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Volume 31 Issue 2
Apr.  2020
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Yuanyuan Zhai, Shuai Gao, Qingdong Zeng, Shaoxiong Chu. Geochronology, Geochemistry and Hf Isotope of the Late Mesozoic Granitoids from the Lushi Polymetal Mineralization Area: Implication for the Destruction of Southern North China Craton. Journal of Earth Science, 2020, 31(2): 313-329. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1277-y
Citation: Yuanyuan Zhai, Shuai Gao, Qingdong Zeng, Shaoxiong Chu. Geochronology, Geochemistry and Hf Isotope of the Late Mesozoic Granitoids from the Lushi Polymetal Mineralization Area: Implication for the Destruction of Southern North China Craton. Journal of Earth Science, 2020, 31(2): 313-329. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1277-y

Geochronology, Geochemistry and Hf Isotope of the Late Mesozoic Granitoids from the Lushi Polymetal Mineralization Area: Implication for the Destruction of Southern North China Craton

doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1277-y
Funds:

the State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, IGGCAS SPECIAL201606

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41602099

the State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, IGGCAS SKL-Z201905

the National Key R & D Program of China 2016YFC0600109

More Information
  • The North China Craton (NCC) is the best example of an Archean craton that has lost its stability in the Late Mesozoic. Although the cratonic destruction is generally considered to have occurred in the Eastern Block and reached a peak in the Early Cretaceous, the exact areal extent of cratonic destruction is debated, especially the southern and northern margin of the NCC. Here we report geochronology, geochemical and Hf isotopic data of the Late Mesozoic granitoids from Lushi polymetal mineralization area (LPMA) in the southern margin of NCC. These results provide new insights into the destruction in the southern margin of the NCC during the Late Mesozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that eight granitoids intruded in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (136.8-154.1 Ma), respectively. Geochemical signatures define these granitoids being A-type or I-type granite that formed in an extension setting. In addition, Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from these granitoids vary in a relatively large range, with εHf(t) values and TDM2 ages ranginge from -26.1 to +15.2 and 215 to 2 849 Ma, respectively. The parental magmas were likely derived from diverse sources, including materials of the partial melting of ancient lower crust and mantle-derived mafic magmas in various proportions. Combining with previous studies on the contemporaneous magma-tectonic activities in circum of NCC, we suggest that the rim of NCC was already unstabilized from the Late Jurassic in the LPMA. The subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate was the main trigger to the destruction of the southern margin of NCC, which was responsible for the lithospheric extension and thinning, extensive magmatism and mineralization.
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Geochronology, Geochemistry and Hf Isotope of the Late Mesozoic Granitoids from the Lushi Polymetal Mineralization Area: Implication for the Destruction of Southern North China Craton

doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1277-y
Funds:

the State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, IGGCAS SPECIAL201606

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41602099

the State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, IGGCAS SKL-Z201905

the National Key R & D Program of China 2016YFC0600109

Abstract: The North China Craton (NCC) is the best example of an Archean craton that has lost its stability in the Late Mesozoic. Although the cratonic destruction is generally considered to have occurred in the Eastern Block and reached a peak in the Early Cretaceous, the exact areal extent of cratonic destruction is debated, especially the southern and northern margin of the NCC. Here we report geochronology, geochemical and Hf isotopic data of the Late Mesozoic granitoids from Lushi polymetal mineralization area (LPMA) in the southern margin of NCC. These results provide new insights into the destruction in the southern margin of the NCC during the Late Mesozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that eight granitoids intruded in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (136.8-154.1 Ma), respectively. Geochemical signatures define these granitoids being A-type or I-type granite that formed in an extension setting. In addition, Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from these granitoids vary in a relatively large range, with εHf(t) values and TDM2 ages ranginge from -26.1 to +15.2 and 215 to 2 849 Ma, respectively. The parental magmas were likely derived from diverse sources, including materials of the partial melting of ancient lower crust and mantle-derived mafic magmas in various proportions. Combining with previous studies on the contemporaneous magma-tectonic activities in circum of NCC, we suggest that the rim of NCC was already unstabilized from the Late Jurassic in the LPMA. The subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate was the main trigger to the destruction of the southern margin of NCC, which was responsible for the lithospheric extension and thinning, extensive magmatism and mineralization.

Yuanyuan Zhai, Shuai Gao, Qingdong Zeng, Shaoxiong Chu. Geochronology, Geochemistry and Hf Isotope of the Late Mesozoic Granitoids from the Lushi Polymetal Mineralization Area: Implication for the Destruction of Southern North China Craton. Journal of Earth Science, 2020, 31(2): 313-329. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1277-y
Citation: Yuanyuan Zhai, Shuai Gao, Qingdong Zeng, Shaoxiong Chu. Geochronology, Geochemistry and Hf Isotope of the Late Mesozoic Granitoids from the Lushi Polymetal Mineralization Area: Implication for the Destruction of Southern North China Craton. Journal of Earth Science, 2020, 31(2): 313-329. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1277-y
  • The LPMA is located at the southern margin of NCC and borders on the northern margin of North Qinling belt (NQB) along the Luonan-Luanchuan fault (Fig. 1). The southern margin of NCC consists mainly of an Archaean basement and Proterozoic overlying volcanic and sedimentary sequences (Zhang et al., 2001). From north to south, the rocks in the LPMA (Fig. 2) of the southern margin of NCC comprise dolomite and glutenite of Mesoproterozoic Guandaokou Group (Jxgn), rhyolite porphyry and andesite of Mesoproterozoic Xiong'er Group (Chxl), sericite slate of Neoproterozoic Dongpo Strata (Zd), quartzite and quartz schist of Neoproterozoic Luanchuan Group (Qnln), quartz marble and quartz schist of Neoproterozoic Taowan Group (Qntn). The NQB part in LPMA is composed predominately of, from north to south, the Proterozoic Kuanping Group (Pt2kp), Paleozoic Erlangping Group (Pz1el), Triassic sediments (T3) and Proterozoic Qinling Complex (Pt2ql). These groups and complex are composed predominantly of medium-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks (Zhang et al., 2001). Regional faults are developed in nearly EW direction, from north to south, including Machaoying fault, Heigou fault, Waxuezi fault and Zhuyangguan fault. The secondary fractures in multi-directions and some folded structures occur in those metamorphic strata above. The Paleozoic granitoids intruded into the Proterozoic Kuanping Group and Paleozoic Erlangping Group, between the Heigou fault and Zhuyangguan fault. The Late Mesozoic granitoids are extensively developed in the LPMA, relatively (Fig. 2).

    Figure 2.  Geological map of the Lushi polymetal mineralization area

    The LPMA underwent multi-stage tectono-thermal events, along with extensive magmatism and mineralization. The Paleoproterozoic orogenic event (TNCO) formed the basement of this region. Hereafter, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic orogenic processes of Qinling Orogen (along the Luonan-Luanchuan fault, Shangdan and Mianlue sutures) induced multi-stage magmatism. The Late Mesozoic Paleo-Pacific subduction and its far-field effects generated voluminous granitoids (Wang et al., 2013) and associated Mo mineralization in East Qinling (Zhao et al., 2019; Mao et al., 2011; Li et al., 2009, 2007). The Late Mesozoic intrusions, occurring either as individual plutons or small stocks, are distributed both in the southern NCC and the NQB (Fig. 1). Most of the Late Mesozoic granitoids in the LPMA outcrop as small stocks, except the Mangling granite complex. These intrusions are usually associated with Mo, W, Pb, Zn and Au mineralization, including porphyry (Mo), skarn (Mo, W, Fe, Pb, Zn) and vein (Pb, Zn, Au) types (Fig. 2).

    In present study, samples HYY, YJG, BBS-1, GLW, BBS-9, YJW, ML and SYG are from different granitoid plutons previously mapped as Late Mesozoic in age. The summary of the Late Mesozoic granitoid rocks, including granite porphyry, K-feldspar granite porphyry, biotite monzogranite porphyry, syenite porphyry, monzogranite and granite, is shown in Table 1.

    Pluton Sample No. Location Rock type Texture Phenocryst (%) Groundmass (%)
    Q Al Pl Bi
    Houyaoyu HYY 34°12′15″N, 111°01′9″E Granite porphyry Porphyritic texture 6 12 10 5 67
    Yinjiagou YJG 34°11′37″N, 110°49′05″E K-feldspar granite porphyry Porphyritic texture 5 10 4 6 75
    Babaoshan BBS-1 34°00′43″N, 110°53′20″E K-feldspar granite porphyry Porphyritic texture 5 15 3 3 74
    Gelaowan GLW 34°06′46″N, 110°46′9″E Granite porphyry Porphyritic texture 5 12 10 2 71
    Babaoshan BBS-9 34°00′40″N, 110°53′59″E Biotite monzogranite porphyry Porphyritic texture 5 13 15 5 62
    Yangjiawan YJW 33°57′50″N, 110°53′59″E Syenite porphyry Porphyritic texture 5 15 5 5 70
    Mangling ML 33°54′09″N, 110°43′28″E Monzogranite Holocrystalline texture 25 40 30 5
    Shiyaogou SYG 33°51′36″N, 10°55′08″E Granite Holocrystalline texture 20 42 33 5
    Q. Quartz; Al. alkalifeldspar; Pl. plagioclase; Bi. biotite.

    Table 1.  Summary petrographic features of the Late Mesozoic granitoids from LPMA in southern NCC

    Houyaoyu granite porphyry occurred in the northernmost of the LPMA, cropped out over a surface area of 1.3 km2 and intruded into Mesoproterozoic Guandaokou Group as a stock (Fig. 2), has massive structure and porphyritic textures (Figs. 3a, 3b). The phenocrysts (33% by volume) consist of quartz (6%), alkali feldspar (12%), plagioclase (10%), and biotite (5%). The alkali feldspar and plagioclase phenocrysts reveal euhedral-hypidiomorphic shape. The groundmass (67%) is composed of aphanitic felsic minerals with minor opaque minerals.

    Figure 3.  Representative microscopic photographs under crossed polarized light view of the Late Mesozoic granitoids from the LPMA. (a) HYY granite porphyry; (b) YJG K-feldspar granite porphyry; (c) BBS-1 K-feldspar granite porphyry; (d) GLW granite porphyry; (e) BBS-9 biotite monzogranite porphyry; (f) YJW syenite porphyry; (g) ML monzogranite; (h) SYG granite. Pl. Plagioclase; Sa. sanidine; Kfs. potassium feldspar; Q. quartz; Bi. biotite; Mc. microcline

    Yinjiagou pluton located to the west of Houyaoyu stock, cropped out over a surface area of 0.6 km2 and intruded into Mesoproterozoic Guandaokou Group as a complex (Fig. 2). The sample was collected from the southeast of Yinjiagou K-feldspar granite porphyry. The sample suffered intensely alternation with porphyritic textures (Figs. 3c, 3d). The phenocrysts (25% by volume) are quartz (5%), alkalifeldspar (10%), plagioclase (4%), and biotite (6%); the groundmass (75%) is composed of aphanitic felsic minerals with minor opaque minerals.

    K-feldspar granite porphyry and biotite monzogranite porphyry were collected from the Baobaoshan pluton with an exposed area of 1.05 km2, which was located to the southwest of the Houyaoyu granite porphyry and intruded into Mesoproterozoic Guandaokou Group with sharp contacts (Fig. 2). The samples were collected from core and east part of the pluton. K-feldspar granite porphyry exhibits porphyritic textures (Figs. 3e, 3f). The phenocrysts (26% by volume) consist of quartz (5%), alkalifeldspar (15%), plagioclase (3%), and biotite (3%); the groundmass (74%) is composed of aphanitic felsic material. Biotite monzogranite porphyry exhibits porphyritic textures (Figs. 3i, 3j). The phenocrysts (38% by volume) consist of quartz (5%), alkalifeldspar (13%), plagioclase (15%), and biotite (5%); the groundmass (62%) is composed of aphanitic felsic material.

    Gelaowan granite porphyry located to the south of Yinjiagou stock and intruded into Mesoproterozoic Guandaokou Group as a stock (Fig. 2). The sample was collected from the east of Gelaowan pluton. The sample suffered hydrothermal alteration and exhibits with porphyritic texture (Figs. 3g, 3h). The phenocrysts (29% by volume) are quartz (5%), alkalifeldspar (12%), plagioclase (10%), and biotite (2%); the groundmass (71%) is composed of aphanitic felsic material.

    Yangjiawan syenite porphyry intruded the quartz marble and quartz schist of Neoproterozoic Taowan Group, near the regional Heigou fault, as a stock in strip shape (Fig. 2). The sample was collected from the west of Yangjiawan stock and with porphyritic texture (Figs. 3k, 3l). The phenocrysts (30% by volume) are quartz (5%), alkalifeldspar (15%), plagioclase (5%), and biotite (5%); the groundmass (70%) is composed of aphanitic felsic material.

    Mangling monzogranite intruded Mesoproterozoic greenschist to lower amphibolite facies volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Kuanping Group which is located between Heigou fault and Waxuezi fault and exposed along a 40 km transect of the Luanchuan fault in regional (Hu et al., 2017). Sample ML was collected from the east of Mangling pluton and with holocrystalline texture (Figs. 3m, 3n). The monzogranite consists of quartz (25%), K-feldspar (40%), plagioclase (30%), biotite (5%).

    The Shiyaogou granite is exposed along a 5 km transect of the Waxuezi fault, where it intruded Proterozoic Kuanping Group and Paleozoic Erlangping Group. Sample SYG was collected from the west of Shiyaogou stock and with holocrystalline texture (Figs. 3o, 3p). The granite consists of quartz (20%), K-feldspar (42%), plagioclase (33%), biotite (5%).

  • In this study, eight granitoids from the LPMA were collected for zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope analyses. Only twenty samples of six granitoids were collected for whole-rock geochemistry analyses, due to extensive hydrothermal alterations.

  • Zircons were separated from whole-rock samples using the conventional heavy liquid and magnetic techniques, and then by handpicking under a binocular microscope, at the Langfang Regional Geological Survey, Hebei Province, China. All zircon grains were documented with transmitted and reflected light micrographs. Cathode luminescence (CL) images (Fig. 4) were also taken to reveal their internal structures for the consideration of targeting areas for U-Pb dating and Hf spot analyses. The CL imaging was carried out on a LEO1450VP scanning electron microscope with a Mini CL detector at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGGCAS), Beijing, China.

    Figure 4.  Representative cathodoluminescence (CL) images of zircons from the late Mesozoic granitoids of the LPMA. White circles are the locations of LA-ICP-MS U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis, and the scale bar in all CL images is 32 μm length

    Zircon U-Pb dating was carried out by using the laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at the IGGCAS. Helium was used as the carrier gas. Zircon 91500 was used as the external standard and NIST SRM610 was used for instrument calibration. U-Pb isotope ratios were measured by ICP-MS, counting ratios were calculated using GLITTER (version 4.0), and the ages were determined using an internationally standard procedure in Isoplot software (Ludwig, 2003). These procedures have been described in detail by Yuan et al. (2004).

  • After the removal of weathered surfaces, the twenty samples were crushed in an agate mill to ~200 meshes for whole-rock geochemical analysis. The major oxides contents were determined by a PHILLIPS PW1480 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) on fused glass disks at the Rock-Mineral Preparation and Analysis Lab, IGGCAS. Uncertainties for most major oxides are ca. 2%, for MnO and P2O5 ca. 5% and totals are within 100±1 wt.%. Loss on ignition (LOI) was measured after heating to 1 000 ℃.

    The measurement of trace elements compositions were conducted on Agilent 7700e ICP-MS at Wuhan Sample Solution Analytical Technology Co., Ltd, Hubei Province, China. The detailed sample-digesting procedure was as follows: (1) Dry sample (200 mesh) at 105 ℃ and accurately weigh 50 mg sample; (2) put the sample in to a Teflon bomb and adde 1 mL HNO3 and 1 mL HF; (3) pressure jacket and heated Teflon bomb to 190 ℃ in an oven for > 24 h; (4) open the Teflon bomb and placed on a hotplate at 140 ℃ and evaporate to incipient dryness, and then add 1 mL HNO3 and evaporate to dryness again; (5) 1 mL of HNO3, 1 mL of MQ water and 1 mL internal standard solution of 1 ppm In was added, and the Teflon bomb was resealed and placed in an oven at 190 ℃ for > 12 h; (6) the final solution was transferred to a polyethylene bottle and diluted to 100 g by the addition of 2% HNO3. The detailed sample-digesting procedure for ICP-MS analyses and analytical precision and accuracy for trace elements can also be referred by Liu et al. (2008).

  • In-situ zircon Hf isotopic analyses were conducted on the same spots where U-Pb analyses were made. Hf isotopic compositions were determined by a Neptune MC-ICP-MS equipped with Geolas Plus 193 nm ArF excimer laser at the LA-ICP-MS laboratory, IGGCAS. A laser spot size of 44 μm and a laser repetition of 8 Hz with energy density of 15 J/cm2 were used during the analyses. The signal collection model was one block with 200 cycles, with an integration time of 0.131 s for 1 cycle and a total time of 26 s during each analysis. Zircon 91500 was used as the external standard (176Hf/177Hf=0.282 310±0.000 035). For detailed analytical procedures, see Xie et al. (2008) and Wu et al. (2006). For the calculation of initial Hf isotope ratios, the decay constant for 176Lu proposed by Söderlund et al. (2004) was used. For the calculation of εHf(t) values, we adopted the chondritic values of Blichert-Toft and Albarede (1998). Hf model ages (TDM) were calculated on the basis of the depleted mantle model described by Griffin et al. (2000).

  • In this study, the zircons from eight granitoid units are euhedral-subhedral and display fine-scale oscillatory growth zoning in cathodoluminescence (CL) images (Fig. 4). Together with their high Th/U ratios (0.15–2.15, Table S1), these features suggest a magmatic origin of the zircons (Koschek, 1993). The U-Pb data are listed in Table S1 and plotted on concordia diagrams in Fig. 5.

    Figure 5.  Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb concordia diagrams for 8 Late Mesozoic plutons from the LPMA shown in Figs. 4a–4h

    The 206Pb/238U ages of 12 analytical spots from the Houyaoyu granite porphyry (HYY) vary from 139 to 134 Ma (Table S1). They give a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 136.8±1.0 Ma (MSWD=0.71) (Fig. 5a), which is interpreted to be the age of intrusion of the granite porphyry.

    The 206Pb/238U ages given by 14 analytical spots of the Yinjiagou K-feldspar granite porphyry (YJG) are in the range of 149 to 140 Ma (Table S1). They give a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 143.7±2.0 Ma (MSWD=0.24) (Fig. 5b), interpreted as the rock-forming age of the K-feldspar granite porphyry.

    Sixteen analytical spots of the Babaoshan K-feldspar granite porphyry (BBS-1) generate 206Pb/238U ages range of 159 to 141 Ma (Table S1). They give a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 147.8±2.5 Ma (MSWD=0.38) (Fig. 5c), which is interpreted as the time of the K-feldspar granite porphyry intrusion.

    The 206Pb/238U ages given by 12 analytical spots of the Gelaowan granite porphyry (GLW) are in the range of 153 to 142 Ma (Table S1). They give a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 147.6±2.0 Ma (MSWD=0.91) (Fig. 5d), which is interpreted to be the age of intrusion of the granite porphyry.

    The 206Pb/238U ages of 17 analytical spots from the Bao-baoshan biotite monzogranite porphyry (BBS-9) range from 154 to 144 Ma (Table S1). They give a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 148.9±1.3 Ma (MSWD=0.74) (Fig. 5e), which is considered to be the intrusion time of the biotite monzogranite porphyry.

    The 206Pb/238U ages of 18 analytical spots from the Yangjiawan syenite porphyry (YJW) range from 158 to 140 Ma (Table S1). They give a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 147.0±2.8 Ma (MSWD=2.1) (Fig. 5f), which is interpreted to be the age of intrusion of the syenogranite porphyry.

    The 206Pb/238U ages given by 15 analytical spots of the Mangling monzogranite (ML) are in the range of 159 to 140 Ma (Table S1). They give a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 146.6±3.3 Ma (MSWD=2.3) (Fig. 5g), interpreted as the rock-forming age of the monzogranite.

    Shiyaogou granite was previously mapped as early Caledonian in age. The 206Pb/238U ages of 12 analytical spots from the granite (SYG) vary from 163 to 141 Ma (Table S1). They give a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 154.1±4.1 Ma (MSWD=2.6) (Fig. 5h), which is interpreted to be the age of intrusion of the granite.

  • The results of whole-rock major and trace element analysis of 20 samples from six granitoid units are listed in Table 2. All the Late Mesozoic granitoids samples are high in SiO2 (66.00 wt.%–75.67 wt.%), Na2O+K2O (7.32 wt.%–11.14 wt.%), and Al2O3 (12.97 wt.%–16.00 wt.%), but low in total Fe2O3 (0.22 wt.%–3.90 wt.%), MgO (0.10 wt.%–1.20 wt.%), and CaO (0.02 wt.%–3.52 wt.%). The samples of BBS-1 and YJW have a low Na2O/K2O ratios (0.06–0.47), the rest of samples show a higher Na2O/K2O ratios (0.65–1.04). These granitoids are geochemically varied in category definition (Fig. 6a). The HYY, BBS-9, ML and SYG plot in the field of sub-alkaline series (granite); the YJW belongs to the alkaline series as the syenite, and the BBS-1 plot in the field of alkali granite, respectively. Most A/CNK ratios range from 1.00 to 1.34 of the rest samples, showing metaluminous to peraluminous characteristics on an A/NK versus A/CNK diagram. The A/CNK ratios of YJW (0.75–0.77), SYG-02 and ML-03 correspond to metaluminous series (Fig. 6b; Maniar and Piccoli, 1989). The alkaline granitoids (YJW and BBS-1) have higher content of K2O (7.33 wt.%–10.04 wt.%) than the sub-alkaline series (HYY, BBS-9, ML and SYG; 3.83 wt.%–5.49 wt.%).

    Figure 6.  Chemical compositions: (a) SiO2 vs. (Na2O+K2O) classification diagram (after Wilson, 1989); (b) A/CNK vs. A/NK (after Maniar and Piccoli, 1989). A. Al2O3; C. CaO; N. Na2O; K. K2O (all in molar proportion)

    In the chondrite-normalized REE diagram (Fig. 7a; McDonough and Sun, 1995), all the Late Mesozoic granitoids are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs), (LREE/HREE=6.28–24.89, (La/Yb)N=4.21–38.76). The HYY, BBS-9, YJW, ML and SYG (Fig. 7a) show weakly negative Eu anomalies (δEu=0.52–0.84). In comparison, samples of the BBS-1 have an obviously negative Eu anomalies (δEu=0.09–0.38) (Fig. 7a). The HREEs are more depleted than the MREEs of the HYY and SYG compared to other plutons. The trends between MREES and HREEs are smooth or lightly increase of BBS-1, BBS-9, YJW and ML. In the PM (primitive mantle)-normalized trace element diagram (Fig. 7b; McDonough and Sun, 1995), these Late Mesozoic granitoids possess similar REE distribution patterns except the Eu and Ba anomalies, enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Th, U, K), and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, P). Samples of BBS-1 display the obviously depleted of Eu compared to other samples.

    Figure 7.  Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns (a), and primitive-mantle-normalized trace element spidergrams (b) for Late Mesozoic granitoids examined in this study. Chondrite and primitive mantle normalizing values are from McDonough and Sun (1995), respectively

  • All the zircon U-Pb spots for dating the granitoids were also chosen for in-situ zircon Hf isotopic analysis (Table S2). The initial 176Hf/177Hf ratios of zircons from the Late Mesozoic granitoids vary from 0.281 951 to 0.283 122. The εHf(t) values and TDM2 ages range from -26.1 to +15.2 and 215 to 2 849 Ma, respectively. Most of the analyzed spots except HYY plot between the 3.5 Ga crust and CHUR line in the εHf(t) vs. age (Ma) diagram, which are similar to those of zircons from the Late Mesozoic granitoids in the East Qinling Orogen (Fig. 8a). BBS-9, YJW, BBS-1, GLW and ML show relatively consistent ɛHf(t) values. The rest samples have a large variation of Hf isotopic compositions of zircons (Table S2 and Fig. 8b).

    Figure 8.  (a) εHf(t) vs. age (Ma) diagram of the Late Mesozoic granitoids from LPMA, (b) detailed distribution of εHf(t) of 8 plutons, range of the Late Mesozoic granitoids in East Qinling Orogen are from the data of Wang et al. (2015), and references therein

  • The zircons from the studied granitoids exhibit oscillatory growth zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. Therefore, the U-Pb ages obtained from the zircons represent the intrusion age of the magma. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages for eight granitoids vary from 136.8±1.0 to 154.1±4.0 Ma. The new ages are within the range of previous dating results of the regional granitoids (158–125 Ma, Hu et al., 2017, 2011; Wang et al., 2015; Yang et al., 2014; Li et al., 2013; Yan et al., 2013; Zeng et al., 2013a, b; Mao et al., 2010 and references therein), which occur as small porphyritic intrusions and batholiths without deformation (Wang et al., 2013; Hu et al., 2011; Mao et al., 2010).

    We therefore conclude that the Late Mesozoic granitoids magmatism in LPMA is constrained to the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous. It deserves special notice in the age and location of these eight Late Mesozoic granitoids. The Shiyaogou granite (SYG) located in the southernmost of LPMA along the Waxuezi fault possessed the oldest age (154.1 Ma). While the Houyaoyu granite porphyry (HYY) was the youngest (136.8 Ma) units and intruded in the northernmost of LPMA. As for the rest granitoids, their age (143.7 to 148.9 Ma) and location were lied/located between Houyaoyu granite porphyry and Shiyaogou granite. The Late Mesozoic granitoids magmatismin in LPMA is getting younger from the edge to the inside of southern margin NCC.

    The Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous is not only an important stage of granitoids magmatism but also mineralization in regional area. The Mesozoic smaller porphyritic plutons (small stocks), including Donggou, Yechangping, Jinduicheng, Leimengou, Sandaozhuang, Nannihu, Shangfanggou and so on, are usually associated with skarn, porphyritic, and vein-type polymetallic mineralization (Ye et al., 2016, 2006; Mao et al., 2009; Li et al., 2007; Chen et al., 2000), essentially Mo mineralization (Bao et al., 2014, 2009; Ye et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2013; Mao et al., 2011, 2009, 2008; Li et al., 2009, 2007; Zhu et al., 2008; Chen et al., 2000).

  • Major and trace element data, together with Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from the granitoids, are the main clues to the nature of the magma source. In particular, Hf isotopic composition of zircon is an excellent indicator of source materials of magmas by elucidating magma mixing processes in the generation of granitoids (Hawkesworth and Kemp, 2006; Yang et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2003; Griffin et al., 2002). In this study, we utilize the whole-rock geochemistry and zircon Hf isotope of the Late Mesozoic granitoids in LPMA to elucidate the magma sources.

    The Houyaoyu granite porphyry (HYY), exhibit high SiO2 and Al2O3, and low total FeO and MgO concentrations, low HREE abundances and small negative Eu anomalies (δEu=0.73–0.81). These geochemical features suggest that the magma was sourced from lower crust. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios of Houyaoyu granite porphyry range between 15.99 and 16.33, and between 36.94 and 37.95, respectively (Fig. 9). The ratios are close to those for the primitive mantle (17.8 and 37.0, respectively) (McDonough and Sun, 1995). The Houyaoyu granite porphyry has higher Zr+Nb+Ce+Y values (391.05 ppm−397.57 ppm) and 10 000Ga/Al values (2.91−3.01) which indicated an A-type granite affinity (Eby, 1992, 1990; Whalen et al., 1987). The zircons of Houyaoyu granite porphyry in this study have highly variable εHf(t) values (-15.8 to +15.2, Table S2). Half of data spots show a spread of εHf(t) between the CHUR and Depleted mantle and the remaining half plots mainly between the CHUR and 2.0 Ga crust (Fig. 8a). Yang et al. (2008) demonstrated that mixing of magmas derived from depleted mantle with those derived from ancient, enriched crustal rocks could explain the wide range in εHf(t) values and crustal model ages of zircons. Therefore, the Hf isotope compositions together with the geochemical features described above demonstrated that the Houyaoyu granite porphyry may derive from the mixing between depleted mantle-derived magmas (juvenile crust) and crust-derived magmas (the basement of Archaean Taihua Group, the Proterozoic volcanic, Wang et al., 2015; Zhao et al., 2007; Zhao et al., 2001 and references therein).

    Figure 9.  (a) Plots of 10 000×Ga/Al vs. Nb for the Late Mesozoic granitoids rocks in the LPMA. A. A type; S. S type; M. M type; I. I type (Whalen et al., 1987), (b) tectonic discrimination diagrams for granitoids (after Pearce, 1996). ORG. Ocean ridge granites; VAG. volcanic arc granites; WPG. within-plate granites; Syn-COLG. syn-collision granites; Post-COLG. post-collision granites

    The geochemical features of Mangling monzogranite (ML) in this study suggest that the magma was also derived from the melting of crust (high SiO2 and Al2O3, and low total FeO and MgO concentrations, low HREE abundances, the Nb/Ta ratios range between 9.99 and 11.08, Zr/Hf ratios range between 27.72 and 33.13), and the monzogranite belongs to I-type granite (A/CNK < 1.1, Fig. 6; 10 000Ga/Al=2.28−2.53, Zr+Nb+Ce+Y= 182.15−229.46) (Fig. 9). It's worth noting that the Mangling monzogranite exposed as a complex pluton extending 40 km and transecting Luonan-Luanchuan fault (Fig. 1), dominated by medium- to coarse-graine monzogranite with minor diorite. Hu et al. (2017) suggested that the ML granitoid complex has recorded magma mixing (mantle-derived mafic magma and crustal derived felsic magma), according to the titanite from the MMEs, mafic dike and the monzogranite. In this study, the Hf isotope composition of zircon from the MangLing monzogranite implies that magma source is mainly derived from a crust melting origin, with mantle contamination, indicated by a high εHf(t) value of +5.9 and young TDM2 age of 816 Ma. Therefore, we demonstrated that the Mangling monzogranite is derived from the mixing source between depleted mantle-derived magmas and crust-derived magmas. The study of geochemistry and isotope from Shiyaogou granite (SYG) also demonstrated the similar results in magma sources and genesis as Mangling monzogranite.

    There are magma mixing in the magma chamber among Houyaoyu granite porphyry, Mangling monzogranite and Shiyaogou granite, with different style and proportion. It is worth noticed that there are much more positive and variable ɛHf(t) values of Houyaoyu granite porphyry than those two granitoids. Moreover, the A-type Houyaoyu granite porphyry is much younger and located more northernmost than I-type Mangling monzogranite and Shiyaogou granite. Therefore, we demonstrated that the magma mixing features of Houyaoyu granite porphyry are more obvious or more depleted mantle-derived magmas were injected into its magma chamber.

    The Babaoshan biotite monzogranite porphyry (BBS-9), exhibits high SiO2 and Al2O3, relatively enriched in LILE, Rb, Ba, U, K and LREE ((La/Yb)N=13.04−17.69), depleted in Sr, Nb, Ti, and P, and weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu=0.78−0.84). The littler value of Zr+Nb+Ce+Y (281.61−397.57) and 10 000Ga/Al (2.21−2.29) with the geochemical characteristics above suggest that Babaoshan biotite monzogranite porphyry is a highly fractionated I-type granite (Fig. 9). The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios of BBS-9 range between 10.97 and 12.48, and between 32.84 and 34.53, respectively. These source-indicator ratios suggest that the magma was derived from the melting of crust. The BBS-9 have a homogeneous ɛHf(t) values (-26.1– -20.5) and TDM2 ages (2 497–2 849 Ma), with average values of -23.3 and 2 675 Ma, respectively. We therefore propose that the magmas of BBS-9 have singular origin that is from the partial melting of the old crustal (Taihua Group) material of NCC.

    As for the rest Late Mesozoic granitoids (Yinjiagou K-feldspar granite porphyry (YJG), Babaoshan K-feldspar granite porphyry (BBS-1), Gelaowan granite porphyry (GLW) and Yangjiawan syenite porphyry (YJW)), with the similar age, geochemical features and Hf isotopic compositions, our study demonstrate that they possess I-type granite and the primary magmas were mainly derived from the partial melting of crustal materials from Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic.

    On the basis of our results and previous study of the geochemical and isotopic features of the Late Mesozoic granitoids in LPMA, we conclude that these granitoids have various magma sources, including ancient crust materials and depleted mantle.

  • The southern margin of the NCC underwent multi-stage orogenic processes, the collision with the NQB in the Late Silurian to Early Devonian (Dong and Santosh, 2016; Liu R et al., 2013) and the collision with Ytz during the Middle Triassic (Zhu et al., 2017; Ding et al., 2011; Bryant et al. 2004; Ratschbacher et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2001, 2000, 1996; Li et al., 1993 and references therein). The Ytz and NCC were amalgamated into an integrated plate following the amalgamation, and then involved in the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction tectonic regime during the Mesozoic to Cenozoic (Mao et al., 2008; Griffin et al., 1998).

    Triggered by the tectonic activities, various types and multi-stage magmatism were generated in this region. The occurrence of Paleozoic magmatism was controlled by the southward subduction of the Erlangping oceanic crust underneath the NQB during the Early Paleozoic (Dong and Santosh, 2016; Liu R et al., 2013; Ma et al., 2004). The Early Mesozoic magmatism is generally interpreted to be the product of subduction and/or collision between the NCC and Ytz (Wang et al., 2013; Dong et al., 2012). As to the Late Mesozoic magmatism, all these Late Mesozoic granitoids from the LPMA belong to A-type and I-type granite, which is in accordance with the previous study of other contemporaneous granitoids in the southern margin of the NCC (Wang et al., 2013). In addition, metamorphic core complex, mafic dikes and MMEs (mafic microgranular enclaves) in granitoids of Late Jurassic (ca. 150 Ma) are widespread in Eastern Qinling Orogen and adjacent area (Hu et al., 2017; Zhu et al., 2015; Yang et al., 2014; Liu X C et al., 2013; Ding et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2011; Bao et al., 2009 and references therein). Collectively, the geochemical affinities of granitoids in this study and the above-mentioned geological phenomenon suggest an extensional environment during Late Mesozoic in regional. However, disputation exists as to the geodynamic setting being a post-collisional extension of the Qinling Orogeny or other extensional dynamic mechanism.

    The study of Laoniushan complex (Ding et al., 2011) and the Qinling lamprophyre dykes and granitoids (Wang et al., 2007) indicate that the post-collisional extension of Qinling Orogen began at about 230–220 Ma. Does the post-collisional extension last over almost 100 Ma? A tectonic quiescence happened after the assembly of the North China Craton and South China Block, along with an absence of granitoids magmatism in the Early Jurassic throughout the Eastern Qinling-Dabie (Mao et al., 2010; Fig. 1). That is to say, the post-collisional extension had already been over before the Early Jurassic. Therefore, the Late Mesozoic magmatism in LPMA has no genetic relationship with the post-collision extensional evolution of the Qinling Orogen setting. Whereas, these blocks has already integrated at the Middle Triassic described above. The Late Mesozoic magmatism is hence more likely a response to an intraplate setting in this region (Wang et al., 2013, 2011; Dong et al., 2011; Mao et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2001).

    In the NCC and elsewhere in northeastern Asia, the Early Cretaceous deformation was characterized by near unique NW-SE extension that was likely controlled by the far-field effect of Cretaceous Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction (Zhang et al., 2014). Previously studies (Zeng et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2012a; Zhu and Zheng, 2009 and references therein) show that the influence of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction could exceed 1 200 km distance. The subduction of Paleo-Pacific slab has been considered as a crucial factor to destabilize mantle convection beneath the eastern NCC (Zhu et al., 2012a, b, 2011; Xu et al., 2009; Zhu and Zheng, 2009) through delamination (Gao et al., 2009) and/or thermal-mechanical-chemical erosion of the lithospheric mantle (Huang et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2009; Zheng et al., 2007; Xu, 2001). Thermal erosion of the lithosphere by hot upwelling mantle could have caused significant crustal extension, voluminous crust- and mantle-derived magmatism, and abundant mineralization (Tang et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2012; Zhu and Zheng, 2009; Sun et al., 2007; Ratschbacher et al., 2003; Ren et al., 1992). As for the Late Mesozoic granitoids in this region, Wang et al. (2013) suggested that these granitoids have similar origins, and may all be associated with far-field effects of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction. Hu et al. (2017) demonstrated that they are genetically related to the lithospheric thinning of the NCC. As for our samples, their geochemistry affinities to A-type and I-type, and the involvement of mantle-derived materials in their magma source suggest an extension geodynamic setting related to the lithospheric thinning and asthenosphere upwelling. In this extensional environment, the hot upwelling asthenosphere mantle could rise into crust at different depths and induced the melting of crustal to form crust- and mantle-derived magmatism and various types of granitoids in the same period (Mao et al., 2010; Zhu and Zheng, 2009).

    Therefore, we proposed that the intensive Late Mesozoic magmatism and mineralization in LPMA occurred in an extensional geodynamic setting that was influenced by the Paleo-Pacific plate subduction and its far-field effects. The study of the Late Mesozoic granitoids in LPMA could provide valuable implications for the Late Mesozoic tectonic evolution and the destruction of craton at the southern margin of the NCC.

  • The NCC experienced multiple circum-craton subduction and collision during the Paleozoic to Cenozoic. The interactions of the surrounding orogenesis and the NCC on small scale may be critical to the thinning of the Late Mesozoic lithosphere and decratonization of craton (Zhang et al., 2014; Li J W et al., 2012b; Li N et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2011). The early stage subduction processes of Paleotethysian Ocean and Paleoasian Ocean had already significantly transformed the chemical compositions and physical properties of the lithospheric mantle beneath the margins of the NCC (Yang Q L et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2012b; Xu et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009, 2004, 2003, 2002; Zheng, 2009; Yang J H et al., 2008; Zhang, 2007; Zheng et al., 2006; Gao et al., 2002). The subduction of Pacific slab overprinted the early modified lithospheric mantle (Tang et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2012a; Sun et al., 2007) and has been considered as a crucial factor to destabilize mantle convection beneath the eastern NCC (Zhu et al., 2012a, b, 2011; Xu et al., 2009; Zhu and Zheng, 2009), which likely caused the delamination (Gao et al., 2009) and/or thermal-mechanical-chemical erosion of the lithospheric mantle (Huang et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2009; Zheng et al., 2007; Xu, 2001). The Mesozoic destruction of the North China lithosphere, evidenced by widespread magmatism, the development of large sedimentary basins, and large-scale mineralization, is confined to the eastern NCC (Yang et al., 2008; Mao et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2005; Wilde et al., 2003). In comparison, the TNCO and the Western Block of the NCC were largely intact during the extensive Early Cretaceous magmatic events (Xu et al., 2010). Zhu et al. (2011) suggested that the central and western NCC was not destructed but actually modified, which means that a whole carton region remains stable although some changes have taken place on the architecture and/or properties of the crust or lithospheric mantle. This modification of structure and/or compositions of crustal and/or lithospheric mantle in TNCO and the Western Block of the NCC may actually be recorded in the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous granitoids.

    After the collision between NCC and Ytz (Middle Triassic) and a long time tectonic quiescence (200–160 Ma), the LPMA was subsequently activated with magmatism, mineralization and deformation in an intraplate environment in the Late Mesozoic. I-, A- and other types granitoids were generated and distributed in LPMA and adjacent area. The varying Eu anomalies and contents of MREE and HREE of those granitoids imply that their magma was derived from different continental crust at different depth. Furthermore, the ɛHf(t) values and TDM2 of the zircons from the LPAM (Fig. 8, Table S2) show a quite wide range (-26.1– +15.2 and 214.9–28.5 Ga). These signatures of Hf isotopic and other geochemical indicate that the contribution of old crust materials and mantle-derived materials for the generation of each granitoid differs. As mentioned earlier, the Babaoshan biotite monzogranite porphyry has a single magma source of NCC basement; the Houyaoyu granite porphyry, Mangling monzogranite and Shiyaogou granite may be derived from partial melting of old crustal and mantle-derived mafic magmas; the other Late Mesozoic granitoids mainly derived from the partial melting of crustal materials formed at different ages. All these evidence demonstrate that the lithosphere of the LPMA was already heterogeneous in architecture and/or compositions during the Late Mesozoic. Moreover, the subduction of Pale-Pacific Ocean and closure of the Mongolian-Okhotsk Ocean during Late Mesozoic changed the dynamic regime from north-south transpression to NWW-SEE transtension (Zhu et al., 2011; Zhao et al., 2010). In brief, we propose that during the Late Mesozoic the LPMA experienced lithospheric extension and thinning driven by tectonic transition from compression and thickening, which was related to the far-field effects of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction.

    The lithospheric extension and thinning induced asthenosphere upwelling and addition of mantle-derived materials into the lower crust and produced a heterogeneous lithosphere. The decrease of pressure (regional extension) and the input of heat (upwelling asthenosphere) resulted in the partial melting of Archean–Proterozoic crust and sourced the granotoids like Yinjiagou K-feldspar granite porphyry, Babaoshan K-feldspar granite porphyry, Babaoshan biotite monzogranite porphyry, Gelaowan granite porphyry and Yangjiawan syenite porphyry (Fig. 10). The mantle-derived mafic magmas may interact with the lower crust and injects into the unsolidified felsic magmas chamber in various proportions, and produced magmas for granitoids, such as Houyaoyu granite porphyry, Mangling monzogranite and Shiyaogou granite (Fig. 10). With the youngest age, most obvious features of magma mixing, the Houyaoyu granite porphyry located in the inner-most position of the southern NCC, implying that the destruction was getting intensity with time going on in Late Mesozoic. The evolution of Qinling Orogen has already destroyed the stability of LPMA located at the southern NCC. The subduction of Paleo-Pacific Plate and its far-field effects thoroughly destructed this region and caused extensive magmatism, mineralization and deformation. We demonstrate that destruction existed at both the southern and northern margins of NCC.

    Figure 10.  Sketch showing the genetic and tectonic model for the formation of the Late Mesozoic granitoids in LPMA, modifying after Zhu et al. (2015).

  • (1) LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granitoids from LPMA in the southern margin of NCC formed in the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous (136.8–154.1 Ma).

    (2) The granitoids in LPMA are A-type granites and they were derived mainly from the partial melting of Archean-

    Proterozoic NCC continental crust with different involvements of mantle-derived mafic magmas.

    (3) All the Late Mesozoic granitoids were formed in an extensional setting related to the lithospheric extension and thinning induced by the subduction of Pale-Pacific Plate.

    (4) The southern margin of the NCC was heterogeneous and partly destroyed since the Late Jurassic.

  • Yueheng Yang from the laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) laboratory at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences is thanked for U-Pb zircon dating and Hf isotope analyses. We are also grateful to Dingshuai Xue of the Rock-Mineral Preparation and Analysis Lab, IGGCAS, for their advice in the major element analysis, and Wuhan Sample Solution Analytical Technology Co. Ltd., for their assistance in the trace element analysis. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their constructive and valuable comments which greatly contributed to the improvement of the manuscript. This work was financially supported by the National Key R & D Program of China (No. 2016YFC0600109) and the State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, IGGCAS (No. SKL-Z20 1905). This work was also financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41602099), and the State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, IGGCAS (No. SPECIAL20 1606). The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-020-1277-y.

    Electronic Supplementary Materials: Supplementary materials (Tables S1, S2) are available in the online version of this article at https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-020-1277-y.

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