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Volume 30 Issue 5
Oct.  2019
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Nd Isotopic and Model Age Study of the Shandong Province, North China Craton: Implications for Correlation with South Korea

  • The geological units in Shandong Province, North China are important parts of the North China Craton and offer important insights into their crustal evolutionary history. This paper presents 611 sets of Nd isotopic data of Archean-Mesozoic rocks from Shandong including the Luxi, Jiaobei, and Sulu terranes, which provides important constraints for crustal growth and reactivation. Nd-depleted mantle model ages (TDM) of Archean rocks with positive εNd(t) values showed that ca. 2.9 and 2.8-2.7 Ga were the most important periods of crustal growth in the Jiaobei and Luxi terranes, respectively, while the period of ca. 2.6-2.5 Ga in the Jiaobei terrane likely indicates a coherent event of crustal growth and reworking. During the Proterozoic, multi-stage rifting and collisional orogenic events possibly led to the reworking of Archean crust in the source region. The Nd isotopic data of the Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks from Sulu indicated significant reworking of older crust with juvenile magmatic input. Crustal reactivation occurred during the Mesozoic. The younger TDM ages of the Mesozoic rocks with low negative εNd(t) values indicate that a juvenile crustal/mantle component was added to the ancient basement. The reactivation reflectes significant crust-mantle interaction via the mechanism of crustal subduction and mantle-derived magma underplating, or possibly asthenospheric upwelling. In addition, the crustal correlation between Shandong and Korea (including the Gyeonggi massif, Ogcheon belt, and Yeongnam massif) is established in this study. The TDM age distribution provides evidence favoring the affinity relationship between the Gyeonggi massif and Ogcheon belt of South Korea and the Jiaobei and Sulu terranes of Shandong, while the Yeongnam massif is more correlated with the South China Block.
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Nd Isotopic and Model Age Study of the Shandong Province, North China Craton: Implications for Correlation with South Korea

    Corresponding author: Yaoqi Zhou, zhouyq@upc.edu.cn
  • 1. School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, China
  • 2. Function Laboratory for Marine Mineral Resource Geology and Exploration, National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China

Abstract: The geological units in Shandong Province, North China are important parts of the North China Craton and offer important insights into their crustal evolutionary history. This paper presents 611 sets of Nd isotopic data of Archean-Mesozoic rocks from Shandong including the Luxi, Jiaobei, and Sulu terranes, which provides important constraints for crustal growth and reactivation. Nd-depleted mantle model ages (TDM) of Archean rocks with positive εNd(t) values showed that ca. 2.9 and 2.8-2.7 Ga were the most important periods of crustal growth in the Jiaobei and Luxi terranes, respectively, while the period of ca. 2.6-2.5 Ga in the Jiaobei terrane likely indicates a coherent event of crustal growth and reworking. During the Proterozoic, multi-stage rifting and collisional orogenic events possibly led to the reworking of Archean crust in the source region. The Nd isotopic data of the Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks from Sulu indicated significant reworking of older crust with juvenile magmatic input. Crustal reactivation occurred during the Mesozoic. The younger TDM ages of the Mesozoic rocks with low negative εNd(t) values indicate that a juvenile crustal/mantle component was added to the ancient basement. The reactivation reflectes significant crust-mantle interaction via the mechanism of crustal subduction and mantle-derived magma underplating, or possibly asthenospheric upwelling. In addition, the crustal correlation between Shandong and Korea (including the Gyeonggi massif, Ogcheon belt, and Yeongnam massif) is established in this study. The TDM age distribution provides evidence favoring the affinity relationship between the Gyeonggi massif and Ogcheon belt of South Korea and the Jiaobei and Sulu terranes of Shandong, while the Yeongnam massif is more correlated with the South China Block.

0.   INTRODUCTION
  • Shandong Province is located in the southeastern part of the North China Craton (NCC) (Fig. 1), where important crust-forming, tectonothermal, and lithospheric thinning events have been recognized. Shandong is a composite landmass that consists of two domains divided by the NNE-trending Tan-Lu fault, namely the Luxi and Jiaodong terranes. Generally, they provide significant evidence for the crustal evolution of the NCC, and even for the Sino-Korean Craton (Deng et al., 2018; Zeng et al., 2011; Jahn et al., 2008, 1988). However, the subtectonic unit may have a distinctive evolutionary history. Song (2008) proposed that the Precambrian basement of Shandong has differences between the east and west according to studies of petrogenesis and structures, and that the clear discrepancy in Mesozoic magmatic activity between the east and west led to development of various types of continental rocks. In addition, the Sulu orogenic belt, which is the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, was originally referred to as the northern edge of the South China Craton (SCC) or Yangtze Craton (YC). It underwent ultra-high-pressure (UHP) metamorphism when subducted beneath the NCC during the Triassic (Ames et al., 1996). Thus, the earlier Pre-Jurassic geological development of the Sulu orogenic belt southeast of Jiaodong is significantly different from that to the northwest. During the last two decades, extensive studies have been conducted regarding the stratigraphy, structure, petrography, geochemistry, metamorphic history, and tectonic evolution of the exposed Precambrian or Mesozoic rocks in Shandong (Li Z Y et al., 2018; Zhou Z M et al., 2018; Ma et al., 2013; Goss et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2009a, b, 2008a, b; Jahn et al., 2008; Ying et al., 2005); however, the crustal growth and recycling history of the subtectonic units remain poorly understood. Moreover, considerable debate has occurred over the past decades regarding the extension of the China cratons or Sulu orogenic belt toward the east through the Korean Peninsula. Although various geological, geochemical, and geochronological constraints on such an extension have been proposed (Lee et al., 2016; Zhai et al., 2007a, b; Kwon et al., 2003; Lan et al., 1995), many ambiguities remain regarding their model ages and isotopic signatures.

    Figure 1.  Geological map of the Eastern Block of the North China Craton (NCC), modified after Lee B C et al. (2017) and Zhao et al. (2005).

    The limited fractionation between Sm and Nd during crustal processes makes the Sm-Nd system suitable for estimating crust formation ages (Arndt and Goldstein, 1987). Nd model ages are useful guides to determine the evolutionary history of the Earth. For example, the major crustal growth period of the NCC was during the Archean (Wu et al., 2005), while that of the SCC was during the Proterozoic (Chen and Jahn, 1998). Thus, Sm-Nd isotopic data were compiled to recalculate the Nd model ages and εNd(t) values, which were used to study the significant crustal growth and evolutionary history. However, the Korean Peninsula has been traditionally regarded as a part of the Sino-Korean Craton; thus, it may also contain ancient continental fragments. More importantly, the tectonic correlation between China and South Korea on the basis of Nd isotopic data has been debated. Given the lack of crustal evolutionary history in the entire Shandong Province, we compiled available published Nd isotopic data from Shandong, China. The results provide important constraints for the crustal growth and reactivation of sub-divisions of Shandong which facilitates the comparison of the tectonic relationship between South Korea and Shandong.

1.   GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
  • The NCC is divided into three tectonic blocks, namely the Eastern and Western blocks and an intervening belt named the Trans-North China orogen (Zhao et al., 2005, 2001). The Eastern Block of the NCC consists of an Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement (Fig. 1). Shandong is along the easternmost edge of the Eastern Block of the NCC (Fig. 1) and is separated by the Tan-Lu Fault zone into an eastern part (Jiaodong) and western part (Luxi) (Ying et al., 2005). Each part appears to have distinctive differences marked by strata formation, magmatism, structural style, and mineralization, which previous studies considered the result of a separate evolution for each of the two micro-blocks (Luxi and Jiaodong terranes)(Li et al., 2013). At the end of the Middle Jurassic, a combination block finally formed because of the left strike-slip of the Tan-Lu fault zone. Jiaodong comprises two different terranes, namely the northwestern Jiaobei terrane and southeastern Sulu terrane, which are bounded by the Wulian-Yantai fault (Ma et al., 2013; Tang et al., 2008, 2007). The Sulu terrane (Sulu orogenic belt) formed via the continental collision between the NCC and YC during the Triassic, and has been overprinted by UHP/high-pressure (HP) metamorphism (Li et al., 2011).

  • The Luxi terrane lies in the western part of Shandong Province (Fig. 2), and is bounded by the Tan-Lu fault to the east, the Liaocheng-Lankao fault to the west, the Qihe-Guangrao fault to the north, and the Fengpei fault to the south (Zhang et al., 2007). The Precambrian crystallized basement is composed of the widespread Neoarchean Taishan complex, tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites, and granite-monzonitic granite-syenogranite (Li et al., 2013). The zircon U-Pb ages from the basement rocks mainly range from 2 770 to 2 750 Ma (Wang et al., 2008). The Mesozoic intrusive rocks consist of monzonite, diorite, gabbro, granite, and alkaline complexes (Zhang et al., 2005; Guo et al., 2003; Lin et al., 1996), and the volcanic rocks are dominantly andesitic in composition (Qiu et al., 1997; Lin et al., 1996). K-Ar, 40Ar-39Ar, and zircon U-Pb ages suggest that magmatic activities occurred during the Late Mesozoic (Tang et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2004; Qiu et al., 1997; Lin et al., 1996).

    Figure 2.  Geological map of the Shandong Province, North China Craton (NCC) showing the distribution of rocks from Precambrian to Cenozoic (modified by Xu and Li, 2015; Zhou et al., 2015) and Nd-depleted mantle (DM) model ages (Ga) for igneous and metamorphic rocks from the three tectonic divisions.

  • The Jiaobei terrane is in the northwestern part of East Shandong (Fig. 2). It comprises both a Precambrian metamorphic basement and Mesozoic magmatic rocks. The Precambrian basement in the Jiaobei terrane mainly consists of the Neoarchean Jiaodong Group, a TTG suite, and the Paleoproterozoic Jingshan, Fenzishan, and Penglai groups, and is more complicated than that of the Luxi terrane (Li et al., 2013). The Jiaodong Group is predominated by a TTG composition, with small amounts of amphibolite and mafic granulite (Jahn et al., 2008; Tang et al., 2007). The Paleoproterozoic Fenzishan and Jingshan groups were metamorphosed from amphibolites to granulite facies, and overlie the Late Archean rocks. The Jingshan Group is mainly composed of Al-rich schist, gneisses, pelitic granulites, felsic paragneisses, quartzites, calc-silicate rocks, and marbles, and the Fenzishan Group mainly consists of pelitic schists, paragneisses, calc-silicate marbles, and marble. Unconformably overlying the Paleoproterozoic Fenzishan and Jingshan groups is the Meso-Neoproterozoic Penglai Group, which is represented by meta-limestone, slates, and quartzite (Tam et al., 2011). According to zircon U-Pb data, the protolith ages for the TTG gneiss, amphibolite, and mafic granulite are from ca. 2.9 to 2.7, 2.5 and 2.4 Ga, respectively, and regional metamorphism variably occurred from ca. 1.85 to 1.76 Ga (Jahn et al., 2008; Tang et al., 2007). The Mesozoic granitoids mainly consist of biotite-granite and granodiorite, which formed between ca. 165 and 125 Ma based on zircon U-Pb dating (Zhang et al., 2003; Wang et al., 1998).

  • The Sulu terrane is the eastern part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt. It is separated from the NCC to the north by the Wulian-Qingdao-Yantai fault and from the YC to the south by the Jiashan-Xiangshui fault (Tang et al., 2009). It is truncated in the west by the Tan-Lu fault, and merges into the Yellow Sea to the east (Fig. 2). The Sulu terrane consists of the Proterozoic Jingshan Group, which includes Al-rich schist, quartzite, marble, and Ca-Mg silicate rocks with zircon U-Pb ages of 1 847–1 744 Ma, and Neoproterozoic granitic gneisses with zircon U-Pb ages of 869–753 Ma (Yang et al., 2003). The metamorphic rocks widely occur in a variety of areas, such as Donghai, Rizhao, Qingdao, Rongcheng and Weihai (Fig. 2). Eclogite and garnet peridotite are exposed in the region, with Triassic metamorphic ages and Meso-Neoproterozoic protolith ages (Li Q W et al., 2018; Liu and Liou, 2011).

2.   METHODS AND RESULTS
  • All 611 sets of Nd isotopic data from the available literature were used to evaluate the crustal formation and evolution in the study area, as shown in Table S1. Data for the mafic-ultramafic, intermediate, and felsic rocks with an approximate range in chemical fractionation parameter (fSm/Nd) values of -0.2 to -0.6 were included. Some older mafic-ultramafic rocks with a higher Sm/Nd ratio were also included because intracrustal processes are not thought to cause significant Sm/Nd fractionation. Based on five data categories (Age, Sm, Nd, (147Sm/144Nd)s, and (143Nd/144Nd)s), we recalculated the values of epsilon Nd(εNd) and the Nd-depleted mantle (DM) model ages (TDM). The recalculation was intended to eliminate any errors caused by any inconsistencies in the calculation of different parameters and formulas.

    The εNd(t) values were calculated using the Chondritic Uniform Reservoir (CHUR) present-day values of 147Sm/144Nd=0.196 7 and 143Nd/144Nd=0.512 638. The TDM ages were calculated using the DM present-day values of 147Sm/144Nd=0.213 7 and 143Nd/144Nd=0.513 15. The equations used were as follows

    and

    where s is the sample, λ is the decay constant (6.54×10-12), and t is the formation age of the rock. The age data were mostly based on the available U-Pb zircon ages, and minor data were based on the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, or K-Ar isochron ages. For some samples, ages were not precisely determined or were not well constrained. Estimates and inferences for these ages were based on local and regional geology.

    According to this conception, the Nd model ages of the crustal rocks represent their time of extraction from the mantle (or crust formation time). Recycling within the crust will not change the value of the Nd model age. Thus, the model age is not equal to the time of any specific event, but an addition from a DM source would reduce the Nd model age. This principle can be applied to distinguish between recycling/reworking and addition of new crust during magmatic events (Wu et al., 2005).

  • The 143Nd/144Nd vs. 147Sm/144Nd diagram for the Archean to Mesozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Shandong Province, NCC is shown in Fig. 3. A variation in the Nd model ages within the individual tectonic units can be observed by the present data compilation, and is graphically represented as a model age map in Fig. 2. The variations in εNd(t) values within the individual tectonic units are shown in Fig. 4.

    Figure 3.  Comparison of 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd ratios for igneous and metamorphic rocks from Shandong and lines of equal model age based on a depleted mantle (DM) that evolved during a single stage from a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir (CHUR) at 4.6 Ga to approximately εNd(t)=+10 today. The six reference lines correspond to crustal formation model ages of 1.0 to 3.5 Ga.

    Figure 4.  εNd(t) vs. formation age (t) for igneous and metamorphic rocks from Shandong Province.

    The Luxi terrane shows TDM values of 3.23–1.24 Ga with εNd(t) values ranging from -17.04 to 8.34. The majority of the model ages are Paleo-Mesoproterozoic with a minor amount of Archean. The youngest TDM zone is restricted in the field from north to south within the range of 117°30'E–118°E, while the oldest TDM values occurs in the Taishan (3.23–2.58 Ga), Yishui (2.97–2.68 Ga), and Zouping (3.00–1.66 Ga).

    The Jiaobei terrane shows TDM values of 3.22–1.46 Ga with εNd(t) values ranging from -24.16 to 8.89. The model ages are Archean–Paleoproterozoic with a minor amount of Mesoproterozoic. The oldest TDM zone is in the north within the range of 36°45′N–37°N and 119°50′E–121°50′E, while the youngest TDM domain is present in Xincheng (1.61–1.46 Ga).

    The Sulu terrane shows TDM values of 3.36–1.34 Ga with εNd(t) values ranging from -22.39 to -0.66. The majority of the model ages are Paleo-Mesoproterozoic with a minor amount of Archean. The youngest model ages are mainly present in the north of Sulu. Sporadic older model ages occurs at Wendeng (3.36–3.01 Ga) from the north and at East Junan from the south (2.72–1.75 Ga).

  • Hf isotopic analyses have often been applied using zircons to investigate the nature and evolution of continental crust (Griffin et al., 2002). To compare the relationship between Nd and Hf, this study also includes a compilation of previously published Hf isotopic data from Shandong Province. A consistent method was used to recalculate all the data. Initial εHf(t) values and model ages were calculated using a 176Lu decay constant of 1.867×10-11 yr-1 (Scherer, 2001), with the CHUR (176Lu/177Hf=0.033 2 and 176Hf/177Hf=0.282 772) of Blichert-Toft and Albarède (1997) and the DM (176Lu/177Hf=0.038 4, 176Hf/177Hf=0.283 25) of Griffin et al. (2002).

    Histograms of εHf(t) and Hf DM model ages are shown in Figs. 5, 6. The Luxi terrane shows εHf(t) values within the range of -20.60 to 11.77 and Hf model ages of 3.21–1.23 Ga. The Jiaobei terrane shows εHf(t) values within the range of -44.57 to 9.82 and Hf model ages of 3.33–1.22 Ga. The Sulu terrane shows εHf(t) values within the range of -45.75 to 24.20 and Hf model ages of 3.02–1.20 Ga. The εHf(t) values from the three terranes have a large range relative to the εNd(t) values (Fig. 5); however, the majority of the εHf(t) values are similar to those of εNd(t). The comparison between Nd and Hf model ages show their consistent range and a peak of ages (Fig. 6), although the peak values of the Hf model ages in the Luxi terrane are Archean. Therefore, the Nd-Hf isotopic compositions from each terrane are well correlated.

    Figure 6.  Histograms of Hf and Nd model ages from Shandong Province.

3.   DISCUSSION
  • To delineate the crustal growth history, we analyzed the crustal formation ages from three tectonic terranes. On the basis of 225 TDM data for the Luxi terrane (Fig. 3), major peaks are noted at 2.8–2.7, 2.1–2.0, and 1.7–1.5 Ga. On the basis of 176 TDM data for the Jiaobei terrane (Fig. 3), major peaks are noted at ca. 2.9, ca. 2.6, 2.1–2.0, and 1.9–1.7 Ga. On the basis of 210 TDM data for the Sulu terrane (Fig. 3), a major peak is noted at 2.0–1.7 Ga. The three tectonic terranes are characterized by Archean to Proterozoic crust, which was consistent with Deng et al. (2018), but they showed somewhat different patterns of crustal formation ages.

    In the formation age vs. εNd(t) diagram (Fig. 4), the Archean basement rocks nearly show positive εNd(t) values ranging from -1.5 to 8.89, thereby suggesting that the crustal materials of Shandong are largely extracted from the mantle during the Late Archean (ca. 2.9–2.5 Ga). Figure 7 shows that the mantle extraction age is consistent with the formation age of the basement rocks at ca. 2.9 Ga in the Jiaobei terrane and at 2.8–2.7 Ga in the Luxi terrane. The ca. 2.5 Ga rocks in the Jiaobei terrane mostly have TDM ages of approximately 2.6 Ga, thereby implying that juvenile crustal growth possibly occurred at ca. 2.6–2.5 Ga, although the TDM ages are slightly older than their formation ages (ca. 2.5 Ga). The ca. 2.5 Ga rocks also have 3.0–2.8 Ga TDM ages, which underwent reworking or remelting of older crust. Recent studies have demonstrated that the two prominent age peaks at ca. 2.9–2.7 and 2.6–2.5 Ga might correspond to earlier events of major crustal accretion in the NCC (Jiang et al., 2016; Shan et al., 2015; Zhai, 2014; Geng et al., 2012). Jiang et al. (2016) supported the Jiaobei terrane crustal growth at ca. 2.9 Ga based on zircon Hf isotopic compositions. The evidence for zircon Hf isotope model ages also indicate that the crust of the NCC mostly grew at 2.8–2.7 Ga, which may have been related to major mantle plume activity (Geng et al., 2012). Additionally, Shan et al. (2015) and Zhai (2014) proposed that ca. 2.5–2.6 Ga age magmatism probably represents a coherent event of crustal growth and major reworking (remelting) via zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic data. Thus, the most important peaks at ca. 2.9 and 2.8–2.7 Ga should represent major continental crustal growth episodes of the Jiaobei terrane and Luxi terrane, respectively. The period of ca. 2.6–2.5 Ga probably reflects that the crustal growth and reworking event consistently occurred in the Jiaobei terrane during the Late Neoarchean.

    Figure 7.  Variation diagram of formation (t) and Nd-depleted mantle (DM) model ages (TDM) for igneous and metamorphic rocks from Shandong Province.

    For the Jiaobei and Luxi terranes, our TDM data also show the periodicity of crust formation events at 2.1–2.0, 1.9–1.7, and 1.7–1.5 Ga (Fig. 3). Figures 4, 7 show that only one 1 752 Ga age rock from the Jiaobei terrane has 2.77 Ga TDM with a εNd(t) value of 1.39, which indicates the mixing of mantle-derived juvenile magma with older crustal materials. Huang et al. (2014) showed that the crustal remelting event of the Jiaobei terrane occurred during the period of 2.2–1.8 Ga based on U-Pb and Hf data analysis. Thus, the TDM age of 2.1–2.0 Ga possibly represents the crust-reworking event. However, because of the absence of available isotopic data for Paleo-Mesoproterozoic rocks, the mixing mechanism of the crust and mantle magma may have resulted in false crustal formation ages. Nevertheless, there are some geological records involving magmatic activity at 2.1–2.0, 1.9–1.7, and 1.7–1.5 Ga. Hu et al. (2013) noted that during the period of 2.3–2.0 Ga after the ca. 2.5 Ga cratonization event, the NCC underwent intracrustal extensional rifting, and a collision orogenic event occurred at 1.95–1.80 Ga. Zhao et al. (2005) concluded that the Eastern Block underwent Paleoproterozoic rifting along its eastern continental margin during the period of 2.2–1.9 Ga. Xu et al. (2013) and Kong (2009) believed that this tectonic event had a strong relationship with the Columbia assembly during global 2.0–1.8 Ga collisional events. Liu et al.(2017, 2014) interpreted that the Jiao-Liao-Ji belt was involved in subduction and peak metamorphism related to the collisional orogenic process during the period of 1.95–1.90 Ga, and a subsequent widespread anataxis (or partial melting) event occurred at 1.87–1.80 Ga. After ca. 1.8 Ga, the Paleoproterozoic–Neoproterozoic NCC underwent a multi-stage rifting event, which corresponded to the intense magmatic activity at ca. 1.8–1.0 Ga (Hu et al., 2013). Lu et al. (2003) determined that alkalic granites were the latest alkalic magmatic activity products that were produced during the NCC rifting at 1.75–1.6 Ga. Hu et al. (2012) reported that Meso- to Neo-Proterozoic continental rift systems are well developed in the NCC. In summary, the TDM ages peaks at 2.1–2.0 and 1.7–1.5 Ga are possibly related to an extensional rifting event, while the peaks at 1.9–1.7 Ga are possibly related to a collisional orogenic and rifting event. However, these may not represent a crustal growth event, and more likely reflect interaction of mantle-derived juvenile magma with older crustal materials in the source region. For the Sulu terrane, 2.0–1.7 Ga shows the most prominent peak (Fig. 3), which is similar to that of the Jiaobei terrane. Granulites with ages of 1.8–1.7 Ga show older model ages than the formation ages and a negative εNd(t) value near the evolutionary trends of the CHUR (Figs. 4, 7), which indicates the reworking of a small volume of Archean crustal rocks. As previously discussed, the collisional orogenic and rifting event may have occurred at 2.0–1.7 Ga; resulting in significant crustal reworking of the Sulu terrane during this period, which is supported by the Hf isotopic data of the Sulu terrane (Xu et al., 2018; Kong, 2009). Additionally, 850–700 Ma age gneisses have negative εNd(t) values ranging from -13.54 to -0.66 and TDM ages ranging from 2.72 to 1.42 Ga (Figs. 4, 7), thereby implying that a 850–700 Ma age magmatic event resulted in the reworking of the Archean–Mesoproterozoic crust with juvenile magma. These results are in accordance with those of Xu et al. (2013), who proposed that Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks were the remelting products of the Paleoproterozoic continental rocks based on U-Pb and Hf isotopic data. This magmatic event has a strong relationship with the breakup of Rodinia (Yue et al., 2017). Therefore, the Proterozoic magmatic event in the Sulu terrane may represent the reworking of older crust with the addition of juvenile magma.

  • Since the Triassic, the crustal rocks of Shandong have been reactivated. Frequent magmatic activity has occurred. Five major periods of magmatism have been recognized in Shandong (Deng et al., 2018), including the Late Triassic (ca. 225–200 Ma), Early Jurassic (ca. 185–175 Ma), Late Jurassic (ca. 163–146 Ma), Early Cretaceous (ca. 136–126 Ma), and Late Cretaceous (ca. 100–65 Ma).

    In the Luxi terrane, the Middle Triassic, Late Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous rocks have Nd model ages ranging from 3.00 to 1.24 Ga (Fig. 7), and have low negative εNd(t) values ranging from -17.04 to -3.93 (Fig. 4). These values constrain their source rocks to an older crust affinity with involvement of a significant juvenile mantle/crustal component, which suggests that the older crust material was mixed with magma of 145–115 Ma, and that the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crusts of Luxi were recycled during the Mesozoic, which was similar to the Nd-Hf isotopic results from Deng et al. (2018). Lan et al. (2011a) proposed that magmatic mixing was enhanced by crustal subduction and mantle-derived magma underplating through Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic evidence. Thus, this mechanism may have resulted in the recycling event of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crusts of Luxi during the Mesozoic.

    In the Jiaobei terrane, Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous rocks have Nd model ages ranging from 3.22 to 1.46 Ga (Fig. 7), and have low negative εNd(t) values ranging from -24.16 to -10.07 (Fig. 4), thereby indicating that their source rocks were mainly from ancient crust. This suggests that the Archean–Paleoproterozoic crusts of Jiaodong were recycled during the Late Jurassic–Cretaceous, which is in accordance with the Nd-Hf isotopic results from Deng et al. (2018). Yang et al. (2014) summarized that magmatic sources are a mixture of recycled ancient crust and juvenile magmas through a comprehensive geochronological U-Pb and Hf isotopic investigation of zircons. This magmatism was possibly triggered by subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the NCC and accompanied by asthenospheric upwelling (Yang et al., 2012). Thus, Archean–Paleoproterozoic crusts of Jiaodong were reactivated during the Late Mesozoic.

    In the Sulu terrane, Late Triassic, Late Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous rocks have Nd model ages ranging from 2.41 to 1.34 Ga (Fig. 7), and had low negative εNd(t) values ranging from -22.39 to -7.60 (Fig. 4), thereby suggesting that their source rocks were a mix of older crust and juvenile materials. Mesozoic igneous rocks of Sulu are considered to be the products of subduction of continental crust (Tang et al., 2014). This result reflects the dominant Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crust recycled during the Mesozoic, which was supported by the Hf isotopic data from Zhang (2012), but was slightly different to data from Deng et al. (2018).

    Therefore, most Mesozoic rocks from the three tectonic units have much younger TDM ages than those of the associated Precambrian rocks (Fig. 7), which indicates that a significant juvenile crustal/mantle component has been added since the Mesoproterozoic. This juvenile material resulted from the addition of mantle-derived magma caused by crustal subduction and mantle-derived magma underplating, which was possibly accompanied by asthenospheric upwelling. Wu et al. (2005) also used the Mesozoic granite analysis of southern Liaoning to obtain an accordant conclusion that the Archean–Paleoproterozoic crust of the NCC was reactivated by magma underplating and a loss of mantle lithosphere during the Mesozoic.

  • Asia is a tectonic collage of Precambrian microcontinents. The NCC and SCC (or YC), which are the two largest Precambrian blocks in China, have distinct evolutionary histories, and collided along the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt ca. 220 Ma or earlier (Ames et al., 1996). This continental collision belt may extend to the east into the Korean Peninsula (Yin and Nie, 1993). Therefore, correlation of the terranes in Korea with the Chinese cratons has been disputed for such a tectonic reconstruction (Zhai et al., 2005; Lee et al., 2003, 2000; Qiu et al., 2000; Lan et al., 1995).

    The Korean Peninsula can be divided into seven major tectonic provinces, i.e., from northwest to southeast, the Nangrim massif, Pyeongnam Basin, Imjingang belt, Gyeonggi massif, Ogcheon belt, Yeongnam massif, and Gyeongsang Basin (Fig. 1). In this study, Nd isotopic data of 95 samples from the Gyeonggi massif, Ogcheon belt, and Yeongnam massif in South Korea were plotted, as shown in Fig. 8. In addition, the Nd isotopic data presented from the Jiaobei and Sulu terranes of this study and from the SCC were compared (Fig. 8). The Gyeonggi massif is characterized by Archean and Paleoproterozoic crust and the Ogcheon belt is dominated by Paleoproterozoic crust, whereas the Yeongnam massif is dominated by Archean crust with Proterozoic crust, as shown in Fig. 8. Available isotopic data from this study and Chen and Jahn (1998) confirms a conventional idea that the Jiaobei terrane is older than the SCC (Fig. 8). Additionally, the previously published Hf isotopic data from the Gyeonggi massif, Ogcheon belt, and Yeongnam massif in South Korea were compiled and compared to data from the Jiaobei and Sulu terranes from this study and data from the SCC. Histograms of the Hf DM model ages are shown in Fig. 9. Hf model ages from the Gyeonggi massif, Ogcheon belt, and Yeongnam massif are similar to the Nd model ages.

    Figure 8.  Sm-Nd isotopic data for the Gyeonggi massif, Ogcheon belt, and Yeongnam massif in South Korea (Kim et al., 2007, 2003; Lee et al., 2003, 2000; Sagong, 2003; Cheong et al., 2000; Lan et al., 1995). Nd data from the Jiaobei and Sulu terranes (this study) and South China Craton (SCC) (Chen and Jahn, 1998) are shown.

    Figure 9.  Histograms of Hf model ages from the Gyeonggi massif, Ogcheon belt, and Yeongnam massif in South Korea (Jo et al., 2018; Santosh et al., 2018; Lee Y et al., 2017, 2016; Cheong et al., 2014; Kim et al., 2014). Hf data from the South China Craton (SCC) are shown (Huang et al., 2018; Li et al., 2018; Qi et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2018; Zhou et al., 2018; Zhu et al., 2017; Meng et al., 2015; Jia., 2014; Liu et al., 2011; He et al., 2010).

    As previously discussed, Archean and Paleo-Proterozoic TDM ages are widespread in the Jiaobei terrane. Herein, the Nd model ages of the Gyeonggi massif agree with those of the Jiaobei terrane. This result is in marked contrast with the hypothesis that the Gyeonggi massif belongs to the SCC (Lee et al., 2003; Lan et al., 1995). The gross resemblance in TDM distribution between the Gyeonggi massif and Jiaobei terrane rendered a tectonic correlation between these two units more probable than that between the Gyeonggi massif and SCC (Fig. 8). As noted by Chen and Jahn (1998), Nd isotopic features from the SCC may imply that the Gyeonggi massif of South Korea is more likely correlated with the NCC than with the SCC. Although an Archean basement in the YC has been reported (Ma et al., 2000; Qiu et al., 2000), it may still be less extensive. Moreover, Hf model ages from the Gyeonggi massif had a major distribution range of 2.0–1.5 Ga, which was similar to that from the Jiaobei terrane (Fig. 9). Therefore, the Gyeonggi massif might have a close affinity to the Jiaobei terrane in Shandong (Fig. 10).

    Figure 10.  Sketch geological map showing the tectonic relationships between South Korea and China.

    Until now, the linkage of the Ogcheon belt to the NCC or SCC has been controversial. This belt has been variously interpreted to be an extension of the Hida belt of Japan (Cho and Kim, 2005; Suzuki and Adachi, 1994) and as a failed rift in an intraplate setting (Lee et al., 1998; Cluzel, 1992). Some researchers consider that the Ogcheon belt represents an eastern extension of the Sulu collisional belt between the NCC and SCC (Chen and Jahn, 1998; Yin and Nie, 1993). Here, the latter hypothesis was tested by comparing the TDM ages of the Ogcheon and Sulu belts. Figure 8 shows the resemblance of the TDM distribution between the Ogcheon and Sulu belts. These tectonic units are dominated by Paleoproterozoic crust. The Hf model ages from the Ogcheon belt also show a major distribution of Paleoproterozoic age, which is consistent with the Sulu terrane (Fig. 9). However, the tectonic evolution of the Sulu terrane implied that it was associated with the Sino-Korean tectonic domain during the Archean and Paleoproterozoic (Wu et al., 2003; Fan and Li, 2000). Similarly, Cho et al. (2006) presumed that the Okcheon fold belt is tectonically more affiliated with the Gyeonggi massif rather than the Yeongnam massif. Therefore, this evidence possibly favors the previous view of an affinity between the Ogcheon belt and Sulu terrane (Fig. 10).

    However, the Yeongnam massif is different from the Gyeonggi massif and Ogcheon belt. As shown in Fig. 8, the Yeongnam massif is younger than the Jiaobei terrane. Moreover, the Yeongnam massif has similar Neoproterozoic ages and TDM distribution to those of the SCC, although the Yeongnam massif is dominated by Archean crust and the SCC is dominated by Proterozoic crust (Chen and Jahn, 1998). The Hf model ages also provide evidence that the Neoproterozoic age distribution from the Yeongnam massif is in accordance with that of the SCC (Fig. 9). Our results support the previous idea that the Gyeonggi and Yeongnam massifs in South Korea are different continental blocks. An analysis of crustal velocity structure indicates that the two tectonic units (Gyeonggi and Yeongnam massifs) independently originated and evolved in different manners (Cho et al., 2006). The Yeongnam massif was linked to the SCC by Lan et al. (1995). Kwon (2003) emphasized that there are magmatic events of approximately 1 400 and 617 Ma in the Yeongnam massif, which have been rarely reported from the NCC and are common in the YC. Further evidence from pressure-temperature estimation and zircon U-Pb data of the Paleoproterozoic gneisses in the Sancheong area has shown that the Yeongnam massif may be correlated with the Eastern Cathaysia Block in the SCC (Lee Y et al., 2017). Therefore, the Yeongnam massif of South Korea was more suitably correlated with the SCC than with the Jiaobei terrane or NCC (Fig. 10).

    Overall, these data provide evidence favoring an affinity relationship between South Korea and Shandong (Jiaobei and Sulu terranes) or the SCC. Further work comparing the geological and geochemical characteristics of these tectonic units must be completed to clarify this issue.

4.   CONCLUSIONS
  • The compilation of 611 sets of Nd isotopic data from published papers provides important constraints on crustal growth and recycling in the Shandong Province, NCC (including the Luxi, Jiaobei, and Sulu terranes). The principal conclusions are as follows.

    The Nd DM model ages (TDM) of the Luxi and Sulu terranes are Paleo-Mesoproterozoic with a minor amount of Archean, and the TDM ages of the Jiaobei terrane are Archean– Paleoproterozoic with a minor amount of Mesoproterozoic.

    (1) Three tectonic terranes show somewhat different patterns of crustal formation ages. In the Jiaobei and Luxi terranes, the most important TDM age peak at ca. 2.9–2.7 Ga represents a major continental crustal growth period, while the period of ca. 2.6–2.5 Ga in the Jiaobei terrane might indicate that a coherent event of crustal growth and reworking occurred. Other TDM age peaks at 2.1–2.0, 1.9–1.7, and 1.7–1.5 Ga, which corresponds to multi-stage rifting and collisional events, more likely reflects the reworking of Archean crust in the source region. In the Sulu terrane, the Proterozoic magmatic event may reflect the reworking of older crust with the addition of juvenile magma.

    (2) The younger TDM age characteristics indicate that the Archean–Mesoproterozoic crust of Shandong was reactivated during the Mesozoic, which implies that subduction and underplating, or asthenospheric upwelling, might have been an important mechanism for rejuvenation of the crustal components.

    (3) Nd model age data support that the Gyeonggi massif might have a close affinity to the Jiaobei terrane. The Ogcheon belt agrees well with the Sulu terrane, whereas the Yeongnam massif is more closely linked to the SCC. Further work comparing the geological and geochemical characteristics of these tectonic units will be completed to clarify this issue in the future.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • This work was supported by a scientific and technological innovation project of Shandong Province (No. 2017CXGC1608). The author Feifei Liu acknowledges the China Scholarship Council (CSC) for a doctoral fellowship. The authors would like to thank Sung-Tack Kwon (Yongsei University, Seoul, Korea) for assistance with the Sm-Nd isotopic analysis. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-019-1213-1.

    Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material (Tables S1) is available in the online version of this article at https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-019-1213-1.

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