominated by strain-softening characteristics, while Q3 samples mainly exhibit strain-harden features except in the drying state. Correspondingly, shear failures of Q3 specimens are mainly caused by shear crack planes (single, X or V-shaped). For Q2 loess, the dominance of tensile cracks is observed on the surface of damaged specimens. These disclose the different failure modes of excavated slopes located in different strata, that is, the arc sliding failure of Q3 loess slopes and the stepped tensile failure of Q2 loess slopes, and are helpful in the design and management of the ongoing GSLR projects in the Loess Plateau.
Paleo-earthquakes along the Zheduotang Fault, Xianshuihe Fault System, Eastern Tibet: Implications for seismic hazard evaluation
Guifan Chen, Mervin Bartholomew, Demin Liu, Kai Cao, Minxuan Feng, Dun Wang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1687-0
[Abstract](377) [PDF 8908KB](33)
The Kangding city in eastern Tibet is at high risk due to frequent strong earthquakes along the Xianshuihe sinistral strike-slip fault bounding the Chuandian block to the northeast. The knowledge of paleo-seismicity recurrence along this fault system is key to the evaluation of earthquake hazards in this region; thus, more accurate paleoseismic information are required. We examined the paleo-seismicity along the Zheduotang fault in the central segment of the Xianshuihe fault system by applying the field investigation, trenching, and Quaternary dating methods (e.g., OSL and 14C). Field observations found ~8.5m offset of stream by sinistral slip along the Zheduotang fault. We trenched the central fault zone of the Zheduotang fault and found that the colluvial wedges and five buried, discontinuous, A-soil horizons progressively have been offset in the shallow graben on the SW-side of the main fault indicative of the paleo-earthquakes. The dating results of OSL and 14C, in line with existing data, enable us to establish the paleo-seismic history of the Zheduotang fault. It shows at least eight surface ruptures in the last 7500 years identified from displaced buried soils, colluvial wedges and terraces. Our study reveals ~100 years minimum paleo-earthquake recurrence, suggesting potential large earthquakes in the Kangding area in the future.
Ore geology, H–O–C isotopes and 40Ar–39Ar dating of the Wutonggou iron deposit, eastern Tianshan, NW China: Implications for the source, timing, and genesis of hydrothermal mineralization in a sedimentary iron deposit
Chun-Long Wang, Yi‑Tian Wang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1686-1
[Abstract](43) [PDF 6300KB](5)
The Wutonggou iron deposit is located in the well-known iron metallogenic belt in the eastern Tianshan, NW China, and has been regarded as a sedimentary iron deposit. Hydrothermal overprinting could play indispensable roles in the formation of high-grade iron ores in sedimentary iron deposits, thus the nature and evolution of hydrothermal fluids have important implications on the genesis of these deposits. Consequently, an integrated study of ore geology, H–O–C isotopes and 40Ar–39Ar dating, is conducted on the Wutonggou deposit, in order to reveal the features, source, and timing of hydrothermal mineralization. The studied deposit includes two mining sections namely the Jianshan and Wutonggou. The δ18O values of early magnetite from the Jianshan section range from +3.0‰ to +5.8‰ that nearly consistent with classic magmatic magnetite, while increase to 6.3‰–8.0‰ in the late stage. Quartz from the two sections shows comparable H–O isotopic compositions and identical fractionation trends, and is plotted in or periphery to the primary magmatic water area. Calcites from the two sections are broadly similar in carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions, and siderite from the Wutonggou section is plotted in the same region. Thus, comparable stable isotopic compositions and evolution trends indicate similar magmatic fluids contributed hydrothermal iron mineralization in the two mining sections. Moreover, water-rock interactions of varying degrees generated distinct mineralization styles in the Jianshan and Wutonggou sections, and caused the isotopic fractionation in late stages. Biotite extracted from a hydrothermal siderite ore yielded a 40Ar–39Ar plateau age of 299.5 ± 2.0 Ma, indicating the timing of hydrothermal iron mineralization is corresponding to the emplacement of vicinity granitoids. Taken together, the hydrothermal mineralization in the Wutonggou iron deposit was the product of remobilization and upgrading of early sedimentary iron ores, and ore-forming fluids were most probably originated from regional granitic magmatism.
Characteristics and formation analysis of earth fissure in Anren area in Wei River Basin, China
Jianwei Qiao, Zhenjiang Meng, Yuyun Xia, Cong Liu, Quanzhong Lu, Feiyong Wang, Yuanqiang Zhou, Haiyuan Zhao
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1653-x
[Abstract](221) [PDF 3547KB](9)
Since the 1950’s, 212 earth fissures have been discovered in the Wei River Basin. During a field survey in 2016, an additional 48 earth fissures were discovered in Anren area, northeast of the Wei River Basin. The characteristics and formation mechanisms of these fissures were studied through field investigations, measurements, trench excavation, and drilling. On-site investigations indicated that these earth fissures were distributed along a fault-controlled geomorphic boundary. Fissures trended at 60°–80° NE and were divided into five groups. Trenches revealed multiple secondary fissures, exposing severe soil ruptures in the shallow earth surfaces. Drilling profiles revealed that earth fissures dislocated several strata, and resembled synsedimentary faults. Seismic reflection profiles revealed buried faults beneath the earth fissures. The Anren area fissures formed in the following three stages: regional extension that initially generated multiple buried faults; seismic activity rupturing multiple strata, resulting in multiple buried fractures; and finally, erosion processes that propagated the buried fractures to the surface, forming the current earth fissures.
Geochronology and geochemistry of Permian Dashizhai Basin in Xing’an–Inner Mongolia Orogen: Implications for the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean
Chi Zhang, Guosheng Wang, Zhiguang Zhou, Shen Gao, Neng Zhang, Liudong Wang, Erqiang Bo
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1651-z
[Abstract](53) [PDF 21807KB](10)
The Xing’an–Inner Mongolia Orogen is a critical tectonic unit for constraining the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. However, the location and time for the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean are still debated. Here, we select a representative basin in Dashizhai in northeastern China, using U-Pb zircon geochronology and geochemistry to analyze the sedimentary facies, depositional ages, and provenance. The results show that the age of the Dashizhai Formation range from 400 to 347 Ma, the Shoushangou Formation range from 400 to 348 Ma, the Zhesi Formation range from 307 to 252 Ma, and the Linxi Formation range from 299 to 241 Ma. The Dashizhai Formation is composed of metamorphic andesite and clastic rocks. The Shoushangou Formation comprises siltstone, rhyolite, and argillaceous siltstone. The Zhesi and Linxi Formations are composed of mudstone and argillaceous siltstone. Geochemical data shows that these rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements and depleted in Eu with various La/Sc, Th/Sc, and La/Co ratios. The Permian Dashizhai Basin is from Permian volcanic and felsic igneous rocks from the Ergun, Xing’an, and Songliao blocks. The absence of the Late Carboniferous strata in the Dashizhai Basin indicates an extension setting during this period. Furthermore, we suggest the Xing’an–Inner Mongolia Orogen was an uplifting process associated with evolution the Paleo-Asian Ocean during the Late Permian.
Effect of Reclamation on the Groundwater-Lake Water Interaction in Chen Lake
Kun Lei, Teng Ma, Liu Chen, Zhen Li, Yu Chen
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1652-y
[Abstract](35) [PDF 3200KB](5)
Chen Lake has been seriously modified by reclamation to expand the residential and agricultural area. Lake reclamation can decrease water quantity, cause water quality problems, and degrade water ecological function. To clarify the interaction between groundwater and lake water influenced by reclamation, water level and hydrochemical characteristics of five groundwater nests and three lake sites were monitored. Results emphasize that the seasonal fluctuations of lake water level is an important factor for both recharge and maintaining groundwater levels in study area. Groundwater in reclaimed farmland have seasonal patterns following lake water with a lag time. Noteworthy, the lag time of porewater in reclaimed farmland is one month longer than confined water. HCA showed that lake water and groundwater samples in same cluster were characterized by high δD, δ18O, Cl- and K+, suggesting the provision of lake to groundwater systems and the transfer of chemical signature. Other Cluster was dominated by reclaimed farmland groundwater samples and enriched in Ca2+, HCO3-, Si. This finding interpreting that water-rock interaction is the predominant process in reclaimed farmland. As a result, there is a high degree of connectivity between lake water and underlying groundwater. However, porewater hydrodynamic conditions gradually weaken and groundwater recharge in reclaimed farmland is modified after large-scale reclamation.
Diverse climatic and anthropogenic impacts on desertification in the middle reaches of Yarlung Zangbo River catchment on the Tibetan Plateau
Yu Qi, Xianyan Wang, Zhiyong Han, Xiaodong Miao, Huayu Lu
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1658-5
[Abstract](48) [PDF 1450KB](5)
The unique desertification under alpine climate and ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau could provide critical clues on the natural and anthropogenic impacts on desertification. This study used the Landsat data to investigate the distributions of desertification from 1990 to 2020 in two areas (Shannan and Mainling), within the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. The results show not only different spatial distributions but also various temporal changes of desertification. In Shannan, aeolian sand is distributed in wide areas from valley floor to mountain slope, while in Mainling, it is distributed sporadically at the footslope. The aeolian sandy land expanded at first, followed by a long-term shrinkage in Shannan. While in Mainling, it steadily expanded and then followed by a fast decrease. These changes are attributed to climate change and anthropogenic factors. The increase in temperature causes desertification expansion in Shannan, while favorable climate along with decreasing human activity promotes desertification reversal. However, both the expansion and shrinkage of desertification are sensitive to human activity in Mainling. This show diverse responses of desertification to natural and anthropogenic impacts on different backgrounds of climatic and vegetation coverage. A threshold of climatic conditions could control the dominant factor in desertification from natural to anthropogenic elements.
3D Distinct Element Back Analysis Based on Rock Structure Modelling of SfM Point Clouds: The Case of the 2019 Pinglu Rockfall of Kaili, China
Zhen Ye, Qiang Xu, Qian Liu, Xiujun Dong, Feng Pu
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1667-4
[Abstract](10) [PDF 9435KB](3)
This paper introduces the use of point cloud processing for extracting 3D rock structure and the 3DEC -related reconstruction of slope failure, based on a case study of the 2019 Pinglu rockfall. The basic processing procedure involves: (1) computing the point normal for HSV-rendering of point cloud; (2) automatically clustering the discontinuity sets; (3) extracting the set-based point clouds; (4) estimating of set-based mean orientation, spacing, and persistence; (5) identifying the block-forming arrays of discontinuity sets for the assessment of stability. The effectiveness of our rock structure processing has been proved by 3D distinct element back analysis. The results show that SfM modelling and rock structure computing provides enormous cost, time and safety incentives in standard engineering practice.
Late Miocene elevated horizontal karst caves and landform evolution as a response to tectonic uplift along with regional integration of fluvial drainage in Southwestern China
Min Zhai, Xinggong Kong, Yuanhai Zhang, Philip Rowsell, Zhijun Zhao, Baojian Huang, Jing Zhang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1656-7
[Abstract](121) [PDF 14363KB](7)
In Southwestern China, the development of karst landforms and the planation surfaces is closely related to local tectonics, fluvial incision and base level change, as well as climate change. While researches on when these karst landforms and planation surfaces formed and how they evolved along drainage development are scarce. Fortunately, horizontal caves with numerous fluvial deposits in high karst mountains can be used as time markers in landform evolution. Here we select large horizontal caves to perform studies of geomorphology, sedimentology and geochronology. Field work shows that more than 25 km long horizontal cave passages are perched 1500 m higher than the local base level, but filled with several phases of fluvial sediments and breakdown slabs. The first phase of fluvial gravels and related cave drainage were dated back to 6.4 Ma using cosmogenic nuclide burial dating, and the stalagmite covering the cave collapse was dated by the U-Pb method , older than 1.56 Ma. These results show that the continuous horizontal cave drainage system and the planation surface were developed prior to the Late Miocene. The lowering process of the base level as a result of the sharp fluvial incision and water level lowering, along with the regional uplift, led to the abandonment of the horizontal cave and the elevated planation surface at the Late Miocene . After that, the phase of cave collapse , thick fluvial sand and clay sediments in the caves from the recharge of the cave deposited at around 1.6 Ma and during the Middle Pleistocene, respectively. Subsequently, speleothems widely deposited on the collapse and clay sediment during the period from 600 to 90 ka ,whereas the deposition of cave fluvial sediments terminated suddenly. The tectonic could control the denudation of surface caprock and the development of karst conduits prior to the Late Miocene, whereas the river incision acted as the main driver for the base level lowering and the destruction of the horizontal cave drainage at high altitude. In addition, the rapid incision and the retreat of Silurian gorges finally caused the formation of karst mesa in the Middle Pleistocene.
Source-to-sink relationships between the Qaidam Basin (North Tibet) and its surrounding mountain ranges: New insights from detrital zircon U–Pb ages in modern river sediments
Xu Zhang, Bowen Song, Tinglu Yang, Yafei Hou, Yibo Yang, Keke Ai, Jiaxuan Wang, Zhang Kexin
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1666-5
[Abstract](96) [PDF 7269KB](13)
The Cenozoic source-to-sink history of the Qaidam Basin is crucial for understanding of the basin-filling architecture, mountain-building processes and even the dynamics of the Tibetan plateau growth. However, the provenance history of Cenozoic strata in the Qaidam Basin remains ambiguous, especially in the northern Qaidam Basin. This controversy highlights the importance of obtaining the spatial source-to-sink relationships between the Qaidam Basin and its surrounding mountain ranges. In this study, we investigated the detrital zircon U–Pb ages of modern fluvial systems draining the Eastern Kunlun Shan. Their detrital zircon age distributions fall into five age groups: 300-190, 530-360, 1000-560, 2000-1100 and 2650-2000 Ma. The dominant age groups are 530-360 and 300-190 Ma, which represent the successive subduction of the Proto-Tethys and Paleo-Tethys Oceans and the subsequent continental collisions, respectively. Combining these new detrital zircon U–Pb ages with available age datasets, we finally obtained complete detrital zircon age information for modern fluvial systems in the whole Qaidam Basin. The U–Pb age distributions of modern river sands reveal that the zircon age signature of basement rocks in the Eastern Kunlun Shan is significantly different from that in the South Qilian Shan but is similar to that in the Altyn Tagh Shan. Moreover, these zircon age observations were confirmed by the significant difference in the Nd isotopic signature of modern river sands, which reveals a significant difference between the Eastern Kunlun Shan and South Qilian Shan in the formation and evolution process.
Provenance of Uranium Mineralization of the Yuqia Area, Northwest China: Constraints from Detrital Zircon U–Pb Geochronology and Hf Isotopes
Guangwen Huang, Jiayong Pan, Fei Xia, Jie Yan, Chengyong Zhang, Wu Dehai, Ying Liu
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1654-9
[Abstract](90) [PDF 4086KB](15)
Many sandstone-type uranium mineralization sites have been identified along the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin in North China. Intense tectonism and multistage magmatism that occurred there have restricted the use of conventional techniques (petrogeochemistry) to deduce the sources of detritus and uranium in these sediments, and to further explore the sandstone-type uranium deposits. In this study, U–Pb geochronological and Hf isotopic analyses were conducted on detrital zircon grains collected from Jurassic to Paleogene sandstones exposed in the Yuqia area of the Qaidam Basin. The results indicated that the U–Pb ages of the analyzed zircon grains are clustered into four periods, 285–229, 498–401, 999–806, and 2520–2305 Ma. The εHf(t) of the analyzed zircon grains ranged from -21.9 to +10.5, with two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) concentrated between 2.1 and 1.3 Ga. Based on paleocurrent studies and results of petrological, detrital zircon geochronology, and Hf isotopic analyses, the Jurassic sediments in the Yuqia area were likely derived from the tectonic belt along the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin, such as the Qilian Mountains and the Quanji block. In contrast, the Paleogene sediments were probably sourced from the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin and the Qilian Mountains. The uranium and thorium content and Th/U value of the rock mass and sedimentary strata in the source area show that the Indosinian Early Paleozoic uranium-rich granites and the Middle Jurassic uranium-rich strata of the northern margin of the Qaidam tectonic belt in the source area provide dual uranium sources for the Yuqia sandstone-type uranium mineralization. Therefore, the study area appears to be favorable for sandstone-type uranium mineralization and may have potential for uranium prospecting.
Stable adult growth but reduced asexual fecundity in Marginopora vertebralis, under global climate change scenarios
Claire Reymond, Frances Patel, Sven Uthicke
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1657-6
[Abstract](80) [PDF 3250KB](14)
Large benthic foraminifera are an integral component of shallow-water tropical habitats and like many marine calcifiers are susceptible to ocean acidification (OA) and ocean warming (OW). In particular, the prolific Symbiodiniaceae-bearing and high-magnesium calcite Marginopora vertebralis has a low threshold compared to several diatom-bearing and low-magnesium calcite species. In this multi-year mesocosm experiment we tested three RPC 8.5 climate change scenarios (i) present day, (ii) the year 2050, and (iii) 2100. To enable a realistic epiphytic association these experiments were uniquely conducted using natural carbonate substrate, living calcifying alga, and seagrass. In contrast to previous studies, we detected no reduction in surface-area growth under future climate conditions compared with present day conditions. In terms of calcification, M. vertebralis’ epiphytic association to primary producers (i.e., calcifying algae and seagrasses) potentially ameliorates the effects of OA by buffering against declines in boundary layer pH during periods of photosynthesis (i.e., CO2 removal). Importantly for population maintenance, we observed a strong reduction in asexual fecundity under the 2100 scenario. We propose the additional energy needed to maintain growth might be one reason for drastically reduced asexual reproduction. The other possibility could be due to the +2°C temperature increase, which interfered with the environmental synchronization that triggered asexual multiple fission. We conclude that the low levels of reproduction will reduce populations in a high CO2 environment and reduce a valuable source of CaCO3 sediment production.
The Hydrologic Time Scale: A Fundamental Stream Characteristic
Robert Criss
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1655-8
[Abstract](20) [PDF 2008KB](3)
Abstract. A new, fundamental catchment attribute called the hydrologic time scale τ governs the rate of delivery of runoff to a particular site, and is equal to ∫Qdt / ∫|dQ|, where Q is discharge and t is time. The value of τ for any gauged site is readily calculated from tabulated discharge data by replacing the integrals with sums. This quantity, coupled with the square root of catchment area, √A, form a coordinate pair that embodies the characteristic time and length scales for any catchment, which govern its flow dynamics. The fitting constants used in several unit hydrograph models are simple multiples of τ, so knowledge of τ allows rapid calibration of these models for the particular site, facilitating flow prediction from rainfall data. Values of τ reflect many different landscape attributes, but for multiple sub-basins in watersheds with homogeneous land use and lithologic conditions, they correlate linearly with √A . The ratio √A /τ provides a characteristic velocity that is high for channelized, flood-prone rivers, for flashy urban streams with high impervious cover, and for sites downstream of hydropower dams. Sites with low velocities are resistant to flooding, as their landscapes have a greater ability to delay the delivery of runoff by retention, detention, and infiltration into the groundwater system.
Karst trough control of solute transport processes at two karst groundwater flow systems, Western Hubei, Central China
Yi'an Wang, Ruichao Zhao, Lin Ding, Shuai Xiong, Yin Li, Jianwei Bu, Wei Chen, Hong Zhou, Wei Liu
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1665-6
[Abstract](139) [PDF 3313KB](29)
To investigate groundwater flow and solute transport characteristics of the karst trough zone in China, tracer experiments were conducted at two adjacent typical karst groundwater flow systems (Yuquandong (YQD) and Migongquan (MGQ)) in Sixi valley, western Hubei, China. High-resolution continuous monitoring was utilized to obtain breakthrough curves (BTCs), which were then analyzed using the multi-dispersion model (MDM) and the two-region nonequilibrium model (2RNE) with basic parameters calculated by CXTFIT and QTRACER2. Results showed that: (1) YQD flow system had a complex infiltration matrix with overland flow, conduit flow and fracture flow, while the MGQ flow system was dominated by conduit flow with fast flow transport velocity, but also small amount of fracture flow there; (2) they were well fitted based on the MDM (R2=0.928) and 2RNE (R2=0.947) models, indicating that they had strong adaptability in the karst trough zone; (3) conceptual models for YQD and MGQ groundwater systems were generalized. In YQD system, the solute was transported via overland flow during intense rainfall, while some infiltrated down into fissures and conduits. In MGQ system, most were directly transported to spring outlet in the fissure-conduit network.
Physical prediction model of compound hydrodynamic unload-load response ratio and its application in reservoir colluvium landslide
Lu Guo, Keqiang HE, Honghua Liu, Fandi Meng, Xuchun Wang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1662-9
[Abstract](35) [PDF 1406KB](5)
It is well known that the deformation and damage of reservoir colluvium landslides are often determined by the combined dynamics of reservoir water level change and rainfall. Based on the systematic analysis of the change law of reservoir water level, rainfall and displacements of reservoir colluvium landslide, this paper proposes the compound hydrodynamic action of rainfall and reservoir water as the unload-load parameter, and the landslide displacement as the unload-load response parameter. Based on this, a physical prediction model of the compound hydrodynamic unload-load response ratio of reservoir colluvium landslide was established, and the quantitative relationship between the compound hydrodynamic unload-load response ratio and its stability evolution was in-depth analyzed and determined. On the basis of the above research, taking Shuping landslide, a typical hydrodynamic pressure landslide as an example, the unload-load response ratio model is used to systematically evaluate and predict the stability evolution law and the change trend of the landslide under compound hydrodynamic action. The prediction result shows that the variation law of the compound hydrodynamic unload-load response ratio is consistent with the dynamic evolution law of its stability. Therefore, the above studies show that the compound hydrodynamic unload-load response ratio parameter is an effective displacement dynamic evaluation parameter for reservoir colluvium landslides, so it can be used in the prediction of the reservoir colluvium landslides.
Flood Duration Estimation based on Multisensor, Multitemporal Remote Sensing: The Sardoba Reservoir Flood.
Limei Wang, Guowang Jin, Xin Xiong
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1670-9
[Abstract](56) [PDF 6547KB](10)
Single-sensor monitoring of flood events at high spatial and temporal resolutions is difficult because of the lack of data owing to instrument defects, cloud contamination, imaging geometry. However, combining multisensor data provides an impressive solution to this problem. In this study, 11 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and 13 optical images were collected from the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform during the Sardoba Reservoir flood event to constitute a time series dataset. Threshold-based and indices-based methods were used for SAR and optical data, respectively, to extract the water extent. The final sequential flood water maps were obtained by fusing the results from multisensor time series imagery. Experiments show that, when compare with the Global Surface Water Dynamic (GSWD) dataset, the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the water body extent extracted by our methods range from 98.8 % to 99.1 % and 0.839 to 0.900, respectively. The flooded extent and area increased sharply to a maximum between May 1 and May 4, and then experienced a sustained decline over time. The flood lasted for more than a month in the lowland areas in the north, indicating that the northern region is severely affected. Land cover changes could be detected using the temporal spectrum analysis, which indicated that detailed temporal information benefiting from the multisensor data is highly important for time series analyses.
Effect of the tectonic inversion on the Source-to-sink system evolution in a lacustrine rift basin, a case study of South Yellow Sea Basin, East China.
Xue Fan, Chao Fu, Shengli Li, Shunli Li
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1664-7
[Abstract](44) [PDF 10495KB](6)
The complex plate collision process led the South Yellow Sea Basin (SYSB) to go through an intensity tectonic inversion during the early Cenozoic, which led to a regional unconformity surface development. As a petroliferous basin, SYSB saw intensity denudation and deposition process, making it hard to characterize their source-to-sink system(S2S), and this study provided a new sight to reveal them quantitatively. According to the seismic interpretation, it was found that two types of tectonic inversion led to the strata shortening process, which was classified according to their difference in planar movements, dip-slip faults, and strike-slip ones. As for dip-slip faults, the inversion structure was primarily formed by the dip-slip movement and many fault-related folds developed, which mainly developed in the North Depression Zone of the SYSB. The strike-slip ones, accompanying developed with some negative flower structures, are dominated in the South Depression Zone of the SYSB. Then, to reveal its source-to-sink system in the tectonic inversion basin, we speculated the sediments’ provenance area and their migration distance, referring to the zircon U-Pb data and heavy mineral assemblage. As for the North Depression Zone, it is shown that fewer distal sediments from the West Sulu Orogenic Belt are infilled, and proximal slump or fan delta are prominently developed during the tectonic inversion stage. The provenance rebuild in the South Depression Zone shows increasing sediments from the proximal area (Central Uplift Zone in SYSB and Wunansha Uplift) and the prograding delta long-axis parallel to these boundary faults during the tectonic inversion stage. Calculations were conducted on the coarse sediments content, faults displacements, catchment relief, sediments migration distance, and discussions about the impact factors to the Source-to-sink system developed in various strata shortening patterns with a statistical method. It was found that, within the dip-slip faults-dominated zone, the volume of the sediment routing system and the ratio of coarse-grained sediments merely has a relationship with the amount of sediment supply and average faults broken displacement. Compared with the strike-slip faults-dominated zone, the source-to-sink system shows a lower level of sandy sediment influx, and its coarse-grained content is mainly determined by the average faults broken displacement.
System reliability analysis of reservoir landslides: Insights from long-term reservoir operation
Kang Liao, Yiping Wu, Fasheng Miao
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1668-3
[Abstract](56) [PDF 4819KB](7)
The reservoir operation awakens numerous landslides with multiple sliding surfaces known as reservoir landslides, and the systematic stability analysis for such landslides is becoming increasingly urgent. Taking the Majiagou landslide as an example, this paper analyses the comprehensive performance of the landslide from a probabilistic point of view. Under a reservoir operation cycle, a series of numerical analyses are carried out to simulate the migration of the seepage field, then the dynamic stability of the landslide is quantified accordingly. Subsequently, the wetting-drying cycles test is used to model the weakening of strength parameters in hydro-fluctuation belt under the long-term reservoir operation. Considering the weakening effect of long-term reservoir operation on the hydro-fluctuation belt, the system reliability is evaluated using the Ditlevsen's bounds. The results suggest that the reservoir operation can affect the stability of the landslide by changing the seepage field. The system failure probability gradually rises as the number of wetting-drying cycles increases. Compared with conventional probabilistic analysis that calculates the failure probability of each sliding surface mechanically, analyzing the landslide in terms of system reliability can effectively narrow the failure probability range, which provides an insightful idea for evaluating the systematic stability of analogous reservoir landslides.
Study on shear strength characteristics of columnar jointed basalt based on in-situ direct shear test at Baihetan Hydropower Station
Peng Xia, Xinli Hu, shuang Wu, Chunye Ying, Chu Xu, Xuan Wang, Hao Chen
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1669-2
[Abstract](15) [PDF 3658KB](5)
Columnar jointed basalt (CJB) widely distributes in the dam site of the Baihetan Hydropower Station. The developments of CJB and fracture have a significant influence on the mechanical properties of the whole rock mass, and the mechanical properties of CJB are of great significance to the Baihetan hydropower project. Therefore, in situ direct shear tests were carried out on ten test adit at different locations in the dam site area to study the shear behavior of CJB. In this study, 21 sets of in situ direct shear tests were conducted for rock types of type Ⅱ2, type Ⅲ1 and type Ⅲ2, with horizontal and vertical shear planes and two different specimen sizes of CJB. Shear strength parameters of CJB were obtained by linear fitting of in situ direct shear test results based on the Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. The results indicate that the shear strength parameters of CJB with horizontal shear plane increase as the increase of rock type grade. The shear strength parameters of CJB show obvious anisotropy and the friction coefficient of the horizontal shear plane is greater than the vertical shear plane. the friction coefficient in the horizontal direction of the shear plane is 1.27 times that in the vertical direction of the shear plane. With the increase of rock type grade, the difference of friction coefficient becomes larger. However, the cohesion changes little whether the shear plane is horizontal or vertical. In addition, the size effect of CJB in this area is significant. The shear strength parameters of large size (100cm x 100cm) specimens are lower than those of regular size (50cm x 50cm) specimens. The reduction of cohesion is greater than that of the friction coefficient. for rock type Ⅲ2, the cohesion of large-size specimens is 0.6370 of the regular-size specimens. the reduction percentage of the friction coefficient for type Ⅲ2 is 1.66 times that of type Ⅲ1. the reduction percentage of the cohesion for type Ⅲ2 is 1.27 times that of type Ⅲ1. the size effect decreases with the increase of rock type grade. The research results of this study can provide an important basis for the selection of rock mechanics parameters in the dam site area of Baihetan Hydropower Station and the stability analysis of the dam foundation and rocky slopes.
Initiation Mechanism of Loess Mudflows by flume experiments
Penghui Ma, Jianbing Peng, Jianqi Zhuang, Xinghua Zhu, Cong Liu, Yuxiang Cheng, Zuopeng Zhang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1660-y
[Abstract](25) [PDF 10582KB](2)
The structure of loess is loose, and the shear strength of loess drops sharply after contact with water. Therefore, loess mudflows have become a common geological disaster on the Chinese Loess Plateau. In order to study the initiation mode and mechanism of loess mudflows, in this study, seven sets of flume experiments were designed by controlling the slope angle and rainfall intensity. The results show that (1) when the slope angle is between 10° and 20°, there are two initiation mechanisms of loess mudflows: mudflow (large scale) and retrogressive toe sliding, and mudflow (small scale) and retrogressive toe sliding. (2) The main method by which water infiltrates into the soil accumulation is mainly vertical infiltration, which is not affected by the slope angle and the seepage direction of the accumulation soil. (3) The liquefaction of loess is the root cause of loess mudflows. Water infiltrates into the area with an uneven density and a large amount of water accumulates in this area. Thus, the water content of the loess increases and the pore water pressure increases quickly and cannot dissipate in time, so the loess liquefies and the liquefaction area continue to spread and become larger. Thus, loess mudflows (large scale) occur. The increase in pore water pressure was captured in the seven sets of experiments. However, the order of the rising positions in the accumulation were different. This requires us to carry out tracking of the particle displacement inside the soil and the spatial changes in the internal structure of the soil in future research.
In-situ horizontal extrusion test of herbaceous root–soil with different root types
Fangcui Liu, Shengwen Qi, Shenglin Qi, Xiaokun Hou, Yanrong Li, Guangming Luo, Lei Xue, Xueliang Wang, Juanjuan Sun, Songfeng Guo, Bowen Zheng
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1661-x
[Abstract](89) [PDF 7426KB](9)
The influence of different types of roots on the soil is complex and still remains unclear. Four in-situ extrusion tests were conducted on two types of root systems, namely fibrous and tap root system, for three plants (i.e. Eleusine indica, Potentilla anserine and Artemisia argyi), according to the classification in Botany, and the thrust–displacement curves and failure patterns of different samples were analysed by comparison to fill the aforementioned gap. Results reveal that the roots can reduce the characteristics of soil brittleness and enhance its capability to resist large deformation, and different root types contribute different effects on the strain-hardening behaviour of the root–soil mass. The contribution of the fibrous root system on strength is limited, whilst the tap root system substantially enhances strength and stiffness. Results of failure patterns show that fibrous and tap root systems affect soil solidification and surface cracking reduction. However, the effect of the tap root system depends on the composition of lateral and tap roots: long and rich lateral roots are effective for resisting the creation of cracks, but thick tap roots with few and thin lateral roots may lead to several surface cracks.
Mechanism of interaction between anchored slide-resistant piles and landslides with weak-hard interbedded bedrock:model tests and theoretical interpretation
Guihua Wang, Changdong Li, Xin He, Taijiang Chen, Jie Meng, Wenmin Yao, Yongquan Zhang, HUAWEI ZHANG
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1663-8
[Abstract](21) [PDF 3551KB](1)
Interactions between anchored slide-resistant piles and landslides with weak-hard interbedded bedrock have not yet been systematically studied. Physical models of landslides reinforced by anchored slide-resistant piles are investigated based upon the self-developed testing system. The landslide system evolution with increasing loading force is revealed; the internal force and deformation of anchored slide-resistant piles in weak-hard interbedded bedrock are analyzed. A single anchored pile in weak-hard interbedded bedrock is analyzed theoretically, and an optimized calculation method for the axial force of the anchor cable is proposed. The results show that (1) The landslide system evolves through four stages: creeping, coordinated deformation, uncoordinated deformation, and failure. (2) The thrust sharing ratio of the pile-anchor first increases, then decreases slightly, and finally stabilizes; the maximum thrust sharing ratio is 12.22. (3) The anchoring force provided by weak-hard interbedded bedrock is between those of homogeneous hard and homogeneous weak rocks. The horizontal displacement of the pile in homogeneous hard rock is small, but more thrust is borne by the pile, and vice versa. (4) The theoretical value for a single anchored pile calculated by the optimized method is close to the measured value. These findings provide a scientific basis for landslide control projects in areas with weak-hard interbedded bedrock.
Assessing the connectivity of a regional fractured aquifer based on a hydraulic conductivity field reversed by multi-well pumping tests and numerical groundwater flow modeling
Jingjing Lin, Rui Ma, Ziyong Sun, Liansong Tang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1674-5
[Abstract](42) [PDF 1578KB](2)
Aquifer connectivity could greatly affect groundwater flow and further control the contaminant transport in fractured medium. However, assessing connectivity of fractured aquifer at regional scales is still a challenge because such connectivity is difficult to measure directly. This study proposed a framework for assessing connectivity of a fractured aquifer, with Qitaihe area, Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China as an illustrating study area. The 3-D finite difference numerical models were established to interpret the results of three multi-well pumping tests and inversely estimate the distribution of hydraulic conductivity (K) in the fractured aquifer. A static connectivity metric of the minimum hydraulic resistance (MHR) was calculated, based on the optimized K-field, to evaluate the hydraulic connectivity in the aquifer, and the corresponding least resistance paths (LRPs) were identified. The results indicate that a better horizontal connectivity in the fractured aquifer in the northeastern and middle parts than in the southwestern part of the study area. The identified LRP indicated that the preferential flow channels at regional scales were controlled mainly by aquifer connectivity instead of local high-K zones.The results of this study can provide a method for aquifer connectivity estimation at regional scales.
Applications of deep learning in mineral discrimination: a case study of quartz, biotite and K-feldspar from granite
Wei Lou, Dexian zhang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1672-7
[Abstract](14) [PDF 5838KB](2)
Mineral recognition and discrimination play a significant role in geological study. Intelligent mineral discrimination based on deep learning has the advantages of automation, low cost, less time consuming and low error rate. In this manuscript, characteristics of quartz, biotite and K-feldspar from granite thin sections under cross-polarized light were studied for mineral images intelligent classification by Inception-v3 deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN), and transfer learning method. Dynamic images from multi-angles were employed to enhance the accuracy and reproducibility in the process of mineral discrimination. Test results show that the average discrimination accuracies of quartz, biotite and K-feldspar are 100.00%, 96.88% and 90.63%. Results of this study prove the feasibility and reliability of the application of convolution neural network in mineral images classification. This study could have a significant impact in explorations of complicated mineral intelligent discrimination using deep learning methods and it will provide a new perspective for the development of more professional and practical mineral intelligent discrimination tools.
Origin of burrow-associated dolomites and its reservoir implications: A case study from the Lower-Middle Ordovician carbonates of Tarim Basin (NW China)
Chuan Guo, Daizhao Chen, Yong Fu, Xiqiang Zhou, Cunge Liu
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1673-6
[Abstract](15) [PDF 11140KB](5)
The Yingshan Formation of the Lower-Middle Ordovician in the Tarim Basin (NW China) was mainly deposited in a shallow platform, which was intensely bioturbated with burrows filled with both dolomites and calcites. This study aims to figure out the controls on the dolomitization of burrow infills and the effects on petroleum reservoir quality based on petrographic examination, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and isotopic (C-O-Sr) geochemical analyses. The differentiation of burrow-associated carbonates (dolomites and calcites) was likely controlled by the interactions of sea-level oscillations of variable orders and depositional environments. The burrow-associated dolomites (BADs) were precipitated in a relatively restricted (i.e., lagoon) depositional environment during the lowstand of long-term sea level. In contrast, the burrow-associated calcites (BACs) were formed in a water circulation-improved lagoonal environment during the transgression of long-term sea level. Isotopic geochemical data indicate that the BADs in the Yingshan Formation were formed from slightly saline (i.e., mesosaline to penesaline) seawater, whereas the BACs were precipitated from nearly normal seawater. In addition to the anoxic condition, the presence of marine-sourced organic matter and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and a sufficient supply of dolomitizing fluids enriched in magnesium ions (Mg2+) and their Mg2+ concentration may have played a critical role in the formation of BADs. In the more permeable and disturbed burrow sediments as a result of burrowing, penetrating fluids with higher salinities and higher Mg2+ concentration relative to seawater favored dolomite precipitation. The fluids with seawater-like Mg2+ concentration, however, would lead to calcite precipitation. The progressive dolomitization of these burrowed sediments could have propagated the dolomitizing fronts and extended into ambient limestones, leading to the development of extensive dolomites. This dolomitization process can improve the petrophysical properties (porosity and permeability) and the potential as hydrocarbon reservoirs during the emplacement of hydrocarbons from underlying source rocks of the Cambrian to Lower Ordovician.
U-Pb ages and europium anomalies of detrital zircons from sediments in the West Kunlun Orogenic Belt: implications for the Proto-Tethys Ocean evolution
Yinggang Zhang, Xizhu Yao, Jin Wang, Wenqing Pan, Yongquan Chen, Baoshou Zhang, Tao Yang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1671-8
[Abstract](146) [PDF 5722KB](22)
The ocean crust remnants of the Proto-Tethys were preserved as the Kudi ophiolites in the West Kunlun Orogenic Belt (WKOB), and its evolutionary history was mainly constructed by research on igneous or metamorphic rocks in the WKOB. Sedimentary rocks in the WKOB received little attention in the past; however, they could provide important constraints on the evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Here, a series of shales and greywackes found in the Kudi area of WKOB were studied to constrain their depositional ages and explore their significance in the evolution of the Proto-Tethys oceanic crust. U-Pb dating and europium anomaly (Eu/Eu*) were analyzed for detrital zircons from greywackes interlayers, while bulk rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) of the shales were measured. Detrital zircons U-Pb ages yielded a maximum depositional age of 436 Ma for the greywackes and black shales, while the REY distribution patterns of the black shales are similar to those of the Tarim Ordovician Saergan shales. Accordingly, the studied WKOB black shales were deposited in the Proto-Tethys Ocean during the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian period. The maximum depositional age at 436 Ma may represent a minimum closure time of the Proto-Tethys Ocean, which is also supported by the absence of increases in Eu/Eu* values during the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian. Besides, our Eu/Eu* values in detrital zircons indicate diminished orogenesis during the Archean to Mesoproterozoic, subduction-related accretion at the margins of the supercontinent Rodinia during the Neoproterozoic.
Fe-Ti oxide mineralization in the XV intrusion, Bafq mining district, Central Iran: insights from mineralogy, mineral chemistry and S isotopic data
Sakine Amraei, Majid Ghasemi Siani, Mohammad Yazdi, Liang Qiu, Bertrand Moine, Minghua Ren
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1675-4
[Abstract](35) [PDF 5984KB](1)
The mafic-ultramafic intrusion in the XV anomaly area, which contains magmatic Fe-Ti oxide-(P) ore, is located in the Bafq mining district in the Central Iran. It consists of cumulate and layered Fe-Ti-bearing gabbros and pyroxenites. The mineral assemblages include clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides, plagioclase, amphibole, apatite and sulfides (pyrite and chalcopyrite). The Fe-Ti oxides mainly consist of magnetite-titanomagnetite and ilmenite, which occur as disseminated, intergrowth, lamellae (trellis and sandwich textures) and inclusions. Magnetite in the gabbroic rocks is from the near end-member of Fe3O4 (<1 wt. % TiO2) to titanomagnetite containing up to 8 wt. % TiO2 (about 3.73 to 26.84 % Ulvospinel (XUsp)). Magnetite in pyroxenite rocks is characterized with TiO2 range from 0.46 to 3.14 wt. % (XUsp varied from 1.76 to 10.46 %). The abundances of V2O3 range from 0.03 to 1.29 and 0.24 to 1.00 wt. % for gabbro and pyroxenite, respectively. XUsp contents of magnetite show insignificant correlations with Al2O3 and MgO. The average XIlm in the ilmenite of gabbro is 92 %, whereas it is 90.37 % in the pyroxenite rocks. The MgO and V2O3 contents show a slightly positive correlation with TiO2 in ilmenite. The composition of clinopyroxenes in gabbro and pyroxenite rocks fall in the diopside to augite field with Mg# ranging from 67 to 98 and 74 to 96, respectively. In both rock types, amphiboles are mainly pargasite and rarely actinolite. Plagioclase in pyroxenite rocks are clustered in the labradorite to andesine fields with a compositional ranges of An46-69 and in gabboic rocks fall in two fields with compositional ranges of albite with An0.65-5.95 and labradorite with An50-63. The δ 34S isotopic values cover a limited range from +3.15 ‰ to +4.10 ‰ V-CDT consistent with magmatic origin. Fe-Ti mineralization are formed in two stages, minor inclusions of Fe–Ti oxide minerals in the pyroxene and plagioclase crystallized in the early magmatic stage, whereas interstitial oxides formed by fractional crystallization processes that accumulated by gravitational settling in the later stage as intercumulus phase. Gravitational settling process is supported by the observation of decreasing the amount of Fe-Ti oxides from Fe-Ti oxide- rich pyroxenite to weak mineralized gabbro (base to top). The high contents of H2O, phosphorate and high initial Ti-Fe in parental magma are the crucial factors controlling the Fe-Ti oxides enrichment and mineralization.
development strategy and countermeasures of china's cbm industry under the goal of "carbon peak and neutrality"
fengyin xu, xia yan, fenglin wang, xinyuan ma, jian yun, hongna wang, borui xu, shuangyuan zhang, delei mao
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1647-8
[Abstract](486) [PDF 1118KB](15)
china’s coalbed methane(cbm) industry is in an extremely important "climbing period" and "strategic opportunity period", which can be generally characterized by "three low and one small": low degree of exploration and development, low adaptability of main technology, low return on investment and small development scale. under the "carbon peak and neutrality" background, the development status of cbm industry is systematically combed. the resources, technology, management problems and reasons are analyzed. strategies and countermeasures to accelerate the industrial development are put forward according to the factors such as efficient development of resources, major technical breakthrough, talent team training, policy formulation and implementation, return on investment and so on. the existing problems are as follows: a)the overall occurrence conditions in china are complicated and the development is difficult compared with the other countries. b) the research precision accuracy of cbm resource conditions is not enough; c) the adaptability of technology is poor. d) the management mode is not suitable. in view of these problems, this paper puts forward the "two steps" development strategy and the technical and management countermeasures of "five in one". the corresponding "five in one" technology and management countermeasures are the formulation and implementation of relevant safeguard measures in accordance with the principle of collaborative innovation in five aspects: resources, technology, talents, policies and investment. through the above measures, the dream and grand blueprint of cbm industry shall be realized.
monitoring multi-temporal changes of lakes on the tibetan plateau using multi-source remote sensing data from 1992 to 2019: a case study of lake zhari namco
juan wu, chang-qing ke, yu cai, zheng duan
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1639-8
[Abstract](111) [PDF 7604KB](8)
lake level, area and volume are sensitive indicators of climate change. at present, many studies have focused on the interannual water balance of lakes, but lake level and area can change remarkably with seasons, especially for lakes with seasonal ice cover. zhari namco, a seasonal frozen lake, was selected as an example to investigate its seasonal water balance. multi-source altimetry and landsat data were used to obtain the seasonal lake level and area from 1992 to 2019, and seasonal lake volume variations were also estimated. the results indicated the average lake level, area and volume in autumn were the largest. the lake level, area, and volume experienced three turning points approximately in 2000, 2010, and 2016, and showed an overall increasing trend from 1992 to 2019, with slopes of 0.15 m/year, 2.17 km2/year, and 0.14 km3/year, respectively. the lake area expanded significantly in autumn, which was related to the abundant precipitation. delay time of land surface runoff, increased temperature, and evaporation may be the reason for the low lake level and volume in summer. the precipitation was the dominant factor of water balance, which explained 62.09%, 62.43%, and 62.10% of the variations in lake level, area, and volume, respectively.
early cretaceous to middle eocene magmatic evolution of eastern pontides: zircon u-pb ages and hf isotopes, and geochemical and sr-nd isotopic constraints from multiphase granitoids, ne turkey
abdullah sar, sevcan kürüm, ahmet feyzi bingöl, sun-lin chung, hao-yang lee
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1640-2
[Abstract](46) [PDF 13856KB](1)
the eastern pontides orogenic belt (epob) represents a significant segment of the alpine–himalayan orogenic belt that evolved from the paleozoic to cenozoic periods. here we report new zircon u–pb ages, together with lu–hf isotopes, and whole-rock geochemical and sr–nd isotopic analyses of plutonic rocks from epob, northeastern turkey. our aim is interpret to magmatic evolution in which the granitoids formed. zircon u–pb dating of six samples yielded crystallization ages of ~134 ma; ~82 ma; ~39 ma, respectively. they show a wide range of 87sr/86sr(i) (0.7039–0.7109), and εnd(t) values varying from −9 to +4.6 , yielding model ages (tdm) from 520 to 1623 ma, suggesting a heterogeneous magma source. dated zircons show exlusively positive εhf(t) values (+12.4 to +1.4), yielding model ages (tdm) from 352 to 1059 ma, implying that are most likely derived from a juvenile lower crust rather than the mature continental crust. in this study, we suggested that the northward subduction of the neo-tethyan oceanic slab began from the early cretaceous and resulted in the late cretaceous magmatism. moreover, the middle eocene magmatism in the epob was related to the collision of the anatolide taurid platform (atp) with the pontides.
analysis of the hydraulic and heat transfer evolution mechanism of a single rock fracture
biao shu, fan zeng, john kemeny, runjun zhu, keping chen, jingqiang tan
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1648-7
[Abstract](140) [PDF 4816KB](13)
mineral dissolution and mechanical deformation of granite are two main mechanisms that affect permeability evolution of rock fracture. in this study, two water flow-through experiments with large granite fractures were conducted at 200 °c with a constant flow rate for 24 h, under confining pressures of 5 and 10 mpa, respectively. water pressure and temperature were measured, fracture aperture and permeability were calculated, and chemical element concentrations in effluent water were tested for mechanism analysis. the permeability fluctuates up and down between 2.62×10-12 and 3.16×10-12 m2 at confining pressure of 5 mpa; while it decreased monotonously by 24% from 1.92×10-12 to 1.45×10-12 m2 at a confining pressure of 10 mpa. the heat transfer rates at both experiments stay stable at about 0.25 j/s. the mass concentration of ca, na, k, and si in effluent water are between 5 to 23 mg/l, indicating slight dissolution of ca-plagioclase, na-plagioclase, and k-feldspar, as well as possible precipitation of minor amount of kaolinite or qartz. the total amount of free-face dissolution and pressure dissolution are similar at 5 and 10 mpa. the geochemical reaction counts only small part of aperture change, and the mechanical deformation counts the major part of aperture change.
stochastic modeling of folded structures in scarce data scenarios using transiogram with locally varying anisotropy
yabo zhao, weihua hua, guoxiong chen, liang dong, zhipeng liu, xiuguo liu
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1646-9
[Abstract](81) [PDF 3963KB](1)
sampling is usually scarce in geological modeling, and hence, complex and continuous geological phenomena are difficult to simulate when anisotropy changes locally. the current study aimed to present a method for modeling folded structures using transiogram with locally varying anisotropy in scarce data scenarios. based on the direction fields of locally varying anisotropy, a pathline-based algorithm was proposed to simulate the folds that are flattened and calculate the relative position of any two random points thereafter. compared to the traditional two-point spatial continuity measures (such as the variogram), the locally varying anisotropy transiogram could not only describe the high order markovian of the spatial distribution of geological bodies, but also do so with explicable physical implication. the report revealed that the locally varying anisotropy transiogram of horizontal strata can be directly obtained if the stratigraphic sequence and stratum thickness are known. in the case study, only one geological map was used in a real complex-fold area to successfully simulate the 3-d stratigraphic model.
gastropod fauna of the zuodeng permian-triassic boundary section in the nanpanjiang basin and its geometric-based morphological disparity analysis
xin sun, li tian, xincheng qiu, kaiping guan, erik tihelka, haijun song, jinnan tong, hao yang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1645-x
[Abstract](35) [PDF 4539KB](1)
gastropods, as one of the most common invertebrates in shallow marine environments, were heavily impacted by the permian-triassic mass extinction (ptme), with severe loss of diversity and remarkable dwarfism of body size. here, we report a new gastropod fauna from the permian‒triassic carbonates of zuodeng, guangxi province, south china. five species belonging to five genera and two indeterminate taxa are identified. the zuodeng fauna is dominated by paleozoic holdover taxa, including holopea teres, protostylus sp., and wannerispira shangganensis although most of them are found in the basal triassic microbialites. three gastropod communities have been recognized by cluster analysis. further morphological analyses show that the changing pattern of disparity, with diversity decreasing from community ⅱ to ⅲ, fits the interior-reduction model. in addition, the morphospace of community in microbialites is higher than those in non-microbialite bearing beds at zuodeng, shedding new light on the ecological role of microbialites during the permian-triassic environmental stress.
susceptibility mapping of ground collapse caused by anthropogenic activities
zhongmin mao, yuyong jiao, fei tan, xin qi, cong zeng
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1644-y
[Abstract](24) [PDF 4967KB](3)
frequent ground collapses resulted by anthropogenic activities occur due to rapid urbanization. accurate susceptibility mapping is critical for disaster prevention and control. in this study, 1198 ground collapse cases were collected from 2017 to 2020 in shenzhen. after multicollinearity testing, eight effective factors (elevation, relief, clay proportion, average annual precipitation, distance from water, land use type, building density, and road density) were selected to construct an evaluation index system. ground collapse susceptibility was analyzed and mapped using the normalized frequency ratio (nfr), logistic regression (lr), and nfr-lr coupling models. finally, the rationality and performance of the three models were compared using the frequency ratio (fr) and receiver operating characteristic (roc) curve, respectively. all three models could effectively evaluate the ground collapse susceptibility (area under the roc curve (auc) > 0.7), though the result of nfr-lr model was more rational and had the highest performance (auc = 0.791) among the three models. shenzhen possessed ground collapses mainly in built-up areas, the greater the intensity of anthropogenic activity in a location, the higher the likelihood of a disaster. the high and very high susceptibility zones covered a total area of 546.76 km2 and involved the nanshan, luohu, and futian districts, as well as some areas of the baoan, guangming, and longgang districts.
what caused the inconsistency between rb-sr and 40ar-39ar ages of authigenic illites?
entao liu, i.tonguç uysal, jianxin zhao, ziao zhang, xudong lin
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1643-z
[Abstract](42) [PDF 2237KB](2)
radiogenic isotope dating of illitic clays has been widely used to reconstruct thermal and fluid flow events in siliciclastic sedimentary basins, the information of which is critical to investigate mechanisms of hydrocarbon maturation. this study carried out rb-sr and 40ar-39ar dating of authigenic illitic clay samples separated from the palaeogene sandstone in the northern south china sea. our rb-sr data further confirm the previously reported three periods of fluid flow events (at 34.5 ± 0.9 ma, 31.2 ± 0.6 ma, and 23.6 ± 0.8 ma, respectively) in the northern south china sea, which are related to regional episodic tectonism. however, 40ar-39ar ages of illite obtained in this study are significantly younger than the corresponding rb-sr ages. the significantly younger 40ar-39ar ages were probably due to 40ar loss caused by later dry heating events on the hainan island that have not affected the rb-sr isotopic systematics. the inconsistency between rb-sr and 40ar-39ar data should be attributed to different isotopic behaviors of k-ar and rb-sr isotopic systematics in illite. our results indicate that rb-sr isotopic dating method may be a preferential approach for clay dating in geological settings where exist younger dry heating events.
Protoconodonts and Paraconodonts from the Machari Formation (upper Series 3 and Furongian) in the Eodungol Section, Yeongwol, Korea
Byung-su LEE
[Abstract](199) [PDF 2509KB](6)
The Machari Formation ranges from the “upper Series 3” (Middle Cambrian) to Furongian (Upper Cambrian) in the Yeongwol area, Korea. It has been known to yield relatively diverse invertebrate fossils. Particularly trilobite biozones of the formation have been well defined. On the other hand, little has hitherto been studied on conodont microfossils for the formation. This paper reports a diverse and well preserved protoconodonts and paraconodonts of Series 3 from the formation in the Eodungol section, exposed along a southern mountain trail of Mt. Sambangsan, Yeongwol, Korea. Five of the thirteen samples collected for conodont contain a rich protoconodont and paraconodont assemblage and numerous shelly fossils including trilobites, brachiopods, sponge spicules, hyolithids and incertae sedis. Sample Eo5 is extremely fossiliferous (465 elements, 96.5 % of total collection), and the most abundant species was Phakelodus elongatus (236 elements, 62 % of the Eo5 collection). The preservation is relatively good, but some specimens are corroded and fragmentary. Some of protoconodonts are exfoliated. Relatively larger ones were commonly preserved as phosphatized internal molds, particularly in specimens of Furnishina bigeminata, Furnishina leei n. sp., Muellerodus pomeranensis, Nogamiconus sinensis and westergaardodids. Phakelodids were commonly preserved as clusters. Among twenty species referable to nine genera, Furnishina bigeminata, Furnishina leei n. sp., Nogamiconus sinensis, Huayuanodontus tricornis, Proscandodus obliquus, and Westergaardodina grandidens were previously undescribed species in Korea. This assemblage is named herein as the Westergaardodina matsushitai Zone, which is new biozonal name replacing the old one i.e., Gapparodus bisulcatus-Westergaardodina matsushitai-Westergaardodina moessebergensis Assemblage. The W. matsushitai Zone corresponds to the Lejopyge armata trilobite Zone, and is well correlated with the upper Series 3 conodont biozones of the Westergaardodina matsushitai-Westergaardodina grandidens Zone of South China, and the Westergaardodina matsushitai Zone of North China, respectively. The present data allow a useful correlation to China and Baltica in relation to new subdivision of the Cambrian. Furnishina leei n. sp. is newly described.
knowledge graph for identifying geological disasters by integrating computer vision with ontology
qinjun qiu, zhong xie, die zhang, kai ma, liufeng tao, yongjian tan, zhipeng zhang, baode jiang
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1641-1
[Abstract](67) [PDF 1946KB](14)
the occurrence of geological disasters can have a large impact on urban safety. protecting people's safety is the most important concern when disasters occur. safety improvement requires a large amount of comprehensive and representative risk analysis and a large collection of information related to geological hazards, including unstructured knowledge and experience. to address the relevant information and support safety risk analysis, a geological hazard knowledge graph is developed automatically based on computer vision and domain-geoscience ontology to identify geological hazards from input images while obeying safety rules and regulations, even when affected by changes. in the implementation of the knowledge graph, we design an ontology schema of geological disasters based on a top-down approach, and by organizing knowledge as a logical semantic expression, it can be shared using ontology technologies and therefore enable semantic interoperability. computer vision approaches are then used to automatically detect a set of entities and attributes, using the data from input images, and object types and their attributes are identified so that they can be stored in neo4j for reasoning and searching. finally, a reasoning model for geological hazard identification was developed using the neo4j database to create nodes, relationships, and their properties for modeling, and geological hazards in the images can be automatically identified by searching the neo4j database. an application on geological hazard is presented. the results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of identifying possible potential hazards in geological hazards and assisting in formulating targeted preventive measures.
Uranium Isotope Variations (234U/238U and 238U/235U) and Behavior of U-Pb Isotope System in the Vershinnoe SandstoneType Uranium Deposit, Vitim Uranium Ore District, Russia
V. N. Golubev, I. V. Chernyshev, B. T. Kochkin, N. N. Tarasov, G. V. Ochirova, A. V. Chugaev
[Abstract](18) [PDF 5507KB](8)
The U-Pb isotope system and uranium isotope composition (235U/238U and 234U/238U) were studied in a number of samples from the vertical section of the uranium ore body at the Vershinnoe sandstone-type deposit, Vitim uranium ore district, Russia. These parameters were determined to broadly vary. Deviations of the 234U/238U ratio from the equilibrium value indicate that the uranium ore was not completely conserved during the postore stage, and uranium was determined to continue mi‐grating at the deposit. Comparison of the U-Pb isotope age value and 234U/238U isotope ratio provides an insight into the migrate direction of uranium in the ore body. The broad variations (137.377–137.772) in the 238U/235U ratio over the vertical section of the ore body can be explained by the different settings of the samples relative to the ore deposition front and changes in the redox conditions when this front shifted. The fact that the δ238U and K234/238 values are correlated indicates that the transfer of the 234U iso‐tope into the aqueous phase may have been coupled with isotope fractionation in the 238U-235U system during the postformation uranium migration within the orebody.
Association of Sandstone-Type Uranium Mineralization in the Northern China with Tectonic Movements and Hydrocarbons
Yin Chen, Peisen Miao, Jianguo Li, Ruoshi Jin, Hualei Zhao, Lulu Chen, CongWang, Haoyu Yu, Xiaoru Zhang
[Abstract](77) [PDF 50719KB](18)
In the continental basins of Northern China (NC), a series of energy resources commonly co-exist in the same basin. As the three typical superimposed basins of different genesis in the NC, the Junggar, Ordos, and Songliao basins were chosen as the research objects. The favorable uraniumbearing structures are generally shown as a basin-margin slope or transition belt of uplifts with the de‐velopment of faults, which are conducive to a fluid circulation system. The Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian movements resulted in the development of uranium-rich intrusions which acted as the sig‐nificant uranium sources. The main hydrocarbon source rocks are developed in the Carboniferous, Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous. The mature stage of source rocks is concentrated in the Jurassic–Cretaceous, followed by the multi-stage expulsion events. Influenced by the India-Eurasian collision and the subduction of the Pacific Plate, the tectonic transformation in the Late Yanshanian and Himala‐yan periods significantly influenced the sandstone-type uranium mineralization. The hydrocarbon reser‐voirs are spatially consistent with sandstone-type uranium deposits, while the hydrocarbon expulsionevents occur in sequence with sandstone-type uranium mineralization. In the periphery of the faults or the uplifts, both fluids met and formed uranium concentration. The regional tectonic movements moti‐vate the migration of hydrocarbon fluids and uranium mineralization, especially the Himalayan move‐ment.
An investigation of dislocation in olivine phenocrysts from the Hawaiian basalts
Zhuo-Yue Li, Da-Peng Wen, Yong-Feng Wang, Xiang-Wen Liu
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1030-6
[Abstract](1981) [PDF 7048KB](153)
Intracrystalline distortions (like undulose extinction, dislocations, and subgrain boundaries) in olivine from naturally-deformed peridotites is generally taken as a sign of dislocation creep. However, similar features in olivine phenocrysts that were found in basaltic magmas are still not well understood. In particular, whether subgrain boundaries in olivine phenocrysts arise from plastic deformation or grain growth is still debated (In the latter case, they are essentially grain boundaries but not subgrain boundaries. Therefore, we used hereinafter subgrain-boundary-like structures instead of subgrain boundaries to name this kind of intracrystalline distortion). Here we carried out a detailed study on dislocations and subgrain-boundary-like (SG-like) structures in olivine phenocrysts from two Hawaiian basaltic lavas by means of petrographic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Abundant and complex dislocation substructures (free dislocations, dislocation walls, and dislocation tangles) were observed in the decorated olivine grains, similar to those in olivine from peridotite xenoliths entrained by the Hawaiian basalts. The measured average dislocation density is 2.9 ± 1.3 × 1011 m-2, and is three to five orders of magnitude higher than that in laboratory-synthesized, undeformed olivine. TEM observations on samples cut across the SG-like structures by FIB (focused ion beam) demonstrated that this kind of structures is made of an array of dislocations. These observations clearly indicate that these structures are real subgrain boundaries rather than grain boundaries. These facts suggested that the observed high dislocation densities and subgrain boundaries were not resulted from crystal crystallization/growth, but were formed by plastic deformation. These deformation features do not prove that the olivine phenocrysts (and implicitly mantle xenoliths) were deformed after their capture by the basaltic magmas, but can be ascribed to a former deformation event in a dunitic cumulate, which was formed by magmatic fractionation, then plastically deformed, and finally disaggregated and captured by the basaltic magma that brought them to the surface.
Central Asia––A Global Model for the Formation of Epigenetic Deposits in a Platform Sedimentary Cover
Igor Pechenkin, Vladislav Petrov
[Abstract](11) [PDF 8469KB](3)
Metallogenic specialization of sedimentary cover in Central Asia is determined by its tec‐tonic setting that governs the hydrodynamic regime (exfiltrational or infiltrational) and as a consequence, the hydrogeochemical zonality (type of water and its gaseous and microcomponent composition). Hydro‐dynamic conditions (distribution of recharge and discharge areas) determine the direction of stratal water flow and location of mineralization resulted from the change in geochemical, thermodynamic, litholog‐ical, structural and other conditions. The exfiltrational regime suggests a dependence of the epigenetic mineralization upon the distribution and degree of preservation of hydrocarbon occurrences. Often, hy‐drocarbon matter serves as a reducing barrier and ore-concentrating factor during the formation of polymineral concentrations related to stratal oxidation zone. The supergene epigenetic ore-forming pro‐cesses are induced by the interaction between the Earth’s sedimentary cover and hydrosphere. Sedimen‐tary rocks themselves commonly serve as a source of ore materials. The ore deposition zones on geochemi‐cal barriers and ore material source are often located significantly apart from each other. The trend of these processes is determined by the position of ore-bearing depressions in large tectonic blocks.
Origin and evolution of ultramafic rocks along the Sagaing Fault, Myanmar
Tomoaki Morishita, Hnin Min Soe, Hla Htay, Than Htut Lwin, Juan Miguel Guotana
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1435-x
[Abstract](50) [PDF 0KB](0)
The active Sagaing Fault in Myanmar defines the boundary between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate and causes seismic damage in the major cities of Myanmar. Small bodies of serpentinite occur along the fault. We for the first time investigated the highly sheared serpentinite bodies in the Sheinmagar area and Yega Inn area along the Sagaing Fault. Extensively sheared/brecciated serpentinites and related rocks, such as talc and/or chlorite-bearing rocks contains small rock fragments of serpentinites. Serpentine texture and mineral chemistry indicate that the protolith of these serpentinites were mainly harzburgite with minor amounts of dunite, some of which are cut by gabbroic veins. No shape-preferred orientation of the antigorite is present, indicating that the serpentinization was occurred under relatively static conditions. Protolith and serpentine minerals are similar to those of the jadeitite-bearing serpentinites in the north of the Sagaing Fault (the Jade Mine Belt). Chemical variations of spinels in the studied area are within the compositional range of forearc peridotites and those in the mantle section of nearby ophiolites. After the formation of antigorite serpentinite under static conditions, these serpentinites were subsequently, but locally deformed, probably due to the activity of the Sagaing Fault, resulting in the formation of serpentinite schist/brecciated rock. The presence of the less-deformed antigorite serpentinite in the sheared/brecciated zone indicates the strain localization mainly along the surrounding serpentine-talc (±chlorite) schistose rocks, which is probably formed by the reaction between serpentinite and country rocks. Further studies are needed to better understand whether the distribution of serpentinized peridotites cause variations in the activity of the Sagaing Fault.
Nitrogen isotopes from the Neoproterozoic Liulaobei Formation, North China: implications for nitrogen cycling and eukaryotic evolution
Ting Yang, Xinqiang Wang, Dongtao Xu, Xiaoying Shi, Yongbo Peng
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1085-4
[Abstract](577) [PDF 1125KB](73)
The nitrogen isotope compositions (δ15N) of sedimentary rocks can provide information about the nutrient N cycling and redox conditions that may have played important roles in biological evolution in Earth’s history. Although considerable δ15N data for the Precambrian have been published, there is a large gap during the early Neoproterozoic that restrains our understanding of the linkages among N cycling, ocean redox changes and biological evolution during this key period. Here, we report bulk δ15N and organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg) compositions as well as the total nitrogen (TN) and total organic carbon (TOC) contents from the Tonian fossiliferous Liulaobei Formation in the southern part of the North China Platform. The δ15N in the study section is dominated by very stable values centering around +4.3‰, which is moderately lower than in modern sediments (~ +6‰). These positive δ15N values were attributed to partial denitrification under low primary productivity (scenario 1) and/or denitrification coupled with dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) (scenario 2). In either case, the availability of fixed nitrogen may have provided the nutrient N required to facilitate facilitated eukaryotic growth. Our study highlights the pivotal role of nutrient N in the evolution of eukaryotes.
Theoretical System of Sandstone-Type Uranium Deposits in Northern China
Ruoshi Jin, Huajian Liu, Xiaoguang Li
[Abstract](56) [PDF 19090KB](12)
Many theoretical results on sandstone-type uranium mineralization in northern China obtained by the uranium research team of the Tianjin Center of Geological Survey in recent years are presented. From the source sink system of uranium-producing basins, sedimentary environment of uranium-bearing rock series, ore-forming fluid information, evolution of tectonic events, basin forma‐tion and development, we redefine and classify uranium orebodies, redox zoning, and ore-controlling structural styles. We then systematically propose a theoretical system of sandstone-type uranium depos‐its in northern China. We conclude that sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern China are main‐ly found in sedimentary environments such as rivers, deltas, and alluvial fans in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic lowstand systems tract and in gray sandstone layers in the vertical redox zoning. The orebodies are controlled by the tectonic slope belt, which is in the shape of a strip on the plane, and spreads in a layer or plate on the section. Vertical (ups and downs) tectonic movement triggers large-scale phreatic flow in the basin, which is the real driving force for controlling the ore-forming fluid. The theoretical system of sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern China should be based on global tectonic move‐ment and environmental changes and take into account factors such as basins as a unit to study miner‐alization background, ore concentration areas as objects to study mineralization, and the correlation between regional tectonic movement and metallogenic process as a breakthrough point to study tecton‐ic events and metallogenic events. It should also be based on different basin types to establish metallo‐genic models. The innovative research results and ideas are summarized with the aim of promoting the continuous improvement of sandstone-type uranium mineralization theory in northern China.
U-Blacks Mineralization in Sandstone Uranium Deposits
Olga A. Doynikova
[Abstract](20) [PDF 18000KB](6)
Ores of infiltration sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in the sedimentary cover are ubiquitous composed of dispersed soot powder mineralization of black, brownish-black colour. Longterm studies of such loose U-ores by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) proved their polymineral nature. Uranium blacks are composed by at least three different U-mineral forms: oxide (uraninite), silicate (coffinite) and phosphate (ningyoite) which are present in various proportions of ore compositions. Such high dispersed friable uranium formations are difficult to diagnose by tradition‐al mineralogical methods (optical, XRD, IR and X-ray spectroscopy, etc.) which analyze total sample composition (phases mixture); their results characterize the dominant sample phase, omitting both sharply subordinate and X-ray amorphous phases. All research results are based on ATEM methods (SAED+EDS), which are optimal for crystallochemical diagnostics in the mineralogical study of such uranium ores. The article presents the diagnostic characteristics under electron microscope (EM) of uranous minerals from different sandstone deposits with their origin being discussed.
Classification of Sandstone-Related Uranium Deposits
Michel Cuney, Julien Mercadier, Christophe Bonnetti
[Abstract](96) [PDF 1583KB](15)
Sandstone type deposits are the most common type of uranium deposits in the world. A large variety of sub-types have been defined, based either on the morphology of the deposits (e.g., tabu‐lar, roll front, etc), or on the sedimentological setting (e.g., paleovalley, paleochannel, unconformity), or on tectonic or lithologic controls (e.g., tectonolithologic, mafic dykes/sills), or still on a variety of others characteristics (phreatic oxidation type, interlayer permeable type, multi-element stratabound infiltra‐tional, solution front limb deposit, humate type, etc.), reflecting the diversity of the characteristics of these deposits, but making it difficult to have a clear overview of these deposits. Moreover, uranium de‐posits occurring in the same sedimentological setting (e.g., paleochannel), presenting similar morpholo‐gies (e.g., tabular), may result from different genetic mechanisms and thus can be misleading for explora‐tion strategies. The aim of the present paper is to propose a new view on sandstone-related uranium de-posits combining both genetic and descriptive criteria. The dual view is indeed of primordial importance because all the critical characteristics of each deposit type, not limited to the morphology/geometry of the ore bodies and their relationships with depositional environments of the sandstone, have to be taken into account to propose a comprehensive classification of uranium deposits. In this respect, several key ore-forming processes, like the physical-chemical characteristics of the mineralizing fluid, have to be used to integrate genetic aspects in the classification. Although a succession of concentration steps, potentially temporally-disconnected, are involved in the genesis of some uranium mineralization, the classification here proposed will focus on the main mechanisms responsible for the formation and/or the location of ore deposits. The objective of this paper is also to propose a robust and widely usable ter‐minology to define and categorize sandstone uranium deposits, considering the diversity of their origin and morphologies, and will be primarily based on the temperature of the mineralizing fluid considered as having played the critical role in the transportation of the uranium, starting from synsedimentary ura‐nium deposits to those related to higher temperature fluids.
Recognition and Causes of Channel Evolution in the Downstream of Yuan River in the Qing Dynasty
Zheng Dandan, Kuang Jian, Gui Yuhui, Bing He
 doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1600-2
[Abstract](183) [PDF 7977KB](14)
Research on recognition and causes of channel evolution is an important means to reshape the evolutionary history of river landform. This paper aims to study the channel evolution in the downstream of Yuan River in Hunan province, China in the Qing Dynasty via Landsat 8 satellite image data and relevant literature so as to establish the modes of channel evolution and discuss the significance of historical climate change. It is suggested that the paleochannel in the downstream of the Yuan River ware reflected in the late Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty, the Kangxi and Qianlong periods of the Qing Dynasty, the late Qing Dynasty, and World War II (1939-1945) and classified that the three main modes of river evolution. The research result shows a good correlation between channel revolution, flood events and climate change. Plenty of flood events that occurred from Late Qing Dynasty to the World War II(1939-1945) caused high frequency of channel revolution, which demonstrates the combined effects of climate change and human activities.
2022, 33(4)  
[Abstract](29) [PDF 565KB](62)
2022, 33(4)  
[Abstract](18) [PDF 313KB](56)
Special Column on the 2021 Yunnan Mw 6.1 and Qinghai Mw 7.3 Earthquakes
Estimating Seismic Intensity Maps of the 2021 Mw 7.3 Madoi, Qinghai and Mw 6.1 Yangbi, Yunnan, China Earthquakes
Wenkai Chen, Dun Wang, Can Zhang, Qiang Yao, Hongjun Si
2022, 33(4): 839-846.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1586-9
[Abstract](541) [FullText HTML](352) [PDF 15866KB](120)

This study focuses on rapidly determining seismic intensity maps of earthquakes because it offers fundamental information for effective emergency rescue and subsequent scientific research, and remains challenging to accurately determine seismic intensity map in regions with sparse instrumental observations. Here we applied a novel method that consisted of array technology (back-projection), ground-motion prediction equations, and site corrections, to estimate the seismic intensity maps of the 2021 Mw 7.3 Madoi, Qinghai and the Mw 6.1 Yangbi, Yunnan, China earthquakes. We used seismic data recorded at European stations to back-project the source processes of the 2021 Mw 7.3 Madoi, Qinghai and the Mw 6.1 Yangbi, Yunnan, China earthquakes. The back-projected energy radiations were then used as subevents or used to define the fault geometry. Summing the contributions of each subevent or estimating the shortest distances from each site to the rupture fault, we obtained the ground motion (PGA and PGV) for each site under rock site conditions. The estimated ground motions were corrected at each site for local site amplification according to the Vs30 database.Our estimated seismic intensity maps and field reports showed high similarity, which further validated the effectiveness of the novel approach, and pushed the limit of earthquake size down to ~M 6. Such efforts would substantially help in the fast and accurate evaluation of earthquake damage, and precise rescue efforts.

Determination and Comparison of ML, MS_BB, mB, MWp, MWW, Mdt, and M (GNSS) for the 22 May 2021 M7.4 Madoi, Qianghai, China Earthquake
Xiaolin Huang, Yuyang Peng, Chuang Cheng, Dun Wang, Qiang Yao
2022, 33(4): 847-856.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1680-7
[Abstract](65) [FullText HTML](65) [PDF 9842KB](66)

The 2021 Madoi M7.4 Earthquake in Qinghai is a major earthquake that occurred in the Bajankara Block of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the past 30 years, which spatially filled the seismogenic gap in the eastern section of the northern boundary of the block. Here we determined the values of ML, MS_BB, mB, MWp, MWW, Mdt, and M (GNSS) by abundant regional and global seismic and geodetic observations, which is 6.61, 7.43, 7.18, 7.33, 7.43, 7.38, and 7.4, respectively. To compare the time efficiency and stability of different magnitude scales, we generated a real-time environment, to iteratively determine the magnitudes over elapsed times. Some methods such as mB, MS_BB, MWp gave considerable variations of as large as 0.5 units for the determined magnitudes with elapsed time, as more data were included. Others such as MWW and Mdt were very stable with increasing data over time. The systematic calculations of various magnitude scales in this study quantitively evaluated the stability and accuracy of those methods, shading light on the adaptability and applicability of different magnitude scales.

The Interpretation of Seismogenic Fault of the Maduo Mw 7.3 Earthquake, Qinghai Based on Remote Sensing Images—A Branch of the East Kunlun Fault System
Guanghao Ha, Jinrui Liu, Zhikun Ren, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Guodong Bao, Dengyun Wu, Zhiliang Zhang
2022, 33(4): 857-868.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1556-2
[Abstract](349) [FullText HTML](209) [PDF 24279KB](102)

On May 22, 2021, a Mw 7.3 earthquake occurred in Maduo County, Qinghai Province with the epicenter of 34.59°N, 98.34°E. The distribution of aftershocks and surface ruptures suggested that the seismogenic structure might be the Jiangcuo fault (JF), ~70 km south of East Kunlun fault (EKLF). Due to the high altitude and sparse human habitats, there are very few researches on the Jiangcuo fault, which makes us know little about the deformation features and even the geometry of Jiangcuo fault. In this study, we used the high-resolution pre-earthquake satellite images to interpret the spatial distribution and geometry of the Jiangcuo fault. Our results show that the Jiangcuo fault strikes nearly east, extending 180-km-long from Eling Lake to east of Changmahe Town. Based on the geometric features, the Jiangcuo fault could be divided into three segments characterized as the linear structures, fault valleys, scarps and systematic offset of channels. The boundary between Bayan Har Block and Qaidam Block is presented as a wide deformation zone named of Kunlun belt that is composed of East Kunlun fault and several branch faults around Anemaqen Mountain. Geometric analysis and deep lithosphere structure around Maduo County suggest that the Jiangcuo fault should be one of branch of East Kunlun fault at south, where the Kunlun fault developed as a giant flower structure. In addition, the seismic hazards potential of Jiangcuo fault should be given enough attention in the future, because west of the Jiangcuo fault, there is a rupture gap between the co-seismic surface ruptures of the 2001 Kunlun, 2021 Maduo and 1937 Huashixia Earthquakes.

A Prediction Method of Ground Motion for Regions without Available Observation Data (LGB-FS) and Its Application to both Yangbi and Maduo Earthquakes in 2021
Jin Chen, Hong Tang, Wenkai Chen, Naisen Yang
2022, 33(4): 869-884.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1560-6
[Abstract](249) [FullText HTML](144) [PDF 50504KB](71)

Currently available earthquake attenuation equations are locally applicable, and methods based on observation data are not applicable in areas without available observation data. To solve the above problems and further improve the prediction accuracy of ground motion parameters, we present a prediction model referred to as a light gradient boosting machine with feature selection (LGB-FS). It is based on a light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) constructed using historical strong motion data from the NGA-west2 database and can quickly simulate the distribution of strong motion near the epicenter after an earthquake. Cases study shows that compared with GMPE methods and those based on real-time observation data, the model has a better prediction effect in areas without available observation data and can be applied to Yangbi Earthquake and Maduo Earthquake. The feature importance evaluation based on both information gains and partial dependence plots (PDPs) reveals the complex relationships between multiple factors and ground motion parameters, allowing us to better understand their mechanisms and connections.

Coseismic Slip Distribution of the 2021 Mw7.4 Maduo, Qinghai Earthquake Estimated from InSAR and GPS Measurements
Lihan Xiao, Rui Zheng, Rong Zou
2022, 33(4): 885-891.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1637-x
[Abstract](57) [FullText HTML](57) [PDF 49703KB](61)

On 22 May 2021, the Maduo Earthquake occurred on a branch fault of the East Kunlun fault in the Bayan Har Block, which provides opportunity to constrain fault geometry and strain accumulation and release for assessment of earthquake hazards. We processed the Sentinal-1A/B SAR images acquired before and after the earthquake, with which we constrained a finite fault model to best fit to the combined data set of downsampled InSAR image and GPS displacements. The inversion indicates that the Maduo event ruptured a 160 km long section striking 286.5° and a dipping 81.39° with rake angle of 4.62°. The model suggests three compact rupture areas with the slip amplitude exceeding 4 m on the main rupture section and the largest slip region is in the east of the epicenter with a slip of approximately 4.6 m below the surface, in a good agreement with the field geological survey. The total geodetic moment is 1.67 × 1020 N·m equivalent to Mw7.44, slightly larger than estimate of the USGS.

Relocation of the Foreshocks and Aftershocks of the 2021 Ms 6.4 Yangbi Earthquake Sequence, Yunnan, China
Ting Yang, Boren Li, Lihua Fang, Youjin Su, Yusheng Zhong, Jingqiong Yang, Min Qin, Yaji Xu
2022, 33(4): 892-900.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1527-7
[Abstract](347) [FullText HTML](215) [PDF 6532KB](122)

An Ms 6.4 earthquake occurred in Yangbi, Yunnan, China on May 21, 2021, which has obvious foreshock activity and abundant aftershocks. Based on the seismic observation data recorded by the Yunnan Seismic Network three days before and seven days after the mainshock, a double-difference location method was used to relocate 2 133 earthquakes of the Yangbi sequence. Aftershocks are mostly distributed to the southeast of the mainshock in a unilateral rupture pattern. This sequence exhibits a SE-trending linear alignment with a length of about 25 km, and most of the focal depth is above 12 km. Integrated with the seismic distribution and focal mechanism results, we infer that the strike of the seismogenic fault is about 140º, and dipping to the SW. The fault structure revealed by the seismic sequence is complex, with the NW segment exhibiting a steep dip and relatively simple structure of strike-slip rupture and the SE segment consisting of several branching ruptures. The Yangbi Earthquake is a typical foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequence, and the mainshock is likely triggered by the largest foreshock. This earthquake occurred in the boundary between high- and low-velocity anomalous zone, where is susceptible to generate large earthquakes.

Microfracture Characterization in Sandstone Reservoirs: A Case Study from the Upper Triassic of Syria's Euphrates Graben
Ibrahem Yousef, Vladimir Morozov, Vladislav Sudakov, Ilyas Idrisov
2022, 33(4): 901-915.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1488-x
[Abstract](42) [FullText HTML](42) [PDF 13352KB](61)

The Euphrates Graben is located in eastern Syria. The Upper Triassic Mulussa F Formation sandstones serve as the primary reservoir intervals in the majority of the graben fields. The study's findings were based on core studies: petrographic examination of thin sections, scanning electron microscope (SEM), imaging of backscatter scanning electron microscope (BSE), X-ray microprobe examinations, and carbon-oxygen stable isotope analysis of microfracture-filling cements. Three of the most common types of microfracture found in the investigated sandstones are intragranular or intracrystalline microfractures, grain boundary or grain-edge microfractures, and transgranular (crossing grains) microfractures. Sandstone microfractures that are open and free of secondary mineralization improve sandstone storage and permeability. However, microfractures that are cemented and filled with secondary mineralization reduce storage and permeability. Common siderite and pyrite cements were identified within the microfractures and the nearby sandstone matrix. Larger anhedral or euhedral siderites are thought to form during shallow burial diagenesis, whereas poikilotopic siderites are thought to form during deep burial diagenesis. Poikilotopic pyrite is believed to be a diagenetic cement, which is attributed to the reduction of iron oxides present in the sediments in the presence of hydrocarbons. Microfractures reflect tectonic, overpressure, and diagenetic origins. Microfractures of tectonic origin are associated with folding and thrust activities over the Euphrates Graben area, and they were formed at the beginning of the Upper Triassic with siderite and pyrite cement equilibration temperatures of approximately 100–105 ℃, and they continued forming from the middle to the end of the Upper Triassic with cement equilibration temperatures of approximately 90–100 ℃ in conjunction with the first phase of the Euphrates Graben. Microfractures related to diagenetic and overpressure processes are tension microfractures and were formed in compression settings during the Upper Triassic.

Overpressure Evolution Recorded in Fluid Inclusions in the Dongpu Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, North China
Xiuyan Liu, Honghan Chen, Xuewei Xiao, Hongan Zhang, Yuwei Wang, Tianwu Xu, Pei Shang, Lingtao Kong
2022, 33(4): 916-932.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1375-x
[Abstract](41) [FullText HTML](41) [PDF 26943KB](65)

The Dongpu depression, like other depressions in the Bohai Bay Basin, is characterized by overpressure, however, the published studies have not clearly given the overpressure formation mechanism and paleo-pressure evolution history in the Dongpu depression. In addition, the current researches are mainly focused on the northern Dongpu depression, while rare investigation has been conducted in the southern part. In this context, it is urgent to explore the comprehensive overpressure evolution and formation mechanism in the Dongpu depression in academic and industrial fields. This paper provided a systematic analysis of fluid inclusions, including fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry, vapor phase filling degree measurement and PVT-x modeling. By using homogenization temperature-burial history projection, the trapping time of the oil inclusions are determined. Four pressure evolution stages are identified in both the northern and the southern Dongpu depression. The results indicate that the pressure accumulation stage is derived by disequilibrium compaction and hydrocarbon generation in the northern part because of the salt rock distribution, while the stage is only derived by hydrocarbon generation in the southern part because of no salt rock distribution. The pressure release stages are mainly caused by the tectonic uplifting movements at the end of Dongying and Minghuazhen Formation. The overpressure in most areas in the northern part has been preserved till now, which is considered as a result of the good plasticity and sealing ability of salt rock that prevent the pressure leakage by smearing on the fault. Areas without salt rock distribution show normal pressure, which means the salt rock is an important factor that contributes to the overpressure preservation. However, there are exceptions that in Baimiao and Qiaokou, the overpressure still exists even without salt rock distribution, which is due to fault closure.

Characteristics and Sources of Organic Matter from the Early Cambrian Niutitang Formtion and Its Preservation Environment in Guizhou
Hong Wei, Qinglai Feng, Jianxin Yu, Shan Chang
2022, 33(4): 933-944.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1371-1
[Abstract](43) [FullText HTML](43) [PDF 2819KB](64)

The Early Cambrian Niutitang Formation on the Yangtze Block is a set of high-quality marine source rock. However, hydrocarbon-forming organisms of these organic-rich shales was poorly understood. In this paper, the results of palynofacies analysis and hydrocarbon-forming organism characteristics of the Niutitang Formation from the Yangtze Block are reported for the first time, and the sedimentary environment is discussed in combination with geochemical data. Palynofacies analysis show that the organic matter (OM) of the Niutitang Formation is mainly composed of amorphous organic matter (AOM), with a small amount of structural organic matter (STOM) and palynomorphs (PL). The results of CONISS (stratigraphically constrained incremental sum of squares) cluster analysis show that the PL can be divided into three zones in the ascending order: Leiosphaeridia-Micrhystridium-fungal zone, algal bloom zone and fungal development zone, corresponding to three stages: transgression, high-stand and regression, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the main hydrocarbon-forming organisms include planktonic green microalgae or dinoflagellates that are related to Leiosphaeridia and Microcystidium. Palynofacies analysis and geochemical data show that the Niutitang Formation was deposited under anoxic or dysoxic condition which was favorable to the enrichment of organic matter.

Occurrence Characteristics of Saline-Lacustrine Shale-Oil in the Qianjiang Depression, Jianghan Basin, Central China
Zhongliang Sun, Zhiliang He, Furong Wang, Yuanjia Han, Sheng He, Yuguang Hou, Jing Luo, Youheng Zheng, Shiqiang Wu
2022, 33(4): 945-962.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1110-7
[Abstract](40) [FullText HTML](40) [PDF 14871KB](67)

The amount of shale oil and its characterization are key issues in the study of shale oil. At present, many scholars use a variety of methods to evaluate the amount of shale oil, and use the calculated amount of hydrocarbons to analyze its influencing factors; however, there is lack of detailed research on the storage space for shale-oil and it's influencing factors. In view of this issue, gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), soxhlet extraction (SE), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption (LTNA), high-pressure mercury intrusion (HPMI), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze and compare samples from two wells located in different deposition locations. The unconventional Well BYY2 and BX7s were drilled in the depocenter and distal area of the Qianjiang Formation, respectively. Controlled by differences in the organic matter type and sedimentary environment, the organic matter in Well BYY2, which was found to be characterized by laminar shale, mainly originated from aquatic algae. The results showed that as the total organic carbon (TOC) content increased, the amount of shale-oil in the pores increased. Shale-oil was mostly stored in mesopores and macropores that had been preserved by dolomite minerals of a biogenic origin and also occurred in pores sized 5–200 nm and > 1 μm. Dolomite minerals of a biogenic origin and clay minerals contributed to the occurrence of shale-oil. In comparison, the organic matter in Well BX7 has been greatly influenced by terrestrial organic matter. Pores in the massive mudstones from Well BX7 were determined to be mainly mesopores preserved by clay minerals and quartz, and the shale-oil was mostly stored within the pores of < 40 nm. When the TOC content was ~2.5 wt.%, the generated shale-oil reached saturation. Clay minerals contributed to the occurrence of shale-oil, whereas quartz only contributed to the occurrence of shale-oil in macropores.

Paleo-Environment Reconstruction of the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation, Southeastern Junggar Basin, NW China: Implications for the Mechanism of Organic Matter Enrichment in Ancient Lake
Dawei Cheng, Chuanmin Zhou, Zhijie Zhang, Xuanjun Yuan, Yinhe Liu, Xingyu Chen
2022, 33(4): 963-976.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1073-8
[Abstract](46) [FullText HTML](46) [PDF 11137KB](64)

The Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation is the source rock and the main oil shale producing formation in the southeastern Junggar Basin. This study focused on the Lucaogou Formation exposed in two outcrop sections on the northern flank of the Bogda Mountain, namely the Jingjingzigou and Dalongkou sections. Here, we present integrated analysis of the sedimentology, major and trace elements, mineral components and total organic carbon contents. The paleo-environment was reconstructed including provenance, redox conditions, paleo-salinity, chemical weathering intensity and primary organic matter productivity. The results showed that the upper and lower units were deposited in distinct depositional environments with different organic matter accumulation mechanisms. The lower unit was characterized by low lake level, dry climate, fresh-brackish and well-oxygenated water. While during the deposition of the upper unit the lake level rose, climate turned wetter and the bottom water became less oxidized and much saltier. The mechanism of the organic matter accumulation is different for these two units. The preserved organic matters were mainly controlled by the primary productivity in the lower unit and by the redox conditions in the upper unit.

Distribution of Helium Resources in Weihe Basin, Central China: Insight from 3D Magnetic Inversion
Xuliang Feng, Bingqiang Yuan, Yuhong Li, Chunguan Zhang, Lijun Song
2022, 33(4): 977-992.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1080-9
[Abstract](40) [FullText HTML](40) [PDF 19593KB](62)

There is promising indication of helium-rich natural gas in Weihe Basin. However, the lack of a detailed investigation on the origin and the spatial distribution of helium source rocks (mainly Yanshanian granites) limits the helium potentiality evaluation in Weihe Basin (WB). We performed three-dimensional (3D) inversions of magnetic data in Weihe Basin and its adjacent areas to figure out the crustal thermal structure and the temporal-spatial distribution of deep granite in the basin. Based on this, we have proposed a geological model of helium accumulation and predicted the potential area of helium distribution. The results of 3D magnetic inversion indicate that the granites in the deep Weihe Basin are mostly located at the central and southern parts of the basin, which are connected spatially with the granites in the North Qinling Orogenic Belt. These granites were all derived from large-scale intra-continental orogeny in the Qinling area during the mid-Mesozoic, providing a good material basis for crust-derived helium in the basin. The local uplift of the Curie surface makes the thermal fluid more actively, which contributes to helium accumulation. The faults developed in the WB are the migration pathway of crust-derived helium and the upward migration of the mantle-derived helium. The wells with high percentage helium are mostly located near the Weihe fault and the areas on the south of it. The Wugong-Xi'an-Lantian area in the central and the Lintong-Weinan-Tongguan area in the eastern Weihe Basin are the most promising helium distribution areas. Furthermore, the region from the north of Taibai Mountain to Baoji City in the western Weihe Basin may also be another potential area of Helium resource.

Discovery and Geological Significance of an Indosinian (ca. 244 Ma) Metamorphic Event in the Langshan Area, Western Inner Mongolia, China: New Evidence from Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Dating
Yan Yan, Runmin Peng, Chen Siyu, Shuangfei Li
2022, 33(4): 993-1006.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1112-5
[Abstract](30) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 27208KB](62)

The Langshan Group is an important constituent of the Precambrian metamorphic rocks in the Langshan area. The accurate determination of its metamorphic age is of great scientific significance for the further study of the Precambrian geological evolution in the region. Disputes remain regarding the metamorphism and deformation overprinting of the Langshan Group. This paper presents a detailed study comprising a field geological investigation, petrological observations, and zircon U-Pb aging of garnet-bearing mica quartz schists in the BangBang District. The result of detrital zircon U-Pb dating from the metamorphosed volcanic sedimentary rock series and geological investigation of the garnet-bearing mica quartz schists suggest the strata formed in the Neoproterozoic. The results from cathodoluminescence (CL) image analysis and U-Pb dating of zircons indicate a large number of metamorphic zircons exist in the garnet-bearing mica quartz schists. The metamorphic overgrowth rims of zircon from two samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The 206Pb/238U weighted average age of ca. 244 Ma of the zircon metamorphism rims represents the timing of Indosinian greenschist-amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Langshan area, which may be in response to the collision-type orogeny of the North China and Siberian plates in the Late Paleozoic. Acid-intermediate magmatic intrusive activities occurred in the Langshan area, and metamorphic events developed at the same time or at a later stage during the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean.

Luminescence Dating and Bracketing Time of the Youngest Toba Tuff Deposits in the Quaternary Sediments of Purna Alluvial Basin, Central India
Singh Ajab, K. Srivastava Ashok, Chauhan Naveen
2022, 33(4): 1007-1016.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1357-z
[Abstract](41) [FullText HTML](41) [PDF 6861KB](58)

Light gray to yellowish brown youngest Toba tuff (YTT) ash, preserved in the Quaternary sediments of India, have been used as a tool to know depositional and bracketing time period of the same in the sediments through applications of luminescence dating to interpret age connotation of various geological events. Pre- and post-tephra sediments of YTT ash beds from Hudki and Sukali areas of Purna alluvial basin, Central India have been optically dated to interpret the depositional age and bracketing time of the tephra within sedimentary sequences. These sediments are yellowish brown, thinly bedded, laminated, silty clay and host laterally extend discontinued beds of 0.15–0.20 m thickness. The ash is light gray, fine grained and powdery in nature, massive to structureless and lacks any sign of retransportation and redeposition, hence, considered as primary in nature. Total four sediment samples, one each from pre- and post-tephra lithounits of both the localities have been dated through optically stimulated luminescence technique (OSL) equipped with single aliquot regenerative (SAR) procedure on the feldspar grains. It shows pre- and post-tephra ages of 57 ± 5 and 70 ± 4 ka respectively for Hudki and 66 ± 5 and 67 ± 4 ka for Sukali localities. These depositional ages suggest that the ash was bracketed within sediments thousands years after YTT eruption. It is correlatable with the previously reported depositional and absolute ages for the YTT ash from the localities of Ghoghara and Khuntheli, Son Valley; Tejpur, Madhumati River Basin and Jwalapuram, Jurreru Valley. These ages also provide an idea about the period of existence of biological communities represented by the remains of faunal and vegetational activities before and during settlement of the YTT ash in the basin area.

Lithostratigraphy and Biostratigraphy Based on Calcareous Nannofossils at the Late Campanian to Thanetian Transition in the Izeh Zone, Southwestern Iran (Eastern Neo-Tethys)
Senemari Saeedeh
2022, 33(4): 1017-1030.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1642-0
[Abstract](129) [FullText HTML](82) [PDF 10102KB](73)

This study investigates the Gurpi Formation in the northeast of Izeh, southwestern Iran. In this study, 59 species and 34 genera were determined. Biostratigraphy allows the identification of zones CC21 to CC26, which is equivalent to the UC15cTP-UC20dTP that spans the Late Campanian to Late Maastrichtian. Subsequently, the presence of NP1 to NP6, equivalent to CNP1 to CNP8, indicates that the sequence extends to Selandian. Then the Pabdeh Formation, which dates back to Thanetian, covers the sequence. Several major changes were recorded here in order of importance. The first change is the Campanian-Maastrichtian transition, which was identified based on the last occurrence of the Aspidolithus parcus constrictus. Subsequently, the Early/Late Maastrichtian boundary was determined based on the last occurrence of Reinhardtites levis. In addition, another change in the Late Maastrichtian–Early Danian is associated with an abrupt decrease in the richness of nannofossils, although a significant increase in the abundance of Early Paleocene new species has been observed along with the abundance of Thoracosphaera spp. blooms. Eventually, the final change coincides with an increase in Iridium throughout NP1. These changes may indicate changes in environmental conditions in this part of Iran during the Late Cretaceous–Paleogene transition in the eastern Neo-Tethys domain.

Cenozoic Propagated Rifting in the Dangerous Grounds in Response to the Episodic Seafloor Spreading of the South China Sea
Yuanyuan Wang, Yanghui Zhao, Weiwei Ding, Penggao Fang, Jiabiao Li
2022, 33(4): 1031-1046.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1064-9
[Abstract](53) [FullText HTML](53) [PDF 10052KB](61)

The southern continental margin of the South China Sea has documented multiphase continental rifting corresponding to the propagation of seafloor spreading. Here we investigate three multi-channel seismic reflection profiles across different segments of the Dangerous Grounds with a NE-SW direction. Stratigraphic correlation reveals that the Cenozoic tectono-stratigraphic framework in the Dangerous Grounds is featured with diachronous rifting, which records the successive spreading of East Subbasin and Southwest Subbasin, South China Sea. By reconstructing the tectono-sedimentary evolution history in different segments, we combine the quantification of the brittle extension, tectonic subsidence, as well as the crustal thinning. Results provide evidence that the extensional stress migrated from northeast to southwest with the progressive propagation of the seafloor spreading in the oceanic basin. Besides, the impact of the tectonic propagation persists even after the cessation of seafloor spreading, evidenced by a longer stretching duration in the West-Dangerous Grounds than that in the eastern area. Moreover, a temporary syn-rift subsidence delay synchronously to the spreading of the adjacent oceanic basin is observed along the southern margin. This observation proves the secondary mantle convection during the seafloor spreading in the southern continental margin, which is related to the propagating rift.

Early Warning of Heavy Metal Pollution after Tailing Pond Failure Accident
Yonggui Wang, Yinqun Yang, Qiang Li, Yaxin Zhang, Xiaolong Chen
2022, 33(4): 1047-1055.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1103-6
[Abstract](31) [FullText HTML](31) [PDF 1938KB](54)

Heavy metal pollution is a major issue after tailing pond failure accident. It is important to predict pollution trends for limited data of pollution sources. A simple phase separation heavy metal model was built for early warning simulation of heavy metal pollution accidents. Based on this, a new simulation framework has been developed to predict the pollution trends of the downstream according to the measured data at upstream sections. By setting the upstream monitoring date as the inflow boundary condition, the changing processes of heavy metal manganese (Mn) with different phases in the downstream can be accurately simulated and forecasted. Results showed that the concentration of the suspended phase in the downstream was larger than that in the aqueous phase and sediment phase. With this, the early warning of pollution trends after accidents could be made a few days ahead. It indicates that the impact of sediment on heavy metal should not be ignored in the early warning of tailing pond failure accidents.

Small-Scale Heterogeneity and Seismic Anisotropy in the Mid-Mantle: Oceanic Crust versus Meta-Stable Olivine
Xiaobo He
2022, 33(4): 1056-1058.   doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1700-7
[Abstract](42) [FullText HTML](42) [PDF 331KB](56)

Vol 33, No 4 , 2022

Editor in Chief:

Associate Editor:

Zhong-Qiang Chen
Robert E.Criss
Zhaochu Hu
Timothy M. Kusky
David Lentz
Jianwei Li
Hongfei Zhang
Junfeng Zhang

ISSN 1674-487XCN 42-1788/P

2020 Impact Factor 2.907