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Volume 28 Issue 4
Jul.  2017
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Ruoyu Bai, Xu Dai, Haijun Song. Conodont and Ammonoid Biostratigraphies around the Permian-Triassic Boundary from the Jianzishan of South China. Journal of Earth Science, 2017, 8(4): 595-613. doi: 10.1007/s12583-017-0754-4
Citation: Ruoyu Bai, Xu Dai, Haijun Song. Conodont and Ammonoid Biostratigraphies around the Permian-Triassic Boundary from the Jianzishan of South China. Journal of Earth Science, 2017, 8(4): 595-613. doi: 10.1007/s12583-017-0754-4

Conodont and Ammonoid Biostratigraphies around the Permian-Triassic Boundary from the Jianzishan of South China

doi: 10.1007/s12583-017-0754-4
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  • Corresponding author: Haijun Song, haijun.song@aliyun.com
  • Received Date: 2016-09-25
  • Accepted Date: 2017-04-17
  • Publish Date: 2017-08-01
  • Conodonts and ammonoids have played significant roles in the Permian-Triassic timescale. In order to uncover the nature of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and subsequent recovery, we studied conodont and ammonoid biostratigraphies around the Permian-Triassic boundary from Jianzishan of Hubei, South China. A total of four conodont zones and two ammonoid beds are recognized. In ascending order, the conodont zones are Late Changhsingian Clarkina changxingensis Zone, Clarkina yini Zone and Griesbachian Hindeodus parvus Zone, Hindeodus postparvus Zone; the ammonoid beds are Late Griesbachian Ophiceras beds and Early Dienerian Ussuridiscus varaha beds. At Jianzishan, Ophiceras beds are stratigraphically younger than Hindeodus parvus Zone, but it is likely to be the same level with Hindeodus postparvus Zone. The Lower Dienerian in Bed 8 in this section is characterized by ammonoid Ussuridiscus varaha beds, which is associated with many Late Griesbachian conodonts including Hindeodus postparvus, Hindeodus praeparvus, Hindeodus typicalis, Hindeodus pisai, Hindeodus latidentatus, Hindeodus parvus, Hindeodus anterodentatus and Isarcicella turgida, indicating these conodont species could pass through the Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary and occurred in the Early Dienerian oceans.
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Conodont and Ammonoid Biostratigraphies around the Permian-Triassic Boundary from the Jianzishan of South China

doi: 10.1007/s12583-017-0754-4

Abstract: Conodonts and ammonoids have played significant roles in the Permian-Triassic timescale. In order to uncover the nature of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and subsequent recovery, we studied conodont and ammonoid biostratigraphies around the Permian-Triassic boundary from Jianzishan of Hubei, South China. A total of four conodont zones and two ammonoid beds are recognized. In ascending order, the conodont zones are Late Changhsingian Clarkina changxingensis Zone, Clarkina yini Zone and Griesbachian Hindeodus parvus Zone, Hindeodus postparvus Zone; the ammonoid beds are Late Griesbachian Ophiceras beds and Early Dienerian Ussuridiscus varaha beds. At Jianzishan, Ophiceras beds are stratigraphically younger than Hindeodus parvus Zone, but it is likely to be the same level with Hindeodus postparvus Zone. The Lower Dienerian in Bed 8 in this section is characterized by ammonoid Ussuridiscus varaha beds, which is associated with many Late Griesbachian conodonts including Hindeodus postparvus, Hindeodus praeparvus, Hindeodus typicalis, Hindeodus pisai, Hindeodus latidentatus, Hindeodus parvus, Hindeodus anterodentatus and Isarcicella turgida, indicating these conodont species could pass through the Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary and occurred in the Early Dienerian oceans.

Ruoyu Bai, Xu Dai, Haijun Song. Conodont and Ammonoid Biostratigraphies around the Permian-Triassic Boundary from the Jianzishan of South China. Journal of Earth Science, 2017, 8(4): 595-613. doi: 10.1007/s12583-017-0754-4
Citation: Ruoyu Bai, Xu Dai, Haijun Song. Conodont and Ammonoid Biostratigraphies around the Permian-Triassic Boundary from the Jianzishan of South China. Journal of Earth Science, 2017, 8(4): 595-613. doi: 10.1007/s12583-017-0754-4
  • The Jianzishan (30 9′58.08ʺN, 109 0′27.5ʺE) Section is situated near Ruiping countryside of Lichuan, South China (Fig. 1). The Late Permian to the Early Triassic successions, being composed of Changxing and Daye formations, are well exposed in the Jianzishan Section. The upper Changxing Formation (Fig. 2c) consists of 6.7 m thick-bedded flinty bioclastic limestone, yielding well-diversified Permian-type biota, dominated by calcareous sponges, calcareous algae, gastropods, corals, brachiopods and foraminifers, representing a shallow-water carbonate platform facies. The lowermost part of the Daye Formation is characterized by thick-bedded microbialites (Fig. 2d), which is extensively expanded in the lowermost Triassic strata of the Yangtze carbonate platform (Yang et al., 2015, 2011; Jiang et al., 2014), yielding rare fossils, e.g., foraminifers and small gastropods. The overlying strata consist of medium-bedded limestone alternating with yellow shale (Figs. 2e, 2f, 2g), with abundant brachiopods (e.g., Lingula sp.), ammonoids as well as bivalves (e.g., Claraia sp., Pteria sp.), suggesting an outer platform facies.

    Figure 1.  (a) Schematic map showing the studying sites (modified after Feng et al., 1997 and Lehrmann et al., 1998); (b) paleogeographic map illustrating the position of South China during the end-Permian extinction (modified after Scotese, 2001). NPJB. Nanpanjiang Basin.

    Figure 2.  Outcrop photographs from the Jianzishan Section. (a) The panorama of the Jianzishan Section. (b) Permian-Triassic boundary in Jianzishan Section. (c) Bioclastic limestone in the Changxing Formation in Bed 1. (d) Microbialites in the Daye Formation in Bed 2. (e) Yellow shale in the Daye Formation in Bed 6 to Bed 7. (f) Thin to medium-bedded limestone interbedded with yellow shale in the Daye Formation in Bed 8. (g) Thin-medium bedded limestone in the Daye Formation in Bed 9 to Bed 11.

  • In this study, conodonts and ammonoids in the upper Changhsingian and Induan succession at Jianzishan have been investigated bed-by-bed. In total of 48 conodont samples (each ~2 kg) and 31 ammonoid fossils were collected from Chang-xing and Daye formations, in which 17 conodont species (1 572 specimens) and 5 ammonoid species (31 specimens) were identified (Plates 14).

    Figure Plate 1.  SEM photographs of the key conodont elements from Jianzishan. 1–2. Hindeodus anterodentatus (Dai and Zhang, 1989); 1. JZS-11+0.4, lateral view; 2. JZS-6+1.2, lateral view. 3–4, 8. Hindeodus latidentatus (Kozur, Mostler and Rahimi-Yazd, 1975); 3. JZS-1-D+2.0, lateral view; 4. JZS-1-D+1.5, lateral view; 8. JZS-4+0.1, lateral view. 5, 9. Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova, 1976); 5. JZS-2+1.2, lateral view; 9. JZS-6+1.2, lateral view. 6. Hindeodus eurypyge (Nicoll et al., 2002); JZS-2+0.5, lateral view. 7. Hindeodus cf. typicalis; JZS-2+0.5, lateral view. 10. Hindeodus pisai (Perri and Farabegoli, 2003); JZS-1-C+0.8, lateral view. 11. Hindeodus postparvus (Kozur, 1989); JZS-6+1.9, lateral view. 12, 16–17. Hindeodus praeparvus (Kozur, 1996); 12. JZS-6+1.2, lateral view; 16–17. JZS-2+0.5, lateral and upper view. 13–15. Hindeodus typicalis (Sweet, 1970); 13. JZS-1-D+1.5, lateral view; 14. JZS-1-D+0.5, lateral view; 15. JZS-1-C+0.8, lateral view. 18. Isarcicella turgida (Kozur, Mostler and Rahimi-Yazd, 1975); JZS-6+1.2, lateral and upper view.

    Figure Plate 2.  SEM photographs of the key conodont elements from Jianzishan. 1–3. Clarkina yini (Mei et al., 1998); 1. JZS-1-D+1.0, upper view; 2. JZS-1-D+1.0, upper view; 3. JZS-1-D+2.0, latteral and upper view. 4–5. Clarkina changxingensis (Wang and Wang, 1981); 4. JZS-1-D+1.0, latteral and upper view; 5. JZS-1-A+0.5, upper view. 6–8. Clarkina carinata (Clark, 1959); JZS-8+1.3, upper view. 9–13. Clarkina deflecta (Wang and Wang, 1981); 9. JZS-1-A+2.0, upper view; 10. JZS-1-D+0.5, upper view; 11. JZS-1-D+2.0, upper view; 12. JZS-1-B+0.5, upper view; 13. JZS-1-A+0.5, upper view.

    Figure Plate 3.  SEM photographs of the key conodont elements from Jianzishan. 1, 4. Clarkina changxingensis (Wang and Wang, 1981); 1. JZS-1-B+0.5, latteral and upper view; 4. JZS-1-D+1.0, latteral and upper view. 2–3. Clarkina planata (Clark, 1959); 2. JZS-8+1.3, latteral and upper view; 3. JZS-13+0.75, latteral and upper view. 5. Clarkina cf. tulongensis; JZS-13+0.75, latteral and upper view.

    Figure Plate 4.  Photographs of the ammonoid elements from Jianzishan. 1. Ophiceras sp. indet.; JZS-6+1.4. 2. Vishnuites pralambha (Diener, 1897); JZS-8+1.05. 3. Jieshaniceras guizhouensis (Zakharov and Mu in Mu et al., 2007); JZS-8+0.65. 4. Ussuridiscus varaha (Diener, 1895); JZS-8+0.85. 5. Hubeitoceras yanjiaensis (Xu, 1988); JZS-8+0.45.

    Both limestones and shales were collected to extract conodonts. Shale samples were processed using redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide with sodium dithionite until all samples were broken apart. Carbonate samples were dissolved in 10% acetic acid after coarsely crushing into ~2 cm3 size fragments. After filtered through 20-mesh and 160-mesh sieves, the residues were separated in 2.78–2.80 g/mL heavy liquid. Conodonts were selected carefully under a stereomicroscope from those sieved insoluble residues and well preserved conodonts were picked out to photograph by a scanning electronic microscope (Quanta200, SU8010) at the State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology in China University of Geosciences (CUG), Wuhan.

    Ammonoid samples were collected by mechanically decomposing decimeter-sized blocks from respective beds. Mechanical techniques, including pneumatic air scribe and electrical scribe, were later performed in the laboratory to work out morphologic details facilitating species-level identification. Specimens were photographed by Canon 70D camera with a micro lens EF 100 mm f/2.8.

  • Abundant ammonoid fossils were collected from Lower Daye Formation at Jianzishan including 6 species, i.e., Ophiceras sp. indet., Ussuridiscus varaha, Jieshaniceras guizhouensis, Vishnuites pralambha, Hubeitoceras yanjiaensis and Koninckites sp. indet.. Two ammonoid beds were recognized, including one Griebachian bed Ophiceras beds and one Dienerian bed Ussuridiscus varaha beds (Fig. 3).

    Figure 3.  Conodonts and ammonoids distribution across the Permian-Triassic transition at Jianzishan Section. H.-Hindeodus, C.-Clarkina, I.-Isarcicella, U.-Ussuridiscus, C.Z.-conodont zone, A.B.-ammonoid beds.

  • This zone is characterized by the occurrence of Ophiceras sp. indet., which is seriously squashed and represent a Late Griesbachian age in Tibet, Canada, Spiti, Chaohu and Meishan (Figs. 4, 5).

    Figure 4.  Comparison of the Induan conodont zones and ammonoid beds between Jianzishan Section and other areas in South China. H.-Hindeodus, C.-Clarkina, I.-Isarcicella, Ns.-Neospathodus, Sw.-Sweetospathodus, C.Z.-conodont zone, A.B.-ammonoid beds.

    Figure 5.  Correlation of the Induan conodont zones and ammonoid beds of Jianzishan Section with other regions in the world. H.-Hindeodus, C.-Clarkina, I.-Isarcicella, Ns.-Neospathodus, Sw.-Sweetospathodus, A.F.-Ambitoides fuliginatus, C.Z.-conodont zone, A.B.-ammonoid beds.

    Ophiceras has been reported widely in South China. Tien (1933) reported Ophiceras beds from the lower part of Daye Formation near Guiyang, which is characterized by Ophiceras sinesis, Ophiceras tingi and Ophiceras cf. demissum. The Ophiceras beds found in Jianzishan correlates with the Tien's Ophiceras beds. The Ophiceras Zone at Meishan Section of Zhejiang (Yin et al., 2001; Wang, 1984) and Qinglongshan Section of Jiangsu (Wang, 1984) are defined by the occurrence of Ophiceras, which also correspond to Ophiceras beds of Jianzishan Section. The Ophiceras-Lytophiceras Zone from Chaohu characterized by the occurrences of Ophiceras sp., Lytophiceras sp., Ophiceras demissum, Kymatites? sp. and Lytophiceras? sp. (Tong et al., 2004), also correlates to Ophiceras beds in Jianzishan. Ophiceras beds from Laren and Shanggan (Guangxi), defined by the occurrence of Ophiceras sp. indet., which might be juvenile individuals of Ophiceras sinesis indicates a Late Griesbachian age (Brühwiler et al., 2008).

  • Ussuridiscus varaha beds is characterized by the occurrences of Ussuridiscus varaha, Jieshaniceras guizhouensis, Vishnuites pralambha, Hubeitoceras yanjiaensis and Koninckites sp. indet., which can correspond to the Proptychites candidus beds (Brühwiler et al., 2008; Tozer, 1994), and accordingly indicates an Early Dienerian age.

    Ussuridiscus varaha has been found in South China (Brühwiler et al., 2008; Xu, 1988), South Primorye (Shigeta et al., 2009), Salt Range (Ware et al., 2015) and Spiti (Ware et al., 2015). Only in South Primorye (Shigeta et al., 2009), few specimens occurred in Late Griesbachian while most of them occurred in Early Dienerian. Ussuridiscus varaha has a wide extent in the Early Dienerian strata of South China, e.g., Xiaohe Section of Hubei (being assigned as 'Koninckites' (Xu, 1988)), Jieshan Section of Guizhou, Jinya, Waili, Shanggan, and Yu-ping sections of Guangxi (Brühwiler et al., 2008). Although Proptychites candidus has not been found at Jianzishan, we found Jieshaniceras guizhouensis, Vishnuites pralambha and Hubeitoceras yanjiaensis, which are typical forms in Proptychites candidus beds (see Brühwiler et al., 2008). In summary, Ussuridiscus varaha beds indicates an Early Dienerian age.

  • At Jianzishan, Ophiceras sp. indet. occurs in the upper part of Bed 6 and lower part of Bed 7 whereas Hindeodus parvus Zone occupies mainly microbialites part from Bed 2 to Bed 4. Hindeodus postparvus first occurs in the 1.4 m above the base of Bed 6 at Jianzishan, which is only 0.5 m above the base of Ophiceras beds (Fig. 3). Stratigraphically, Ophiceras beds is above Hindeodus parvus Zone. Although the upper limit of Hindeodus parvus Zone can not be recognized definitely at Jianzishan for the absence of Isarcicella isarcica and Isarcicella staeschei, it is clear that Ophiceras beds are younger than Hindeodus parvus Zone at Jianzishan but are comparable to Hindeodus postparvus Zone.

    As we have discussed above, Ussuridiscus varaha beds indicate Early Dienerian in age. At Jianzishan, Ussuridiscus varaha beds co-occurs with conodonts Clarkina carinata, Clarkina planata, Hindeodus postparvus, Hindeodus praeparvus, Hindeodus typicalis, Hindeodus pisai, Hindeodus latidentatus, Hindeodus parvus, Hindeodus anterodentatus and Isarcicella turgida (Fig. 3), suggesting these conodont species could pass through the Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary and appeared in Early Dienerian strata. In fact, co-occurrence of Clarkina carinata and Clarkina planata and some Dienerian conodont species, e.g., Neospathodus kummeli and Neospathodus dieneri has been reported in many areas, such as Meishan (Zhang et al., 2007), Sichuan Basin (Jiang et al., 2000) and Nantuowan (Zhao et al., 2005b) of South China, Selong of Tibet (Wang and Wang, 1995), Guling of Spiti (Krystyn et al., 2004), and Wapiti Lake, Yukon Territories and Canadian Arctic of Canada (Orchard and Zonneveld, 2009; Orchard, 2007). Accordingly, the viewpoint that all hindeodid conodonts disappeared at the top of the Griesbachian stage (Kozur, 1998) is likely to reflect a local phenomenon.

  • A systematic study of conodont and ammonoid sequences at Jianzishan provides new information for the timescale from Late Changhsingian to Early Dienerian of Upper Yangtze Platform. Four conodont zones are identified from Late Changhsingian to Griesbachian, in ascending order, they are Clarkina changxingensis Zone, Clarkina yini Zone, Hindeodus parvus Zone and Hindeodus postparvus Zone. Two ammonoid beds are recognized including Late Griesbachian Ophiceras beds and Early Dienerian Ussuridiscus varaha beds. Stratigraphically, Ophiceras beds are younger than Hindeodus parvus Zone, but are likely to be the same level with Hindeodus postparvus Zone, suggesting a Late Griesbachian age. At Jianzishan, Lower Dienerian is characterized by ammonoid Ussuridiscus varaha beds, which is associated with Hindeodus postparvus, Hindeodus praeparvus, Hindeodus typicalis, Hindeodus pisai, Hindeodus latidentatus, Hindeodus parvus, Hindeodus anterodentatus, Isarcicella turgida, Clarkina carinata and Clarkina planata, indicating that these conodont species could pass through the Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary and occurred in younger strata. Both conodont zones and ammonoid beds are correlated very well with other sections in South China and other regions around the world.

  • A total of 17 species in 2 conodont genera are identified in the Permian-Triassic interval of Jianzishan Section in this study and here we illustrate some key conodont specimens.

    Genus Clarkina Kozur, 1989

    Type species: Gondolella leveni Kozur, Mostler and Pjatakova, 1975.

    Clarkina changxingensis(Wang and Wang), 1981

    Pl. 2, Figs. 4–5; Pl. 3, Figs. 1, 4

    1981 Neogondolella subcarinata changxingensis Wang and Wang, Pl. 1, Figs. 13–16.

    1995 Clarkina changxingensis (Wang and Wang); Wang, Pl. 1, Fig. 1.

    1998 Clarkina changxingensis changxingensis (Wang and Wang); Mei et al., Pl. 1, Figs. B–D, F–H, K; Pl. 2, Fig. G.

    2002 Clarkina changxingensis changxingensis (Wang and Wang); Wu et al., Pl. 1, Fig. 9.

    2007 Clarkina changxingensis (Wang and Wang); Ji et al., Pl. Ⅳ, Fig. 8.

    2007 Neogondolella changxingensis Wang and Wang; Jiang et al., Pl. 1, Figs. 11–18.

    2007 Neogondolella changxingensis changxingensis Wang and Wang; Zhang et al., Fig. 4, Fig. 1.

    2008 Clarkina changxingensis changxingensis (Wang and Wang); Chen et al., Pl. 1, Figs. 4a–5b.

    2010 Clarkina changxingensis (Wang and Wang); Shen and Mei, Figs. 8.1a–8.15b.

    2014 Clarkina changxingensis (Wang and Wang); Yuan et al., Pl. 4, Figs. 1–20, 22–24; Pl. 5, Figs. 1–12.

    2014 Clarkina changxingensis (Wang and Wang); Jiang et al., Pl. 6, Fig. 4.

    Description: The P1 element is characterized by an elongate platform of the drop-shaped morphotype whose widest point is in the middle or posterior portion. Denticles decreasing distinctly in size and height toward the posterior. Cusp is erect to reclined, as high as or slightly higher and larger than the posterior denticles and sometimes fused with the posteriormost denticles. Lower part of the carina is fused and the platform margin is upturned.

    Remark: Clarkina taylorae is differentiated from Clarkina changxingensis by a posterior brim, largely discrete denticles and prominent cusp on the posterior end of the platform. Comparing with Clarkina zhangi, Clarkina changxingensis has a broader platform and smaller cusp.

    Occurrence: 46 specimen from JZS-1-A+0.5 to JZS-1-E+1.2 in Jianzishan Section. From Clarkina changxingensis Zone to Clarkina yini Zone.

    Clarkina yiniMei, 1998

    Pl. 2, Figs. 1–3

    1998 Clarkina yini Mei et al., Pl. 4, Figs. L–N.

    2000 Clarkina changxingensis yini Mei et al.; Wang and Zhu, Pl. 1, Figs. 5, 10.

    2004 Clarkina changxingensis yini Mei et al.; Wang and Xia, Figs. 2, 4.

    2006 Clarkina changxingensis yini Mei et al.; Nafi et al., Figs. 5.9–5.13.

    2006 Neogondolella yini (Mei et al.); Luo et al., Pl. 1, Fig. 25.

    2007 Neogondolella yini (Mei et al.), Jiang et al., Pl. 1, Figs. 19–20, 22–23.

    2007 Clarkina yini Mei et al.; Ji et al., Figs. 4, 10.

    2007 Neogondolella yini (Mei et al.); Zhang et al., Figs. 4, 5.

    2010 Clarkina yini Mei et al.; Shen and Mei, Figs. 11.1a–11.10b.

    2011 Neogondolella yini (Mei et al.); Jiang et al., Pl. 5, Fig. 10.

    2014 Clarkina yini Mei et al.; Yuan et al., Pl. 6, Figs. 1–20.

    2015 Clarkina yini Mei, Wardlaw et al., Pl. 1, Figs. 12–13.

    Description: The P1 element is characterized by a relatively arched platform of the drop-shaped morphotype whose widest point is in the middle or posterior 1/3 portion. Platform narrows gradually anterior portion, posterior platform is much flattened and rounded. Denticles decreasing gradually in size and height toward the posterior until the cusp, which is erect to slightly reclined and terminally located.

    Remark: Clarkina yini is distinguishable from Clarkina changxingensis mainly by the slightly larger cusp and the much flattened posterior platform.

    Occurrence: 1 specimen from JZS-1-D+1.0 in Jianzishan Section. Clarkina yini Zone.

    Clarkina cf.tulongensis

    Pl. 3, Figs. 5

    Description: The P1 element is characterized by an arched platform of the wedge-shaped morphotype whose widest point is in posterior portion. Platform narrows gradually anterior portion and posterior platform is approximate square. Carina is composed of discrete denticles. Posterior part of carinata is divaricate and on either side of posterior part of the carina develops a denticle.

    Remark: Carina is divaricate in the posterior which is similar to Clarkina tulongensis while the either side of posterior part of the carina develops a denticle instead of a fused carina is quite different led to the definition of Clarkina cf. tulongensis.

    Occurrence: 1 specimen from JZS-13+0.75 in Jianzishan Section.

    Genus HindeodusRexroad and Furnish, 1964

    Type species: Spathognathodus cristulus (Youngquist and Miller, 1949)

    Hindeodus parvus(Kozur and Pjatakova), 1976

    Pl. 1, Figs. 5, 9

    1976 Anchignathodus parvus Kozur and Pjatakova, Figs. 1a, 1b, 1e, 1h.

    1981 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Matsuda, Pl. 5, Figs. 2–3.

    1995 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Kozur, Pl. 3, Figs. 1–4.

    1995 Isarcicella parva (Kozur and Pjatakova); Zhang et al., Pl. 2, Fig. 14.

    1996 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Kozur, Pl. Ⅲ, Figs. 1, 3.

    1998 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Orchard and Krystyn, Pl. 6, Figs. 9, 16, 17, 20.

    2002 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Nicoll et al., Figs. 15, 16.

    2002 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Wu et al., Pl. 1, Figs. 6–7.

    2003 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Lehrmann et al., Fig. 7B.

    2004 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Kozur, Pl. 1, Figs. 3, 6–9.

    2007 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Jiang et al., Pl. 5, Figs. 1–7.

    2008 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Chen et al., Fig. 10: 1–13.

    2013 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Yan et al., Fig. 5: G–L, P, S, U.

    2014 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Jiang et al., Pl. 1: 4–5, Pl. 2: 3–18; Pl. 4: 6.

    2015 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Brosse et al., Fig. 4.

    2015 Hindeodus parvus (Kozur and Pjatakova); Yuan et al., Pl. 5, Figs. 25–30, Pl. 6, Figs. 1–10.

    Description: It is characterized by an asymmetrical large basal cavity. The cusp is at least twice as high as the denticles. Blade often bears 4–8 denticles and denticle tips in profile are pointed and rounded, with small triangular space between sthem. Posterior part of carina abruptly diminished and steeply inclined.

    Remark: Hindeodus eurypyge is differentiated from Hindeodus parvus by thickened blade, chisel-like denticle tips and a rounded posterior margin.

    Occurrence: 66 specimens from JZS-2+0.5 to JZS-11+0.4 in Jianzishan Section. From Hindeodus parvus Zone to Hindeodus postparvus Zone.

    Hindeodus postparvus Kozur, 1989

    Pl. 1, Fig. 11

    1989 Hindeodus postparvus Kozur, p. 400.

    1996 Hindeodus postparvus Kozur; Kozur, Pl. 2, Figs. 9–10.

    1998 Hindeodus postparvus Kozur; Orchard and Krystyn, Pl. 6, Fig. 1.

    2008 Hindeodus postparvus Kozur; Chen et al., Fig. 11: 6–12.

    2015 Hin deodus postparvus Kozur; Brosse et al., Figs. 3H–3N.

    Description: P1 element of Hindeodus postparvus is characterized by a wide cusp which is only slightly higher than the following denticles. Blade composes of 5–7 denticles. Denticles are strongly divergent in the posterior giving an arcuate to sloped profile.

    Remark: Hindeodus postparvus can be distinguish from Hindeodus parvus by relatively low but broad cusp and strongly divergent posterior denticles.

    Occurrence: 38 specimens from JZS-6+1.9 to JZS-11+0.4 in Jianzishan Section. 1 specimen from JZS-8+0.5 and 1 specimen from JZS-8+1.3 in JZS Section. From Hindeodus postparvus Zone to Early Dienerian.

  • Order Ceratitida Hyatt, 1884

    Family O phiceratidae Arthaber, 1911

    Genus O phiceras Griesbach, 1880

    Type species: Ophiceras tibeticum Griesbach, 1880.

    Ophiceras sp. indet.

    Pl. 4, Fig. 1

    Description: Very badly preserved, all the specimens are squashed. Moderately evolute shell, with an invisible venter, because of strong flaser. Without any trace of ornamentation. Suture line is not preserved.

    Remark: Most of the specimens assigned to Ophiceras that were described from South China were badly preserved, for example, Meishan (Wang, 1984) and Chaohu (Tong et al., 2004). The common features, evolute conch and without any ornamentation, demonstrate these specimens belong to Ophiceras, but this assignment without any degree of confidence.

    Occurrence: 9 specimens from sample JZS-6+1.4; 3 specimens from sample JZS-6+1.5; 1 specimen from sample JZS-6+1.9 and 1 specimen from sample JZS-7+0.75. All the specimens occur in Ophiceras beds.

    Genus Vishnuites Diener, 1897

    Type species: Vishnuites pralambha Diener, 1897

    Vishnuites pralambha Diener, 1897

    Pl. 4, Figs. 2a–2b

    1897 Xenaspis(Vishnuites) pralambha Diener, Pl. 7, Figs. 4–5.

    1913 Vishnuites pralambha Diener; Diener, Pl. 3, Figs. 4a, 4b.

    ? 1959 Vishnuites marginalis Chao, Pl. 11. Figs. 17–18.

    ? 1988 Vishnuites huazhongensis Xu, Pl. 1, Fig. 8, text-Fig. 6.

    ? 1988 Vishnuites lichuanensis Xu, Pl. 1, Fig. 3, Pl. 2, Fig. 10, text-Fig. 7.

    ? 1988 Vishnuites marginalis Xu, Pl. 2, Fig. 1, text-Fig. 8.

    ? 1988 Vishnuites orientalis Xu, Pl. 2, Fig. 6, text-Fig. 9.

    1988 Vishnuites yangziensis Xu, Pl. 1, Fig. 9, Pl. 2, Fig. 3, text-Fig. 10.

    2007 Vishnuites wenjiangsiensis Zakharov and Mu in Mu et al., Figs. 3.12-17, 5.1.

    2007 Vishnuites cf. yangziensis Zakharov and Mu in Mu et al., Figs. 5.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.6, 6.8, 6.10, 6.12.

    2008 Vishnuites pralambha Diener; Brühwiler et al., Pl. 1, Figs. 18–21.

    Description: Moderately evolute compressed conch, with an acute venter. Convex flanks with the maximum whorl width near the middle flanks. Umbilicus broad and shallow, with a low wall, rounded umbilicus margin. Ornamentation consists fine growth lines. Suture line invisible.

    Remark: Vishnuites is characterized by a strongly acute venter in Ophiceratidae, while other genera share a rounded (Such as Ophiceras, Lytophiceras) or narrow rounded but never acute venter (Wordioceras, Shangganites). Numerous species of Vishnuites erected by Chao (1959), Xu (1988) and Mu et al. (2007) based on poorly preserved specimens from South China are considered to be synonyms of V. Pralambha (Brühwiler et al., 2008).

    Occurrence: 1 specimen from sample JZS-8+0.45; 2 specimens from JZS-8+0.65; 2 specimens from JZS-8+1.05 and possibly in sample JZS-8+0.85. Ussuridiscus varaha beds.

    Family Mullericeratidae Ware, Jenks, Hautmann & Bucher, 2011

    Genus UssuridiscusShigeta et al., 2009

    Type species: Meekoceras (Kingites) varaha. Diener, 1895

    Ussuridiscus varaha (Diener), 1895

    Pl. 4, Figs. 4a–4c

    1895 Meekoceras(Kingites) varaha Diener, Pl. 1, Fig. 2.

    1988 Koninckites hubeiensis Xu, Pl. 3, Figs. 8, 15; 451, text-Fig. 22.

    1988 Koninckites lingyunensis Chao; Xu, Pl. 3, Fig. 5; Pl. 4, Fig. 1; 452, text-Fig. 24.

    1988 Koninckites xiaohensis Xu, Pl. 1, Fig. 4; Pl. 2, Figs. 11, 13; text-Fig. 25.

    ? 2007 Hubeitoceras (?) wangi Zakharov and Mu in Mu et al., Figs. 13.17–13.19, 15.2–15.5.

    2008 "Koninckites" cf. timorense Brühwiler et al., Pl. 3, Figs. 1–4; Pl. 4, Fig. 1.

    2009 Ussuridiscus varaha Shigeta et al., Figs. 50.5, 50.6, 55–57.

    Description: Involute extremely discoidal shell with a strongly compressed whorl section. Tabulate venter with a rounded ventral-lateral shoulder. Flanks is flat from the umbilical shoulder to approximately middle, while slightly converges from the middle to the ventral-lateral shoulder. Umbilicus very small. Surface is ornamented with fine density growth line, sometimes become low fold on the outer flanks, especially on the outer whorls of maturity specimens. Suture line is badly preserved, without any possibility to describe.

    Remark: Our specimens display the same shell characters as the specimens from South Primorye (Shigeta et al., 2009). Xu (1988) reported an Early Triassic ammonoid fauna from Xiaohe Section, located in Lichuan. The species, identified as Koninckites, share no much difference. According to the definition of Ussuridiscus, proposed by Shigeta, Xu's Koninckites species should put into this genus.

    Occurrence: 2 specimens from sample JZS-8+0.45 and possibly in sample JZS-8+0.85. Ussuridiscus varaha beds.

    Family Proptychitidae Waagen, 1895

    Genus Hubeitoceras Waterhouse, 1994

    Type species: Koninckites yanjiaensis Xu, 1988

    Hubeitoceras yanjiaensis (Xu), 1988

    Pl. 4, Figs. 5a–5c

    1988 Koninckites yanjiaensis Xu, Pl. 3, Figs. 12–13.

    2008 Hubeitoceras yanjiaensis (Xu); Brühwiler et al., Pl. 4, Figs. 3–6.

    Description: Involute extremely discoidal shell with a strongly compressed whorl section. Rounded venter without ventrolateral shoulders. Convex flanks with the maximum whorl width near the inner third of flanks. Small umbilicus with rounded shoulders. Ornamentation consists slight trace of small folds. Sub-triangular first and second lateral saddles, the third lateral saddle very broad with a sub-tabulate top. The bottom of lobes not clear.

    Remark: Our specimen share no difference from the juvenile specimens described by Brühwiler et al. (2008), which display a flanks slightly converging towards venter, while maturity specimens share a more flatten flanks.

    Occurrence: 1 specimen from JZS-8+0.45. Ussuridiscus varaha beds.

    Family Flemingitidae Hyatt, 1900

    Genus JieshanicerasBrühwiler et al., 2008

    Type species: Jieshaniceras guizhouensis Brühwiler et al., 2008

    Jieshaniceras guizhouensis(Brühwiler et al.), 2008

    Pl. 4, Fig. 3.

    2007 Wordioceras aff. Wordiei Spath, Zakharov and Mu in Mu et al., Figs. 6.7, 6.9, 6.11, 7.1, 7.2, 8.

    2007 Wordieoceras guizhouensis Zakharov and Mu in Mu et al., Figs. 7.3, 9.1, 9.2.

    2008 Jieshaniceras guizhouensis (Zakharov and Mu); Brühwiler et al., Pl. 6, Figs. 1–4.

    Description: Moderately evolute extremely discoidal shell with a strongly compressed whorl section. Rounded venter with inconspicuous ventrolateral shoulders. Convex flanks with the maximum whorl width near the mid-flanks. Shallow umbilicus with rounded shoulders. Ornamentation consists fine and curving growth lines and small folds, which is pronounced near the middle flanks and disappeared toward umbilicus and venter. Suture line not clear.

    Remark: Our specimens completely fit with the description of Brühwiler et al. (2008). But without suture line, this assignment is not very confident.

    Occurrence: 1 specimen from JZS-8+0.45 and 2 specimens from JZS-8+0.65. Ussuridiscus varaha beds.

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