Advanced Search

Indexed by SCI、CA、РЖ、PA、CSA、ZR、etc .

Volume 32 Issue 4
Aug.  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents

Entao Liu, Jian-Xin Zhao, Hua Wang, Songqi Pan, Yuexing Feng, Qianglu Chen, Faye Liu, Jiasheng Xu. LA-ICPMS in-situ U-Pb Geochronology of Low-Uranium Carbonate Minerals and Its Application to Reservoir Diagenetic Evolution Studies. Journal of Earth Science, 2021, 32(4): 872-879. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1084-5
Citation: Entao Liu, Jian-Xin Zhao, Hua Wang, Songqi Pan, Yuexing Feng, Qianglu Chen, Faye Liu, Jiasheng Xu. LA-ICPMS in-situ U-Pb Geochronology of Low-Uranium Carbonate Minerals and Its Application to Reservoir Diagenetic Evolution Studies. Journal of Earth Science, 2021, 32(4): 872-879. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1084-5

LA-ICPMS in-situ U-Pb Geochronology of Low-Uranium Carbonate Minerals and Its Application to Reservoir Diagenetic Evolution Studies

doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1084-5
More Information
  • Reconstruction of the diagenetic evolution of reservoirs is one of the most significant tasks in oil and gas exploration and development. Assessing the accurate timing of diagenetic events is critical to better understand the process of reservoir evolution, but the isotope dating of diagenetic events is technically challenging. This paper uses three case studies in the sedimentary basins in China to demonstrate the promising application of recently developed LA-(MC)-ICPMS in-situ U-Pb geochronology. Our results show that the new U-Pb dating method provides a reliable and efficient chronological approach to determine the absolute ages of diagenetic events. For example, the U-Pb age data of the Cambrian carbonate reservoir in the Tarim Basin reveals three diagenetic events at 526±14, 515±21, and 481±4.6 Ma, respectively. It is worth noting that microscopic observations are particularly important for improving the success rate of U-Pb dating. In addition, the recent progress and future prospects in the in-situ U-Pb dating method are also discussed in this study, suggesting that this method is currently hindered by the lack of international carbonate standards for data correction.
  • 加载中
  • Burisch, M., Gerdes, A., Walter, B. F., et al., 2017. Methane and the Origin of Five-Element Veins: Mineralogy, Age, Fluid Inclusion Chemistry and Ore Forming Processes in the Odenwald, SW Germany. Ore Geology Reviews, 81: 42-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.10.033 doi:  10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.10.033
    Cao, Y. C., Wang, Y. Z., Gluyas, J. G., et al., 2018. Depositional Model for Lacustrine Nearshore Subaqueous Fans in a Rift Basin: The Eocene Shahejie Formation, Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China. Sedimentology, 65(6): 2117-2148. https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.12459 doi:  10.1111/sed.12459
    Cao, Y. C., Xi, K. L., Wang, Y. Z., et al., 2013. Quantitative Research on Porosity Evolution of Reservoirs in Member 4 of Paleogene Shahejie Formation in Hexiwu Tectonic Zone of Langgu Sag, Jizhong Depression. Journal of Palaeogeograhy, 15(5): 593-604 (in Chinese with English Abstract) http://www.cqvip.com/QK/84020X/201305/47255705.html
    Cheng, T., Zhao, J. X., Feng, Y. X., et al., 2020. In-situ LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb Dating Method for Low-Uranium Carbonate Minerals. China Science Bulletin, 65: 150-154 (in Chinese with English Abstract) doi:  10.1360/TB-2019-0355
    Coogan, L. A., Parrish, R. R., Roberts, N. M. W., 2016. Early Hydrothermal Carbon Uptake by the Upper Oceanic Crust: Insight from in situ U-Pb Dating. Geology, 44(2): 147-150. https://doi.org/10.1130/g37212.1 doi:  10.1130/g37212.1
    Drake, H., Heim, C., Roberts, N. M. W., et al., 2017. Isotopic Evidence for Microbial Production and Consumption of Methane in the Upper Continental Crust Throughout the Phanerozoic Eon. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 470: 108-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.04.034 doi:  10.1016/j.epsl.2017.04.034
    Drost, K., Chew, D., Petrus, J. A., et al., 2018. An Image Mapping Approach to U-Pb LA-ICP-MS Carbonate Dating and Applications to Direct Dating of Carbonate Sedimentation. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 19(12): 4631-4648. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018gc007850 doi:  10.1029/2018gc007850
    Gao, L. H., Han, Z. Z., Han, Y., et al., 2013. Controlling of Cements and Physical Property of Sandstone by Fault as Observed in Well Xia503 of Huimin Sag, Linnan Sub-Depression. Science China Earth Sciences, 56(11): 1942-1952. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-013-4655-9 doi:  10.1007/s11430-013-4655-9
    Godeau, N., Deschamps, P., Guihou, A., et al., 2018. U-Pb Dating of Calcite Cement and Diagenetic History in Microporous Carbonate Reservoirs: Case of the Urgonian Limestone, France. Geology, 46(3): 247-250. https://doi.org/10.1130/g39905.1 doi:  10.1130/g39905.1
    Goodfellow, B. W., Viola, G., Bingen, B., et al., 2017. Palaeocene Faulting in SE Sweden from U-Pb Dating of Slickenfibre Calcite. Terra Nova, 29(5): 321-328. https://doi.org/10.1111/ter.12280 doi:  10.1111/ter.12280
    Guo, X. W., Chen, J. X., Yuan, S. Q., et al., 2020. Constraint of in situ Calcite U-Pb Dating by Laser Ablation on Geochronology of Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Petroliferous Basins: A Case Study of Dongying Sag in the Bohai Bay Basin. Acta Petrolei Sinica, 41(3): 284-291 (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Han, C., Jiang, Z. X., Han, M., et al., 2016. The Lithofacies and Reservoir Characteristics of the Upper Ordovician and Lower Silurian Black Shale in the Southern Sichuan Basin and Its Periphery, China. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 75: 181-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.04.014 doi:  10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.04.014
    Hansman, R. J., Albert, R., Gerdes, A., et al., 2018. Absolute Ages of Multiple Generations of Brittle Structures by U-Pb Dating of Calcite. Geology, 46(3): 207-210. https://doi.org/10.1130/g39822.1 doi:  10.1130/g39822.1
    Hill, C. A., Polyak, V. J., Asmerom, Y., et al., 2016. Constraints on a Late Cretaceous Uplift, Denudation, and Incision of the Grand Canyon Region, Southwestern Colorado Plateau, USA, from U-Pb Dating of Lacustrine Limestone. Tectonics, 35(4): 896-906. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016tc004166 doi:  10.1002/2016tc004166
    Jia, Q., Lü, D. W., He, M., et al., 2010. Fusulinid and Foraminifera in Carboniferous-Permian Taiyuan Formation in Yanzhou Coalfield, Shandong, Northeast China. Journal of Earth Science, 21(S1): 82-85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-010-0175-0 doi:  10.1007/s12583-010-0175-0
    Li, Q., Parrish, R. R., Horstwood, M. S. A., et al., 2014. U-Pb Dating of Cements in Mesozoic Ammonites. Chemical Geology, 376: 76-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.03.020 doi:  10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.03.020
    Li, Z., Chen, J. S., Guan, P., 2006. Scientific Problems and Frontiers of Sedimentary Diagenesis Research in Oil-Bearing Basins. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 22(8): 2113-2122 (in Chinese with English Abstract) http://www.oalib.com/paper/1472034
    Liang, C., Cao, Y. C., Liu, K. Y., et al., 2018. Diagenetic Variation at the Lamina Scale in Lacustrine Organic-Rich Shales: Implications for Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 229: 112-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2018.03.017 doi:  10.1016/j.gca.2018.03.017
    Liang, X., Liu, S. G., Wang, S. B., et al., 2019. Analysis of the Oldest Carbonate Gas Reservoir in China-New Geological Significance of the Dengying Gas Reservoir in the Weiyuan Structure, Sichuan Basin. Journal of Earth Science, 30(2): 348-366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-017-0962-y doi:  10.1007/s12583-017-0962-y
    Liu, E. T., Wang, H., Li, Y., et al., 2014. Sedimentary Characteristics and Tectonic Setting of Sublacustrine Fans in a Half-Graben Rift Depression, Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 52: 9-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2014.01.008 doi:  10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2014.01.008
    Liu, E. T., Wang, H., Li, Y., et al., 2015. Relative Role of Accommodation Zones in Controlling Stratal Architectural Variability and Facies Distribution: Insights from the Fushan Depression, South China Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 68: 219-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.08.027 doi:  10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.08.027
    Liu, E. T., Zhao, J. X., Pan, S. Q., et al., 2019. A New Technology of Basin Fluid Geochronology: In situ U-Pb Dating of Calcite. Earth Science, 44(3): 698-712 (in Chinese with English Abstract) http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-DQKX201903002.htm
    Ludwig, K. R., 2012. User's Manual for Isoplot 3.75-4.15, Berkeley Geochronology Center, Berkeley
    MacDonald, J. M., Faithfull, J. W., Roberts, N. M. W., et al., 2019. Clumped-Isotope Palaeothermometry and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Dating of Lava-Pile Hydrothermal Calcite Veins. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 174(7): 63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-019-1599-x doi:  10.1007/s00410-019-1599-x
    Methner, K., Mulch, A., Fiebig, J., et al., 2016. Rapid Middle Eocene Temperature Change in Western North America. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 450: 132-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.05.053 doi:  10.1016/j.epsl.2016.05.053
    Nuriel, P., Craddock, J., Kylander-Clark, A. R. C., et al., 2019. Reactivation History of the North Anatolian Fault Zone Based on Calcite Age-Strain Analyses. Geology, 47(5): 465-469. https://doi.org/10.1130/g45727.1 doi:  10.1130/g45727.1
    Nuriel, P., Weinberger, R., Kylander-Clark, A. R. C., et al., 2017. The Onset of the Dead Sea Transform Based on Calcite Age-Strain Analyses. Geology, 45(7): 587-590. https://doi.org/10.1130/g38903.1 doi:  10.1130/g38903.1
    Pang, X. Q., 2010. Key Challenges and Research Methods of Petroleum Exploration in the Deep of Superimposed Basins in Western China. Oil & Gas Geology, 31(5): 517-533 (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Parrish, R. R., Parrish, C. M., Lasalle, S., et al., 2018. Vein Calcite Dating Reveals Pyrenean Orogen as Cause of Paleogene Deformation in Southern England. Journal of the Geological Society, 175(3): 425-442. https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2017-107 doi:  10.1144/jgs2017-107
    Paton, C., Hellstrom, J., Paul, B., et al., 2011. Iolite: Freeware for the Visualisation and Processing of Mass Spectrometric Data. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 26(12): 2508. https://doi.org/10.1039/c1ja10172b doi:  10.1039/c1ja10172b
    Qiu, L. W., Yang, S. C., Qu, C. S., et al., 2017. A Comprehensive Porosity Prediction Model for the Upper Paleozoic Tight Sandstone Reservoir in the Daniudi Gas Field, Ordos Basin. Journal of Earth Science, 28(6): 1086-1096. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-016-0935-2 doi:  10.1007/s12583-016-0935-2
    Rasbury, E. T., Cole, J. M., 2009. Directly Dating Geologic Events: U-Pb Dating of Carbonates. Reviews of Geophysics, 47(3): RG3001. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007rg000246 doi:  10.1029/2007rg000246
    Ring, U., Gerdes, A., 2016. Kinematics of the Alpenrhein-Bodensee Graben System in the Central Alps: Oligocene/Miocene Transtension Due to Formation of the Western Alps Arc. Tectonics, 35(6): 1367-1391. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015tc004085 doi:  10.1002/2015tc004085
    Roberts, N. M. W., Rasbury, E. T., Parrish, R. R., et al., 2017. A Calcite Reference Material for LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Geochronology. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 18(7): 2807-2814. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016gc006784 doi:  10.1002/2016gc006784
    Roberts, N. M. W., Walker, R. J., 2016. U-Pb Geochronology of Calcite-Mineralized Faults: Absolute Timing of Rift-Related Fault Events on the Northeast Atlantic Margin. Geology, 44(7): 531-534. https://doi.org/10.1130/g37868.1 doi:  10.1130/g37868.1
    Scherer, M., 1987. Parameters Influencing Porosity in Sandstones: A Model for Sandstone Porosity Prediction: ERRATUM. AAPG Bulletin, 71: 485-491. https://doi.org/10.1306/703c80fb-1707-11d7-8645000102c1865d doi:  10.1306/703c80fb-1707-11d7-8645000102c1865d
    Shen, A. J., Hu, A. P., Cheng, T., et al., 2019. Laser Ablation in-situ U-Pb Dating and Its Application to Diagenesis-Porosity Evolution of Carbonate Reservoirs. Petroleum Exploration and Development, 46(6): 1127-1140. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1876-3804(19)60268-5 doi:  10.1016/s1876-3804(19)60268-5
    Shen, T. T., Wu, F. Y., Zhang, L. F., et al., 2016. In-situ U-Pb Dating and Nd Isotopic Analysis of Perovskite from a Rodingite Blackwall Associated with UHP Serpentinite from Southwestern Tianshan, China. Chemical Geology, 431: 67-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.03.029 doi:  10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.03.029
    Shi, H. S., Lei, Y. C., Wu, M. H., et al., 2008. Research on the Evolution of Pores in Deep Sandstone Reservoir in ZHU 1 Depression. Earth Science Frontiers, 15(1): 169-175 (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Smith, P. E., Farquhar, R. M., 1989. Direct Dating of Phanerozoic Sediments by the 238U-206Pb Method. Nature, 341(6242): 518-521. https://doi.org/10.1038/341518a0 doi:  10.1038/341518a0
    Walter, B. F., Gerdes, A., Kleinhanns, I. C., et al., 2018. The Connection between Hydrothermal Fluids, Mineralization, Tectonics and Magmatism in a Continental Rift Setting: Fluorite Sm-Nd and Hematite and Carbonates U-Pb Geochronology from the Rhinegraben in SW Germany. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 240: 11-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2018.08.012 doi:  10.1016/j.gca.2018.08.012
    Wang, D. D., Shao, L. Y., Li, Z. X., et al., 2016. Hydrocarbon Generation Characteristics, Reserving Performance and Preservation Conditions of Continental Coal Measure Shale Gas: A Case Study of Mid-Jurassic Shale Gas in the Yan'an Formation, Ordos Basin. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 145: 609-628. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.06.031 doi:  10.1016/j.petrol.2016.06.031
    Wang, G. W., Chang, X. C., Yin, W., et al., 2017. Impact of Diagenesis on Reservoir Quality and Heterogeneity of the Upper Triassic Chang 8 Tight Oil Sandstones in the Zhenjing Area, Ordos Basin, China. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 83: 84-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2017.03.008 doi:  10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2017.03.008
    Wang, G., Qin, Y., Shen, J., et al., 2018. Dynamic-Change Laws of the Porosity and Permeability of Low-to Medium-Rank Coals under Heating and Pressurization Treatments in the Eastern Junggar Basin, China. Journal of Earth Science, 29(3): 607-615. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-017-0908-4 doi:  10.1007/s12583-017-0908-4
    Woodhead, J., Pickering, R., 2012. Beyond 500 Ka: Progress and Prospects in the U-Pb Chronology of Speleothems, and Their Application to Studies in Palaeoclimate, Human Evolution, Biodiversity and Tectonics. Chemical Geology, 322/323: 290-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.06.017 doi:  10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.06.017
    Xi, K. L., Cao, Y. C., Wang, Y. Z., et al., 2015. Factors Influencing Physical Property Evolution in Sandstone Mechanical Compaction: The Evidence from Diagenetic Simulation Experiments. Petroleum Science, 12(3): 391-405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12182-015-0045-6 doi:  10.1007/s12182-015-0045-6
    Yan, S., Zhou, R. J., Niu, H. C., et al., 2019. LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb Dating of Low-U Garnets Reveals Multiple Episodes of Skarn Formation in the Volcanic-Hosted Iron Mineralization System, Awulale Belt, Central Asia. GSA Bulletin, 132(5/6): 1031-1045. https://doi.org/10.1130/b35214.1 doi:  10.1130/b35214.1
    Yang, R. C., Fan, A. P., Han, Z. Z., et al., 2017. Lithofacies and Origin of the Late Triassic Muddy Gravity-Flow Deposits in the Ordos Basin, Central China. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 85: 194-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2017.05.005 doi:  10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2017.05.005
    Yang, Y., Jiang, Z. X., Zhang, X. L., et al., 2010. Controlling Factors of and Lithofacies Interpretation for Tight Reservoirs in He-3 Member of Daniudi Gas Field. Journal of Northwest University (Natural Science Edition), 40(4): 699-702 (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Zhang, J. G., Jiang, Z. X., Jiang, X. L., et al., 2016. Oil Generation Induces Sparry Calcite Formation in Lacustrine Mudrock, Eocene of East China. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 71: 344-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.01.007 doi:  10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.01.007
    Zhang, T., Zhang, X. G., Lin, C. Y., et al., 2015. Seismic Sedimentology Interpretation Method of Meandering Fluvial Reservoir: From Model to Real Data. Journal of Earth Science, 26(4): 598-606. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-015-0572-5 doi:  10.1007/s12583-015-0572-5
    Zhao, W. Z., Shen, A. J., Qiao, Z. F., et al., 2018. A Research on Genetic Types and Distinguished Characteristics of Dolostone, and the Origin of Dolostone Reservoirs. Petroleum Exploration and Development, 45(6): 1-13 (in Chinese with English Abstract) http://kns.cnki.net/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?dbcode=CJFD&filename=PEAD201806002
    Zou, C. N., Dong, D. Z., Wang, Y. M., et al., 2015. Shale Gas in China: Characteristics, Challenges and Prospects (Ⅰ). Petroleum Exploration and Development, 42(6): 753-767. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1876-3804(15)30072-0 doi:  10.1016/s1876-3804(15)30072-0
  • 加载中
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
  • 1. 

    沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

  1. 本站搜索
  2. 百度学术搜索
  3. 万方数据库搜索
  4. CNKI搜索

Figures(5)  / Tables(1)

Article Metrics

Article views(60) PDF downloads(11) Cited by()

Related
Proportional views

LA-ICPMS in-situ U-Pb Geochronology of Low-Uranium Carbonate Minerals and Its Application to Reservoir Diagenetic Evolution Studies

doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1084-5

Abstract: Reconstruction of the diagenetic evolution of reservoirs is one of the most significant tasks in oil and gas exploration and development. Assessing the accurate timing of diagenetic events is critical to better understand the process of reservoir evolution, but the isotope dating of diagenetic events is technically challenging. This paper uses three case studies in the sedimentary basins in China to demonstrate the promising application of recently developed LA-(MC)-ICPMS in-situ U-Pb geochronology. Our results show that the new U-Pb dating method provides a reliable and efficient chronological approach to determine the absolute ages of diagenetic events. For example, the U-Pb age data of the Cambrian carbonate reservoir in the Tarim Basin reveals three diagenetic events at 526±14, 515±21, and 481±4.6 Ma, respectively. It is worth noting that microscopic observations are particularly important for improving the success rate of U-Pb dating. In addition, the recent progress and future prospects in the in-situ U-Pb dating method are also discussed in this study, suggesting that this method is currently hindered by the lack of international carbonate standards for data correction.

Entao Liu, Jian-Xin Zhao, Hua Wang, Songqi Pan, Yuexing Feng, Qianglu Chen, Faye Liu, Jiasheng Xu. LA-ICPMS in-situ U-Pb Geochronology of Low-Uranium Carbonate Minerals and Its Application to Reservoir Diagenetic Evolution Studies. Journal of Earth Science, 2021, 32(4): 872-879. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1084-5
Citation: Entao Liu, Jian-Xin Zhao, Hua Wang, Songqi Pan, Yuexing Feng, Qianglu Chen, Faye Liu, Jiasheng Xu. LA-ICPMS in-situ U-Pb Geochronology of Low-Uranium Carbonate Minerals and Its Application to Reservoir Diagenetic Evolution Studies. Journal of Earth Science, 2021, 32(4): 872-879. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1084-5
  • With an increasing demand for hydrocarbon resources in the world, many different types of reservoirs have been concerned in sedimentary basins, such as carbonate reservoir, clastic rock reservoir, shale gas reservoir. Investigation of reservoirs is the most important topics in the exploration and evaluation of hydrocarbon resources because it can increase the success rate of locating oil and gas reservoirs (Liang et al., 2019; Han et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2015, 2014; Zhang et al., 2015; Zou et al., 2015; Cao et al., 2013; Scherer, 1987). In the research field of oil and gas reservoirs, the reconstruction of diagenetic evolution is one of the most significant tasks (Cao et al., 2018; Liang et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2015; Shi et al., 2008; Li et al., 2006). Because this work is vital for understanding the evolution of reservoir porosity and permeability, revealing the formation mechanism of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and then determining the locations of high-quality reservoirs (Cao et al., 2018, 2013; Wang G et al., 2018; Wang G W et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2015; Gao et al., 2013; Jia et al., 2010; Pang, 2010). However, the study of diagenetic evolution of reservoirs is challenging and difficult, mainly because the evolution process is controlled by the complex interplay of many alteration factors, such as nature of pore fluids, water-rock interaction, burial depths, depositional facies, temperature, and pressure (Shen et al., 2019; Wang et al., 2017; Yang R C et al., 2017; Xi et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2014; Yang Y et al., 2010; Scherer et al., 1987). Moreover, the sedimentary basins in China have experienced complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage fluid flow activities, which lead to greater challenge in diagenetic evolution (Zhao et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2016; Pang, 2010). For example, carbonate reservoirs in the Tarim Basin underwent complex burial evolution and multiple diagenetic alterations (Shen et al., 2019; Zhao et al., 2018). Shale gas reservoirs in the Yangtze region are characterized by high heterogeneity and multi-stage diagenetic transformation (Han et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016; Zou et al., 2015).

    In the previous studies, petrographical observation and fluid inclusion microthermometry have been widely carried out to reconstruct diagenetic evolution of reservoirs (e.g., Liang et al., 2018; Zhao et al., 2018; Qiu et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2017; Scherer et al., 1987). However, these techniques can only provide the relative timing of important diagenetic processes (e.g., cementation, dissolution and dolomitization), rather than the absolute chronology of diagenetic events (Qiu et al., 2017; Cao et al., 2013). Due to the lack of appropriate absolute dating methods, it remains difficult to establish the relationship between petrophysical properties in reservoirs with specific structural events in a temporal framework. Therefore, to determine the absolute ages of diagenetic minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite) is of critical significance for reconstructing the diagenetic evolution history of oil and gas reservoirs (Shen et al., 2019; Godeau et al., 2018).

    Calcite and dolomite cement/veins are direct products of diagenesis in reservoirs. They have been used as reliable proxies to investigate hydrothermal fluid flow history andmulti-stage dolomitization (Zhao et al., 2018). U-Pb dating is the only absolute chronological method applicable to diagenetic carbonate minerals. Although U-Pb and Pb-Pb isotopic dilution methods have been successfully applied to constrain the accurate ages of carbonate minerals, they are inapplicable in most cases, especially for the low-uranium carbonate minerals (e.g., Rasbury and Cole, 2009; Smith and Farquhar, 1989). The recent development in laser ablation-(multi-collector) inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-(MC)-ICPMS) has enabled in-situ U-Pb dating of low-uranium secondary carbonate minerals (Roberts et al., 2017; Roberts and Walker, 2016; Li et al., 2014). This approach has been successfully used to determine the timing of calcite cement (Godeau et al., 2018; Li et al., 2014), calcite veins (Nuriel et al., 2019; Nuriel et al., 2017; Coogan et al., 2016; Roberts and Walker, 2016), dolomite (Shen et al., 2019), dolomite cements (Shen et al., 2019), and paleosols (Methner et al., 2016). Since the study of the in-situ U-Pb geochronology of low-uranium carbonate minerals is still in its early stage, there have been very few reported studies related to the diagenetic process of hydrocarbon reservoirs. As a result, the application effect of this method in the reconstruction of the diagenetic evolution of reservoirs has been unclear.

    In this study, we present three case studies in the sedimentary basins of China responsible for three different types of hydrocarbon reservoirs (i.e., carbonate reservoirs, shale gas reservoir, and clastic rock reservoir), which utilized LA-(MC)-ICPMS U-Pb dating method to constrain the timing of diagenetic events in these reservoirs. Our study highlights the unique advantages of the in-situ U-Pb geochronology of carbonate minerals in the reconstructions of the diagenetic evolution of reservoirs. In addition, the recent advances and existing problems of the in-situ LA-(MC)-ICPMS U-Pb dating technique of carbonate minerals were also discussed in this study.

  • U-Pb dating is the only feasible chronological method to carbonate minerals. Although U-Pb and Pb-Pb dating methods has been widely applied to determine the formation ages of silicates and high-uranium minerals for several decades, direct dating of carbonate minerals is more difficult and less developed (Roberts and Walker, 2016; Shen et al., 2016; Rasbury and Cole, 2009). Compared with silicates or high-U minerals, the U concentration of carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite) is usually less than 1 ppm, with an average value of around 0.2 ppm, making the accurate measurement of U and Pb isotopes difficulty (Liu et al., 2019).That means the signals of U and Pb isotopes provided by the carbonate minerals are commonly less than 1/1 000 of the high-uranium minerals (e.g., zircons). Moreover, for U-Pb dating of carbonate minerals, we also need to determine the concentration of common Pb. The first paper on the U-Pb dating of carbonates published in 1989 using isotope dilution isotope ratio mass spectrometry (ID-IRMS) technique (Smith and Farquhar, 1989). Then U-Pb via ID-IRMS technique has been applied to corals and speleothems, which are characterized by high U concentrations and high initial 238U/204Pb contents (Woodhead and Pickering, 2012; Rasbury and Cole, 2009). Overall, this technique is challenging to determine the absolute ages of low uranium carbonate minerals, evidenced by the fact that less than 30 papers were published in the past 30 years. This is because this method is inapplicable in many cases, such as low U concentration, high common Pb content, and low initial 238U/204Pb content. More seriously, high initial 238U/204Pb regions usually occur on a sub-mm scale for carbonate minerals, and the ID-IRMS dating method characterized by low spatial precision is challenging to target these high initial 238U/204Pb regions (Rasbury and Cole, 2009). Moreover, it is easy to mix different stages of carbonate minerals during sample selection because of the low spatial precision of this method (Drost et al., 2018).

    The recent development of LA-(MC)-ICPMS has allowed investigation of U-Pb dating of low-uranium carbonate minerals (MacDonald et al., 2019; Hansman et al., 2018; Parrish et al., 2018; Li et al., 2014). The biggest advantage of this method is its ability to target the high initial 238U/204Pb regions because of high spatial precision (30–250 µm), providinga favorable spread in U/Pb ratios necessary to produce a precise age (Drost et al., 2018). Moreover, it is a very efficient approach since it can apply directly on thin sections or slabs with no need for column chemistry. The LA-(MC)-ICPMS dating of carbonate minerals has been rapidly developed in the last decade, evidenced by the fact that more than 40 papers were published in the last 5 years. Up to now, this method has been successfully applied to many research fields, including constraining the timing of diagenetic events (Shen et al., 2019; Godeau et al., 2018; Li et al., 2014), reconstructing the timing of faulting (Nuriel et al., 2019, 2017), investigating the timing of brittle deformation (Hansman et al., 2018; Parrish et al., 2018; Goodfellow et al., 2017; Roberts and Walker, 2016; Ring and Gerdes, 2016), involving carbon cycle processes (Drake et al., 2017; Coogan et al., 2016), and assessing the timing of ore-forming fluids (Walter et al., 2018; Burisch et al., 2017).

  • Three case studies are presented in this study in order to investigate the application effect of the in-situ U-Pb dating of carbonate minerals in the diagenetic evolution of oil and gas reservoirs. They are (1) Cambrian carbonate reservoir in the Tarim Basin; (2) Shale gas reservoir in the Yangtze region; (3) Paleogene clastic rock reservoir in the Dongying depression, Bohaiwan Basin. All the calcite and dolomite samples were dated in Radiogenic Isotope Facility, The University of Queensland using the in-situ laser ablation LA-ICPMS carbonate U-Pb dating method.

    In-situ U-Pb dating of carbonate minerals was conducted using a Thermo iCAP-RQ Q-ICPMS instrument coupled to an ASI resolution SE 193 nm ArF-excimer laser equipped with a dual-volume Laurin Technic ablation cell was employed and a fluence at ~3 J/cm2. The protocol for in-situ LA-(MC)-ICPMS U-Pb dating of carbonates is very similar to the procedures described in Coogan et al. (2016), Nuriel et al. (2019), and Yan et al. (2019), with the exception of using a different calcite reference material for the 206Pb/238U mass-bias correction. All the samples were analyzed using a laser spot size of 200 μm. In our protocol, each spot analysis consisted of 250 pulses at a repetition rate of 10 Hz, in a sequence of 20 s background acquisition followed by 30 s sample ablation and 7 s washout. The laser-induced aerosol was carried by He gas from the sample cell to a mixing bulb in which the sample +He are mixed with Ar gas to stabilize the aerosol input to the plasma. NIST 612 and NIST 614 glass standards were used for instrument tuning, achieving typical instrument sensitivity of about average 50 000 cps/ppm 238U with 100 µm laser spot size. Data reduction was undertaken with the Iolite v3.63 software (Paton et al., 2011). Afterwards, the data were regressed on Tera-Wasserburg plots using Isoplot/EX software of Ludwig (2012) to determine the sample's U-Pb ages. Repeated measurements of NIST 614 standard before and after every 7–8 spot analyses of calcite samples were used to correct for 207Pb/206Pb fractionation and for instrument drift in the 206Pb/238U ratio, and an in-house carbonate reference material (AHX-1A) of known age (209.8±1.3 Ma, after Cheng et al., 2020) was used for normalisation of 206Pb/238U ratios. In addition, we used WC-1 as a secondary reference materials to ensure accuracy, and obtained an age of 252.2±4.0 Ma that is within error of the recommended value (254.4±6.4 Ma; Roberts et al., 2017).

  • Carbonate reservoirs in China are characterized by old strata, deep burial, multi-stages of fluids, and then complicated diagenetic evolution (Zhao et al., 2018; Pang, 2010). To determine the absolute ages of carbonate minerals is the key to reconstruct the diagenetic evolution of carbonate reservoirs (Shen et al., 2019). In this study, the representative carbonate sample was collected from the Early Cambrian strata. Thin section and cathode luminescence (CL) observations show at least three stages of diagenetic events including (1) early stage of dolomitization characterized by gray dolomite; (2) late stage of dolomitization characterized by white dolomite; (3) late calcite cementfilling the fractures of the early-formed dolomite (Fig. 1d).

    Figure 1.  The U-Pb data of the Cambrian reservoir in the Tarim Basin, showing the application of in-situ U-Pb geochronology in the reconstruction of the diagenetic evolution of carbonate reservoirs. Three diagenetic events have been identified: (a) early stage of dolomitization; (b) late stage of dolomitization; (c) stage of calcite cement filling. The locations of the spot points are shown in Fig. 1d.

    The LA-ICPMS U-Pb data show that the ages obtained for the two stages of dolomite are 526±14 Ma (MSWD=4.1) and 515±21 Ma (MSWD=10) (Fig. 1). The U concentration in the early stage of dolomite (ranging from 0.21 ppm to 0.49 ppm, with an average value of 0.31 ppm) is lower than that of the last stage (from 0.01 ppm to 0.38 ppm, with an average value of 0.22 ppm). This is consistent with the observation that there are two stages of dolomitization, although these ages overlap within their uncertainties (Fig. 1d). By contrast, late-formed hydrothermal blocky calcite cement is characterized by significantly higher U content with an average value of 0.43 ppm. The data points of the calcite cements are well aligned along the regression line defining an intercept age of 481±4.6 Ma (MSWD=6.0) (Fig. 1c). Our results suggest that the diagenetic evolution of the Cambrian carbonate reservoir in the Tarim Basin at least consists of two stages of dolomitization (at 526±14 and 515±21 Ma, respectively) in Early Caledonian and the later calcite cement filling (at 481±4.6 Ma) in the Middle Caledonian. The calcite cements filled the sedimentary pores and significantly reduced the reservoir's physical properties of dolomite. Therefore, using the LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating method, we successfully constrained the timing of three stages of diagenetic events, and such chronological information is critical to investigate the diagenesis-porosity evolution of carbonate reservoirs (Fig. 1).

  • As a significant unconventional resource, the role of shale gas is becoming increasingly important in the world (Zou et al., 2015). Fibrous calcite veins are widely distributed in organic-rich shales, and they are generally believed to be formed either in the oil-generating stage or in the early diagenetic stage (Zhang et al., 2016). The previous studies have mainly focused on the petrological and geochemical characterizations of shale gas reservoirs, and little attention has been paid to the formation age of calcite veins reservoirs (Han et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016). However, such chronological information of calcite is of great significance to understand the diagenetic evolution of shale gas reservoirs.

    To test the application effect of the LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating method in the shale gas reservoirs, the representative calcite vein sample was collected from the shale gas reservoir in the Yangtze region. In-situ REE analysis shows that it is characterized by high U concentration, which varies between 0.1 ppm and 6.2 ppm with an average of 1.3 ppm. Moreover, the 238U/206Pb ratio of the calcite vein sample is up to 200, favorable for in-situ LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating (Fig. 2). The age obtained from this sample is 62.1±0.67 Ma (MSWD=4.8), corresponding to a significant diagenetic event in the late diagenetic stage (Fig. 2). This diagenetic event occurred during the tectonic uplifting of the Yangtze region in the Early Himalayan Period, and is likely to have controlled the dispersal process of shale gas. Therefore, this pilot study highlights the effective application of in-situ U-Pb chronology in the determination of diagenetic events of shale gas reservoirs.

    Figure 2.  The U-Pb data of the calcite vein in the shale gas reservoir in the Yangtze region.

  • There are a large number of siliciclastic sedimentary basins in China, which contain various types of clastic rock reservoirs. For the diagenetic evolution of clastic rock reservoirs, there is still a lack of readily available techniques to provide absolute chronological information (Liang et al., 2018; Liu et al., 2005). Guo et al. (2020) reported the first in-situ U-Pb chronology study of calcite vein samples in clastic rock reservoirs in China. The studied sample was collected from the Paleogene Shahejie Formation in Dongying depression, Bohaiwan Basin. It is interesting to note the existence of oil-bearing exclusions in the calcite vein, which are characterized by yellow fluorescence under high magnification of microscopy (Fig. 3). This observation suggests that the calcite vein formed during the process of hydrocarbon accumulation. In other words, the age of the calcite corresponds to one stage of the oil charging event. The in-situ U-Pb age obtained for the calcite vein is 23.9±2.8 Ma, which is consistent with the analysis result of fluid inclusion within the uncertainty of the measurements (Guo et al., 2020) (Fig. 3). This case study suggests that the method of in-situ U-Pb dating of carbonate minerals has significant potential not only to determine the age of the diagenetic event, but also to constrain the timing of the oil charging event.

    Figure 3.  The U-Pb data of the calcite vein in the clastic rock reservoir in the Dongying depression, Bohaiwan Basin (Guo et al., 2020). The microscopic image shows the existence of oil-bearing exclusion.

  • It is worth pointing out that not all carbonates can be successfully dated by the in-situ U-Pb dating method, and the average success rate in the University of Queensland is around 50%. Several factors can contribute to obtaining meaningless age of carbonate minerals, including (1) limited variation in the U/Pb ratio; (2) low U content; (3) high common Pb concentration; (4) mixture of different generations of carbonate minerals; (5) open system behavior of the U-Pb system. To obtain a meaningful age of carbonate minerals, a significant U/Pb isotope variation is firstly required with 238U/206Pb values more than 5. Otherwise, the age of the dated samples cannot be constrained. High common Pb content is another serious problem for the in-situ U-Pb dating in many cases, especially for the carbonate samples from the clastic rock reservoirs and the regions nearby lead-zinc deposits. It is also observed that some samples are mixtures of multi-stage diagenetic events, and the single event cannot be distinguished with microscopic analysis (Fig. 4a). Moreover, if the U-Pb system of the carbonate minerals is disturbed, excess scatter will be observed with high MSWD value (Fig. 4b). Therefore, to successfully constrain the timing of carbonate minerals, at least four constraints are required: high U/Pb isotopic variation; adequate U content; low common lead content, and homogeneity of initial Pb isotope composition.

    Figure 4.  The failed examples of in-situ U-Pb dating of carbonate minerals.

    To improve the success rate of the in-situ U-Pb dating of carbonates, microscopic observations are particularly important preliminary work before carrying out in-situ U-Pb dating. In most cases, multi-stage diagenetic events can be distinguished by thin section and cathode luminescence observations. The formation of carbonate minerals is usually more complicated than we think. Under the naked eye, the studied sample in Fig. 5 appears to be formed during a single event. However, microscopic observations reveal at least three stages of diagenetic events, including the formation of saddle dolomite (the first stage); the formation of calcite-a (the second stage), and the formation of calcite-a (the third stage). Moreover, element mapping and in-situ REE analysis are the other significant techniques for the distinguishment of multi-stage events because they have the ability to select regions with high 238U/206Pb concentration ratios (Drost et al., 2018).

    Figure 5.  Thin section (a) and cathode luminescence (b) images of the carbonate, showing the complicated formation process of carbonate minerals.

    Although in-situ U-Pb dating method enters a rapid developing period, it is currently hindered by the lack of international carbonate standards for data correction (Roberts, et al., 2017). Up to now, only two international standards have been reported: WC-1 (254.4±6.4 Ma) and ASH15D (3.001±0.012 Ma) (Table 1). Even so, they are only available for part geochronology labs in the world because of the small sample amount. Moreover, the Pb isotope composition of the WC-1 is not uniform due to the variable admixture of radiogenic Pb and common Pb (Roberts and Walker, 2016). Furthermore, both WC-1 and ASH15D are characterized by high U concentration, not satisfactory for the carbonate samples characterized by low U concentration. It is hoped that more international standards can be developed in the future. Except for natural calcite standards, the in-house synthetic calcite standards (e.g., CCS-2) that present several advantages due to its isotopic homogeneity and renewability should be raised more concern.

    Standard Lithology Age (Ma) Average U content (ppm) Laboratory References
    WC-1 Calcite 254.4±6.4 4 International (reported by NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory) Roberts et al. (2017)
    ASH15D Calcite 3.001±0.012 ~2 International (reported by University of California) Nuriel et al. (2017)
    AHX-1a Calcite 209.8±1.3 0.1 The University of Queensland Chen et al. (2019)
    CCS-2 In-house synthetic calcite 238U/206Pb=7.75±0.16 1 CEREGE, France Godeau et al. (2018)
    Duf Brown Tank limestone Limestone 64.04±0.67 ~0.02 University of California/NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory Hill et al. (2016)
    GSC-1 Carbonate (419–444 Ma) stratigraphic constraint / University of California Nuriel et al. (2017)
    WP21 Carbonate (23–35 Ma) stratigraphic constraint / University of California Nuriel et al. (2017)

    Table 1.  The reported carbonate standards for in-situ U-Pb chronology

    In-situ U-Pb dating of carbonate minerals is not just an issue of analytical accuracy. The interpretation of the U-Pb data is also challenging since the formation process of carbonate mineral is complex (Drost et al., 2018). The core of this work lies in understanding which event or process is actually being dated. Many aspects should be taken into consideration for the interpretation of U-Pb age data, including geological information on structural and diagenetic histories, microscopic characteristics, mineralogical and geochemical features, and behavior of the U-Pb system. To better interpret the in-situ U-Pb data, some aspects need to be strengthened in the future, including the behavior of uranium and lead isotopes during the formation process of carbonate minerals, the formation mechanism of dolomite, and open system behavior of the U-Pb systemfor carbonate minerals.

  • (1) Three case studies are presented in this study to show the application effect of in-situ U-Pb dating of carbonate minerals in the diagenetic evolution of oil and gas reservoirs. The LA-ICPMS U-Pb data of the Cambrian carbonate reservoir in the Tarim Basin reveals two stages of dolomitization at 526±14 and 515±21 Ma, respectively and the later calcite cement filling event at 481±4.6 Ma. The calcite vein developed in the shale gas reservoir in the Yangtze region was dated at 62.1±0.67 Ma, which represents the timing of a late diagenetic event. The U-Pb age (23.9±2.8 Ma) obtained for the calcite vein developed in the Paleogene clastic rock reservoir in the Dongying depression corresponds to the timing of one significant oil charging event. Our results demonstrate that the LA-(MC)-ICPMS U-Pb dating method provides a reliable and efficient chronological approach to determine the absolute ages of diagenetic events of various types of reservoirs.

    (2) LA-(MC)-ICPMS in-situ U-Pb dating is an efficient chronological approach for carbonate minerals with rapid data acquisition and large sample throughput. But to successfully constrain the timing of carbonates, at least four constraints are required: high U/Pb isotopic variation; adequate U content; low common lead content, and homogeneity of initial Pb isotope composition. Microscopic observations are particularly important for improving the success rate of in-situ U-Pb dating of carbonate minerals.

    (3) In-situ U-Pb dating method is currently hindered by the lack of international carbonate standards for data correction. In addition, the interpretation of the U-Pb data is challenging, and the core of this work lies in investigating what geological event or process is actually being dated.

Reference (53)

Catalog

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return