As world energy consumption is projected to increase from 549 quadrillion Btu in 2012 to 627 quadrillion Btu in 2020 (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016), most developed countries are striving towards diversifying their energy production during a downturn economy and avoid unfavorable consequences. Consequently, reducing major risk by investing in multiple energy resources and thus maximizing energy profits in different areas that would each respond differently to the same economic incident.
The most recent oil & gas fallout experienced in 2015, globally affected the whole energy sector. Consequently, the energy focus has focused on new ways to alleviate the burden of volatility of fossil fuels. Figure 1 shows projection of energy consumption worldwide with renewable energy gains the most focus (with a growth of 5% increase), and the consumption of coal is essentially plateauing. Large emphasis and support has been placed in production and development of natural gas (which should surpass coal by year 2030), and petroleum slightly decreased by 3%, maintains a general relative range. The major consensus agrees on the continual forthcoming necessity for petroleum with current world reserves are bountiful and surpass any previously forecasted projections. It is important to note that, historically, energy forecasts have proven to be vague, defective, and sometimes imprecise. Nevertheless, this does not impede motivation in energy diversification, considering the energy sector needs to adapt to overcome economic challenges influenced by geo- political and socio-economic factors. For this sole reason, many countries are developing self-sustaining energy programs that are prevalent in all types of circumstances.
Figure 1. Projection of energy consumption, worldwide (after U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016).
As human civilization inevitably multiplies, it will also surely be forced to modernize and develop. So, two things will waste generation and need for waste management. Accordingly, the need for energy will also increase, and intuitively, will focus on renewable energy, as our natural resources will begin to diminish. Most people consider wind, solar, aero-thermal, geothermal, hydrothermal, ocean energy, and hydropower to be renewable energy. However, very few are familiar with waste material as a renewable energy (as it will continually replenish)- biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas, biogases, thermoplastics, rubber, and paper can all be considered "waste- to-fuel" technology that can use organic and inorganic waste. Both recycled and reused/salvaged materials can be considered sustainable as they can reflect resource efficiency that can use all products to their full potential. They can decrease landfill waste, reduce air and water pollution, reduce the need for raw materials, and lower environmental impact. For example, when a recycled material is used instead of a new raw material, natural resources and energy can be conserved. This is due to recycled materials having been initially refined and processed, thus manufacturing it once again is much cleaner and less energy-intensive than the first time. Table 1 depicts typical recycling data for preventing waste. The utilization of waste to fuel technology depends on the collection of recyclable materials and relies on a steady flow of consistent supply generated from recycling programs. Thus, government support and public-private investment into the recycling activity structure (such as door-to-door segregation, collection points, distribution points) is critical in creating a self-sustaining "circular economy". The European Commission describes circular economy as making use of resources to the maximum extent; extracting the maximum value whilst recovering and regenerating value through the resource life cycle (see Fig. 2). This cycle is an alternative to linear economy that focuses on manufacturing material, consumption, and disposing of material. The ideology focuses on exploiting the synergies of the resource life cycle to overcome barriers and add the highest amount of value to the circular "chain" of "waste-to-resource" that the hierarchy method focuses on.
Energy (kWh) Oil (bbls) BTU (million) Landfill (yd3) Air pollution (lbs) Water (gallons) Aluminum 14 000 40 238 10 - - Paper 4 100 9.0 54 3.3 60 7 000 Plastic 5 774 16.3 98 30 - - Steel 642 1.8 10.9 4 - - Glass 42 0.12 0.714 2 7.5 -
Table 1. Recycling statistics for prevention of municipal waste. A ton of recycled product material can prevent the following listed items (Stanford Recycling Research Institute, 2016)
In this paper, a review of the most recent oil & gas crisis is examined to determine the impact on the fuel sector in Albania. Material is examined to determine a feasibility study to show one of Europe's most prominent onshore oilfields need to diversify its fuel production in order to become a regional energy powerhouse and become an example for its neighboring countries in the western Balkans.
As the rate of population growth increases exponentially worldwide (doubled in the past 50 years), so does the need for manufactured goods. Specifically, the manufacturing of thermoplastics that are in use in our everyday lives have significantly increased in parallel to population increase, and with this increase so has its disposal as waste (see Fig. 4a). Recent advances in chemical engineering technology have focused on turning this unfavorable and detrimental environmental hazard into an economical benefit. In fact, the ideology has drawn major interests from reputable agencies such as the American Chemical Society & American Chemistry Council. Important milestones have been reached when pertaining the advancements in the technology, especially in the topic of pyrolysis processing that focuses on using cheap, inorganic material such as plastic and rubber waste that are robust and non-degradable. Pyrolysis is a specialized classification of WTF technology that is based on thermal degradation (or thermal chemical processing) of the raw material (recyclable material) by introducing heat at extreme temperatures in the absence of oxygen. Due to lack of oxygen during the procedure, the material itself does not combust but the chemical compounds that make up the material would thermally decompose into combustible gases and vapors. The combustible gases can then be cooled and condensed into a combustible liquids by-product called pyrolysis oil. Pyrolysis can be performed on biomass (organic material) or on inorganic waste (plastic, rubber etc.) as previously mentioned. The process decomposes the material into three fractions: one liquid (pyrolysis oil), one solid (char) and one gaseous (syngas). It is important to declare that not all pyrolysis oils (fuel oils) are created equally. Those derived from biomass are less useful than those derived from plastics and rubber (see Tables 2, 3, 4, S1, and S2) in comparison with the standard specs for pyrolysis oil and various other fuel oils (see reference ASTM D7544-12, 2017).
Figure 4. (a) Global plastic processing in 2013. Estimates of plastic global production has significantly increased in 2015 being over 300 million tons of thermoplastic production with only 10% to 15% being recycled, 60 million tons being produced in Europe and 45% being produced in Asia—135 million tons/year (OECD, 2016). (b) Diagram of PTF technology flow.
Parameter Gasoline Diesel Kerosene (K1) Density (g/mL) 0.71–0.74 0.83 0.78–0.81 Specific gravity 0.70 0.85 0.78 API gravity 65 23–30 39–42 Viscosity (cP) 0.77–0.84 2.0–4.5 0.9–1.5 Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) 5.0 3.7–5.0 2.2 Aniline point (℃) 101 107 98 Flash point (℃) 73–74 54–60 50–54 Freezing point (℃) -58 -54 -40 Diesel index 83 54 60 Gross calorific (MJ/kg) 47–56 43–56 43–46 Sulfur (wt.%) 0.05–0.15 0.7 0.04 The typical preferred proprieties of pyrolysis oil are octane index, density, flash point, sulfur content, and kinematic viscosity. Detailed, scientific explanation in regard to pyrolysis has been well accounted by Kunwar et al. (2015), and Wongkhorsub (2015).
Table 2. Typical properties of various fuel oils
Properties Light (~ASTM #2) Light–Med. (~ASTM #4) Medium (~PORL 100) Heavy (~CAN #6) Density (g/mL) See ASTM See ASTM See ASTM See ASTM Kinematic viscosity (cSt) 1.9–3.4 (FO) 5.5–24 @ 40 ℃ 17–100@ 50 ℃ 100–638 @ 50 ℃ 1.9–4.1 (D, GT) @ 40 ℃ Ash content (wt.%) 0.05 (FO) 0.05 (FO) 0.10 (FO) 0.10 (FO) 0.01 (GT) 0.01 (D) Water cont. (wt.%), max 32 32 32 32 LHV (MJ/L min), wet oil 18 18 18 - Phase stability @ 20 ℃ after 8 hr @ 90 ℃ Single Single Single Single Flash point (℃) 52 55 60 60 C (wt.%) - - - - H (wt.%) - - - - O (wt.%) - - - - S (wt.%) Max Max 0.2 max 0.4 max N (wt.%) Max Max 0.3 max 0.4 max K+Na (ppm) 0.5 (GT) - - - Phase separation occurs when water content is higher than 30%–45%, which is higher with pyrolysis oil being derived from biomass in comparison to oil derived from plastics and rubber (referenced ASTM D7544-12, 2017).
Table 3. Standards and specifications for various grades of bio-oils (biomass)
Polyethylene (PE) 95% Rubber cable 35% Polystyrene (PS) 90% Small tires 35%–40% ABS resin 40% Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Not suitable Leftover paper Wet 15%–20%, dry 60% PET Not suitable Plastic 75%–80% Polyurethane (PUR) Not suitable Sole 30% Fiber rnfd. plastics (FRP) ~50% Plastic bag 50% Organic/biodegradable 35%–50%
Table 4. Approximate oil yield from raw materials (Pyrocrat, 2016)
The yield of the oil (pyrolysis oil & industrial diesel oil) is highly dependent on the conversion parameters such as the quality of the material, purity, methods (catalyst or non- catalyst), and process undertaken to condense/distill/refine the products. After pyrolysis oil is obtained, it can be further refined to produce different types of diesels or can be blended.
The history of oil in Albania can be dated back to 2 000 years ago as several Roman writers account Illyrian tribes exploiting bitumen as a warfare tool during the Roman-Illyrian wars. In modern times, one of the first wells was drilled by Italian geologist Leo Madalena near Drashovice (Vlorë) in 1918. Since then, Albania currently has 19 known oil fields and 5–6 natural gas deposits with the deepest drilled well to date, the "Ardenica 18" at 6 700 m (22 000 ft).
The geo-tectonic map (see Figs. 5 and S1) and the geological structure of Albania depicting the external Albanides, include the fractured Ionian carbonates and the Miocene sandstones. Most geologists agree that there are currently two petroleum systems with 3 types of plays in Albania (Barbullushi, 2013; Bega, 2013a, 2010; Graham Wall et al., 2006; Ballauri et al., 2002; Meço et al., 2000; Marko and Moci, 1995; Sejdini et al., 1994; Curi, 1993; Shehu and Johnston, 1991). The most famous and most developed of the Albanian oilfields is the Patos-Marinza, projected to be the largest oilfield in continental Europe. It is comprised of three oil-bearing sandstones, Driza, Marinza, Gorani (see Fig. 6). Additionally, Patos-Marinza has mainly shallow sands with heavy oil approaching tar and bitumen (Hallman, 2015; Kotenev, 2014; Weatherill et al., 2005; Bennion et al., 2003).
Figure 5. Geo-tectonic map of external Albanides (Bega, 2013a).
Figure 6. (a) Primary oil blocks in Albania; (b) depiction of oil-sands layers in Patos-Marinza (Source—Bankers Report, 2015).
It is estimated to have roughly 2 billion barrels of crude oil OOIP, the country total is estimated (according to AKBN, Dervishi, 2016) roughly 3.2 billion barrels, and total natural gas reserves at approximately 4–5 billion Nm3 gas (see Table 6). Medium to heavy oil accounts for more than half of the oil production in Albania and most of the production comes from the Patos-Marinza Oilfield. In contrast, the Shipragu, Mollaj (see Table 5) oil is predominantly light oil.
Field Discovery API gravity Sulphur (%) EOIP (mill. bbls) EGIP (109 cu ft) Production (bbl/day) Type Drashovice 1918 < 10 < 5.0 Oil Patos-Marinza 1927 12–25 2.5–6.0 2 000 - 12 000 Oil Kucove 1928 13–16 4.0 532 - 400–500 Oil Visoke 1963 5–16 5.0–6.0 170 34 < 500 O & G Divjake 1963 N/A N/A Gas Gorisht-Kocul 1965 < 17 6.0 256 51 925 O & G Frakulla 1965 N/A N/A Gas Ballsh-Hekal 1966 12–24 5.7–8.4 135 35 5 600 O & G Finiq-Krane 1973 < 10 3.7–4.3 Oil Arrez 1975 32.7 6.5 O & G Zharrez 1977 21.3 3.2 O & G Cakran-Mollaj 1977 14–37 0.9 192 530 650 O & G Amonice 1980 20 5 100 O & G Ballaj-Kryevidh 1983 N/A N/A Gas Poveice 1987 N/A N/A Gas Panja 1988 N/A N/A Gas Delvine 1989 30–31 0.7 O & G Sqepuri 2001 37 2.3 Oil Shpiragu 2013 35–37 < 3 2 200+ O & G Mollisht 2016 O & G Durres Block* 2005 < 40 < 3 1 960 960 O & G Note that most global crude oil is somewhat, generally, sour (higher % sulphur) and at 5 ppm is enough H2S to kill a man. Also note that water has an API gravity of 10, API gravity 10–20 is considered heavy crude oil, 20–35 medium crude oil, and 35 and above is considered light crude oil (AKBN, report, 2015, unpublished data).
Table 5. Data on oil & gas fields in Albania
Crude oil production 2014 2015 2016 Production (tons/yr) 1 368 222 1 279 252 1 004 767 Production (bbls/day) 27 000 25 000 20 000 Export (tons/yr) N/A 961 288 871 951 Crude oil reserves O.O.I.P (bbls-billion) Recoverable (bbls-billion) Recover factor (%) Patos-Marinza (sandstone) 2.0 0.25 13 Kucove (sandstone) 0.53 0.085 16 Limestone/carbonate 0.70 0.27 40 Total 3.23 0.6 - Natural gas 2016 (Nm3) Production 92 066 Total reserves 4–5 billion
Table 6. Production & export of oil & gas in Albania. Note that ideal wells have 30%–40% recoverable oil (Puka, 2015)
Production of oil in Albania was significant prior to 1990's with maximum production reaching up to 75 000 bbls/day in 1983 (see Fig. 7). After the fall of communism, the total production of oil decreased significantly due to instable politics as well as depletion of shallow wells. In modern times, the highest producing field is Patos-Marinza with an estimated 12 000 to 13 000 bbls/day whereas the typical total country production is approximately 22 000–27 000 bbls/day, ranking 60/100 countries right behind Syria in 2016 and exporting roughly 85% of the total crude oil it produces (see Table 6).
Figure 7. Albania crude oil production by year, 1980 to 2016 (Tushaj, 2016). Note: the major reduction in oil production during the fall of communism (1991–1992) with maximum production being in 1983 with an astounding production of 75 000 bbl/day.
In comparison to other major oilfields in the world, Figs. 8 and 9 illustrate main Albanian oilfields and compares them head-to-head with other leading oilfields in the world, considering API gravity (petroleum liquid's density relative to that of water) and sulfur content (impurities in the crude oil that dictates quality) of the oil. Albanian crude oil does show to have equivalent quality compared to other major producing countries with medium-heavy crude oil reserves.
Figure 8. Comparison of Albanian oil to other leading oil producing countries. The fields noted in green are benchmark crude oil widely used in the industry, thus desirable crude oil is preferred to be in the top left corner of the chart, and undesirable in the center-bottom right corner. Source–modified by Hoxha and data obtained from World Oil Report 2016 (International Energy Agency, 2017) & US Energy Information Administration 2016.
Nevertheless, Albania still has predominant medium-heavy crude oil reserves that is not comparable to other benchmark crude oil such as WTI (West Texas), Brent (North Sea), Ural (Russian)—all light sweet crude oil that are extremely profitable. One of the most widely known heavy oil fields is the Athabasca oil sands in Canada, which contains API gravity of 8°–9°, literally heavier than water and has 4%–7% sulphur content—but still has become economically viable to sell with careful field development whereas in contrast, the Bati Raman oilfield in Turkey also produce heavy oil (10°–15° API with 450–1 500 cP) but proven mostly not economical to produce.
Producing and refining Albanian crude oil is generally costly for this small southeastern European country. So the question is, in comparison to other heavy oil producing countries (Venezuela & Canada & Turkey), why does Albania with one of the largest onshore oil and gas reserves (Jacobs, 2015) in Europe have high gasoline/diesel prices (see Table 7)? The simplest explanation has to do with high tariffs, complexity, storage/ capacity, logistics, and cost of refining heavy oil in a country where the oil & gas industry is still, relatively, at the infant stages. The reservoirs still need major investments in order to develop and mature. Nevertheless, it should be noted that compared to the rest of its Balkan neighbors, Albania has clear advantages in the oil & gas industry but does not yet match other oil & gas producing countries. Thus, until it has the ability to parallel and match these countries, it should not only rely on drilling as the primary necessity to produce fuel.
Country Diesel (＄/liter) Gasoline (＄/liter) Saudi Arabia 0.12 0.24 USA 0.66 0.70 Macedonia 0.90 1.16 Bosnia 1.01 1.03 Kosovo 1.18 1.21 Montenegro 1.21 1.38 *Slovenia 1.29 1.40 *Croatia 1.31 1.38 *Germany 1.31 1.47 *Cyprus 1.32 1.31 Albania 1.34 1.37 Serbia 1.36 1.32 *Greece 1.4 1.66 *Switzerland 1.49 1.42 In August 2016, the price of diesel in Albania was approximately ＄1.23/liter. *. European Union Country.
Table 7. Diesel and gasoline prices in the Balkans (May 2017)
Information regarding the downstream sector in Albania.
● Advanced operations: with the initiatives of Bankers Petroleum, operations have applied horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracking, EOR, and advanced artificial lift systems that have made reservoirs in Albania more profitable.
○ Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) was also considered by bankers.
● Refineries: Albania has two refineries in Ballsh and Fier, both privately owned by ARMO, with a refining capacity respectively of 1 million tons and 0.5 million tons annually, the refineries have enough capacity to refine local crude oil as well imported crude oil (Darbord, 2015). Despite some recent technological improvements, most of Albania's crude oil continues to be exported (see Fig. S3) while Albania imports most of its refined oil products for domestic consumption—thus contributing to high gasoline/diesel cost.
○ Elbasan Bitex refinery (3 750 bbl/day) was recently disassembled and scraped.
○ At the end of 2015, ARMO upgraded their refineries, which gave the country the capability to resume refining of gasoline with developments in the refineries reaching other specialized refining capabilities (bitumen, petroleum coke, virgin naphtha) that are not common in the regional market.
● Pipelines: Currently there is one major pipeline (TAP) still in construction and is expected to finish and operate by 2020. It will source gas from Azerbaijan (Shah Deniz Gas Field in the Caspian Sea) and connect to an existing pipeline in San Felca terminal in Italy. TAP passes through and begins its offshore/subsurface sector in Albania (see Fig. S2). The length is 878 km (546 mi), 10–20 billion m3 per annum max discharge with a diameter of 48 in (1 219 mm). Albania has recently formed "Albagaz" to handle the transmission and distribution of TAPʼs natural gas in the country and its neighbors.
○ IAP pipeline (a branch of TAP) received approval (MoU) in summer 2017, which will fork from the gas terminal in Fier and will continue north passing Montenegro, Bosnia, and Croatia (see Fig. S2). Construction is expected to begin after 2020 and the length of pipeline would be 516 km (321 mi). The pipeline would be bi-directional, and its capacity would be 5 billion m3 (180 billion cubic feet) of natural gas per year.
○ WBR pipeline is a proposed pipeline that forks of IAP and passes through Macedonia, Kosovo, and ends up in Serbia (see Fig. S2).
● Delvina gas field: a proven gas condensate field. It lies on one of the largest gas structures in southeastern Europe and is comprised of 60 000 net acres. It reserves 182 Mbbl oil and 3 634 Mmcf of natural gas and has a net possible reserves of 300 Mbbl of oil and 6 090 Mmcf of natural gas in Albania (see Fig. S4).
○ Exploratory wells are being drilled across the border to investigate the Janina/Ç ameria oil & gas field.
Besides its prolific and proven oil and gas resources, Albania shows promise but yet very under-explored in terms of oil and gas exploration and production. Its potential is yet to be unleashed especially to benefit the consumer or the industrial industry (construction, transportation/logistics, and manufacturing).
As it can be seen from the Table 7, the high price in gasoline and diesel negatively affects the consumer, as well as the industrial/manufacturing industry, making it costly to maintain heavy machinery, thus increase the price on practically all other sectors. For these reasons and many other reasons, there is a need for a suitable alternative in order to diversify fuel requirements and be less dependent on non-renewable resources.
Lessons should be learned from long-suffering consequences from countries that are highly dependent on crude oil, such as:
1. Venezuela—oil accounts for 96% of exports and 40% of government revenue.
2. Libya—oil accounts for 65% of GDP and 95% of government revenue.
3. Angola—50% of GDP and 70% of government revenue.
The above-mentioned oil-dependent states have a common factor of fragile politics, internal/external conflicts, high amount of corruption such as oligarchy, no real free trade market, manipulation of cost etc. (World Oil Investment Report, IEA, 2017). Such states have a fragile economy that could whirl into a quick downspin impacted by any global factors (downturn of 2015–2016). It is mainly because they do not have any other industries to support their economies as they significantly exacerbate their natural resources. It is important to note Russia and Iran are also large oil-dependent export countries but are less impacted due to diversity in their economy. Thus, "waste-to-fuel" technology needs to be investigated in order to alleviate dependency on oil production and export.
Oil & Gas Industry in Albania
A comprehensive study was performed that assessed and evaluated the historical and current situation of waste generation and its management/recycling at local and federal level. A 5-prong approach was undertaken to accurately understand the complex condition, (1) literature review from the scientific communities/universities, (2) government initiatives by both Albania and EU/EC programs, (3) commercial corporations & environmental service companies, (4) status to date of excising recycling companies, and (5) environmental activists. The information obtained and described here-in resonates the potential in the waste management and recycling initiative is well funded and professionally implemented, small countries such as Albania could become greener, more self-sustainable, and more economically independent.
Renewable energy in Albania ranges from biomass, geothermal, hydropower, solar, and wind energy. Albania relies mainly on hydropower resource and accordingly faces complications during droughts (low rivers levels), which demonstrates the obvious problem when relying exclusively on hydropower energy (Karaj et al., 2010; Saraci and Leskoviku, unpublished data). Furthermore, the Mediterranean climate in Albania possesses considerable potential for solar energy with roughly 2 100–2 700 hours of sunshine in a given year (O'Brien, 2014; Xhitoni, 2013; Frasheri, 2005). In fact, the United Nations Development Program began a platform in 2012 support a program to install 75 000 m2 of solar panels in Albania by the end of 2018.
The current status of waste management in Albania can be best described by a report written by "Green Economy in Albania" (Bino, 2012, report for UNDP) that describes the development of waste management infrastructure and institutional capacity in Albania being unsatisfactory and not able to keep pace with rapid economic growth and urban expansion. Further efforts described in the studies by Alcani et al. (2015), Lico et al. (2015), Alcani and Dorri (2013) and Dedej (2012) explain the current status of waste management in Albania and all come to a general consensus that waste recycling is substandard and partial as there is no separated/segregated collection of waste— the primary method of waste treatment is dumping and as of recently (2015–2016) incineration technology has been introduced. However, it must be noted that recent legislative advancement, motivated and assisted by the European Commission regulatory agencies, Albania has adopted waste management legislation, standards, and compliances aligned with the EU and in 2016 Albania has attempted to implement these laws (Gordani, 2015). Deputy Minister of the Environment of Albania, Olijana Ifti, presented a plan at the 24th OSCE forum in 2016 where the government had proposed a fully integrated strategy monitoring system that focused on plans for education, resourcing, and legislation that focused on tax/fees. With the proposed plan in focus, the projection had forecasted that by 2020, 25% of municipal waste would be prevented from reaching landfills and will be recycled and composted. Additionally, by 2025 energy recovery (reclamation) reach 25% from municipal waste—the present recycling in Albania is declared to be at approximately 10% (Kodra, 2013).
Observing Table 8, it can be clearly seen that municipal urban waste has increased as expected. In 2016, it reached up to 1.02 million tons (note that these physical values are greater than what was projected by the government in 2009 by about 100 000 tons, Fig. 10) for a population of 3 million (2016 estimated census). However, considering the lack of control and proper "book-keeping" in rural areas, the actual total is most likely inflated higher than the values reported. Furthermore, it has been reported that approximately 350 000 tons of industrial waste annually is produced (estimated from values and figures from Kodra (2013); Source: Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunications), totaling an overall waste production of approximately 1.37 million tons annually for the year of 2016 which of 212 000 tons was inert. The value reported, realistically speaking, in regards to the amount of waste produced, is relatively similar to the waste production of neighboring countries.
County 2014 2015 2016 Berat 45 070 46 148 47 011 Dibër 24 189 24 767 25 230 Durrës 110 283 112 921 115 032 Elbasan 42 924 43 951 44 773 Fier 121 734 124 647 126 976 Gjirokastër 63 242 64 755 65 965 Korçë 56 435 57 785 58 865 Kukës 29 921 30 637 31 210 Lezhë 32 622 33 402 34 027 Shkodër 51 153 52 377 53 356 Tiranë 302 193 309 423 315 206 Vlorë 100 340 102 740 104 661 Total 980 106 1 003 554 1 022 312 Source: Albanian Ministry of Transport & Infrastructure, INSTAT 2013–2016 report. Eurostat 2016-municipal waste generated, 2004=192 kg/person & 2016=318 kg/person. Note: OECD countries produced 572 million tons of solid waste in 2015 with China producing yearly municipal waste at a soaring 18 564.0 million tons (based on 246 cities in China) OECD/EIA Report 2016 (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016).
Table 8. Municipal urban waste produced in Albania (tons)
Figure 10. Waste stream composition in Albania. Estimated based on results from various sources, plastics is projected between 13.5%–15.5% (Lico et al. (2015) reported 13%, Lico et al. (2015) reported 13.5%, Dedej (2012) reported 14.4%, whereas Alcani and Dorri (2013) reported 17% plastic waste stream).
Buçpapaj(2012, 2011, 2009), Jaupaj et al. (2011), Jaupaj and Lushaj(2011, 2010, 2009), Lushaj et al. (2012), Lushaj (2012a and 2012b) have paved the way for exploring the use of biomass to energy (BtE) and renewable energy potentials in Albania. Their comprehensive work details, methodically, wide-ranging aspects on how Albania can assess, implement, and benefit from its own natural and recycled waste (Toromani, 2010). Buçpapaj (2012) frequently mentions in his studies, Albania's capability to turn biomass residue in to energy is a possibility with high potential to benefit (see Table 9). For example, from the values reported in Table 8, annual municipal waste in 2016 was 1 022 312 tons, which of 66% was biodegradable—therefore 674 725 tons can be used to turn biomass into fossil fuels via WTF technology. Table 4, demonstrates that biodegradable products can yield approximately 40% "pyrolysis oil". According to industry corporations, Pyrocrat LLC, Jinpeng Industrial, Huayin group, and Doing industries, a typical pyrolysis plant can process, at a minimum, 10 tons of waste a day. Thus 10 tons of biodegradable/organic waste ×40% pyrolysis oil yields, theoretically, can produce 4 tons of pyrolysis oil. Considering 85% waste oil distillation plant efficiency to refine the oil, the output to industrial/synthetic diesel oil, is calculated to be 3.4 tons/day.
Type of biomass Energy potential (ktoe) Forestry/wood processing residue 7 937 Packaging-paper, cardboard 6 393 Agriculture residue 1 818 Animal waste 47.6 Total 16 195 Note: The following value are expected to be larger due to increase waste production by the populous in the past 5 years; Typical biomass conversion technologies can be combustion, co-firing, gasification, pyrolysis, CHP, etherification, fermentation, anaerobic digestion etc. Thus for Albania's case, 674 725 tons of biodegradable waste can be converted to 229 406 tons of reprocessed industrial diesel oil. Subsequently, if considering the density of diesel at 0.83 g/mL (see Table 2), this value can be converted to producing roughly 7 000 bbls of industrial diesel oil a day, all depending on the basic components and the purity of the waste.
Table 9. Recoverable biomass potential in Albania (Buçpapaj, 2012)