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Volume 30 Issue 6
Dec 2019
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Besmir Buranaj Hoxha, Dael Dervishi, Kyle Sweeney. Waste-to-Fuel Technology in Albania——How to Implement a Renewable Energy System in Europe's Largest Onshore Oilfield. Journal of Earth Science, 2019, 30(6): 1311-1325. doi: 10.1007/s12583-017-0782-0
Citation: Besmir Buranaj Hoxha, Dael Dervishi, Kyle Sweeney. Waste-to-Fuel Technology in Albania——How to Implement a Renewable Energy System in Europe's Largest Onshore Oilfield. Journal of Earth Science, 2019, 30(6): 1311-1325. doi: 10.1007/s12583-017-0782-0

Waste-to-Fuel Technology in Albania——How to Implement a Renewable Energy System in Europe's Largest Onshore Oilfield

doi: 10.1007/s12583-017-0782-0
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  • Corresponding author: Besmir Buranaj Hoxha
  • Received Date: 10 Jul 2017
  • Accepted Date: 15 Sep 2017
  • Publish Date: 01 Dec 2019
  • Albania has historically been known to have an active but challenging drilling activity that demands the most innovative technology to develop,predominantly,medium-heavy oil reservoirs. Although recent efforts have been made by the government to stimulate and expand the largest onshore European oil-field,technical and economical obstacles are prevalent. These obstacles make it difficult to fully develop reliable and profitable hydrocarbon bearing zones in a downturn economy,especially since Albanian oil can be costly to produce and refine. Due to these typical issues that affect many local energy sectors,many developed countries diversify their energy production to avoid strict dependency on crude oil. An emblematic and modern option that is extensively gaining popularity in Europe focuses on renewable energy from sophisticated recycling programs. Although Albania is a relatively "green" country when it pertains to its electricity production (97% hydropower and 3% fossil fuels),it has yet to develop energy-recycling programs that it can salvage for self-sustainable energy sources. The past years have seen a conscious revitalization and stimulation in the mentality of green economy in Albania. But,in comparison to the rest of "western Europe" that are leading world examples in efficient recycling,it is significantly lagging with initial strides just now focusing on aligning national legislations with current EU models. Furthermore,two crucial reasons that should motivate Albania to investigate new applications for energy recycling are:(1) alternatives to crude oil and petroleum products that can be supplemental and provide stable access to fossil fuels; (2) industrial and municipal recycling via waste management to reprocess waste and produce industrial raw material-spawning the emergence of a "circular economy" to develop the backbone needed to strengthen the industrial and manufacturing markets for a self-sustaining economy. Accordingly,in this paper,the topic that will be addressed,given the recent decrease in oil & gas prices,focuses on the Albanian energy sector's capability to sustain and develop a supplementary recycling program via "waste-to-fuel" (WTF) technology (biofuels and/or in-organic waste). With the intent that it could function cooperatively with Albania's active drilling pro-gram to mitigate dependency on a single fuel source and produce enough fossil fuel in an effective and sustainable manner.

     

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