Advanced Search

Indexed by SCI、CA、РЖ、PA、CSA、ZR、etc .

Volume 35 Issue 3
Jun 2024
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Le Zhao, Chunli Su, Wenbo Liu, Xianjun Xie. Understanding Surface Water-Groundwater Conversion Relationship and Associated Hydrogeochemistry Evolution in the Upper Reaches of Luan River Basin, North China. Journal of Earth Science, 2024, 35(3): 1010-1023. doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1629-x
Citation: Le Zhao, Chunli Su, Wenbo Liu, Xianjun Xie. Understanding Surface Water-Groundwater Conversion Relationship and Associated Hydrogeochemistry Evolution in the Upper Reaches of Luan River Basin, North China. Journal of Earth Science, 2024, 35(3): 1010-1023. doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1629-x

Understanding Surface Water-Groundwater Conversion Relationship and Associated Hydrogeochemistry Evolution in the Upper Reaches of Luan River Basin, North China

doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1629-x
More Information
  • Corresponding author: Chunli Su,
  • Received Date: 06 Nov 2021
  • Accepted Date: 26 Mar 2022
  • Issue Publish Date: 30 Jun 2024
  • Luan River is the main water source in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China, where the groundwater system is vulnerable and pollution issue is serious. It is significant for regional groundwater resources protection to identify the hydrogeochemistry evolution and affecting factors along flow direction occurred in the upper reaches, especially the surface water-groundwater (SW-GW) conversion relationship. In this study, recharge, conversion and geochemistry evolution of SW and GW were elucidated based on physical-hydrochemical indicators and stable isotopes in 36 GW samples and 20 SW samples, which were collected in July 2019 and July 2020. The factor analysis was further utilized to determine the main factors responsible for regional hydrogeochemical evolution. Results indicate that GW recharged SW in plateau area, and SW and GW recharged each other in typical Alpine valley area. The hydrochemical types are HCO3-Ca·Mg and HCO3-Ca, and the hydrochemical evolution is dominated by weathering of silicate and carbonate minerals. The cation exchange adsorption has minor impact on groundwater hydrochemistry. The rise of SO42- and NO3- contents in groundwater is related to industrial and agricultural activities. The main controlling factors of SW hydrochemical components included recharge from groundwater, industrial and mining activities, explaining 90.04% of data variance. However, water-rock interaction, agricultural and domestic sewage are responsible for GW quality, accounting for 83.38%.


  • Electronic Supplementary Materials: Supplementary materials (Tables S1–S2) are available in the online version of this article at
    Conflict of Interest
    The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
  • loading
  • Barzegar, R., Moghaddam, A. A., Tziritis, E., et al., 2017. Identification of Hydrogeochemical Processes and Pollution Sources of Groundwater Resources in the Marand Plain, Northwest of Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76(7): 297.
    Bouchez, C., Cook, P. G., Partington, D., et al., 2021. Comparison of Surface Water-Groundwater Exchange Fluxes Derived from Hydraulic and Geochemical Methods and a Regional Groundwater Model. Water Resources Research, 57(3): e2020WR029137.
    Cai, Z. Z., Wang, W. K., Zhao, M., et al., 2020. Interaction between Surface Water and Groundwater in Yinchuan Plain. Water, 12(9): 2635.
    Chitsazan, M., Aghazadeh, N., Mirzaee, Y., et al., 2019. Hydrochemical Characteristics and the Impact of Anthropogenic Activity on Ground-water Quality in Suburban Area of Urmia City, Iran. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 21(1): 331–351.
    Cloutier, V., Lefebvre, R., Therrien, R., et al., 2008. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Geochemical Data as Indicative of the Hydrogeochemical Evolution of Groundwater in a Sedimentary Rock Aquifer System. Journal of Hydrology, 353(3/4): 294–313.
    Darul, A., Irawan, D. E., Trilaksono, N. J., 2015. Groundwater and River Water Interaction on Cikapundung River: Revisited. AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Publishing LLC, Bandung, Indonesia.
    El Alfy, M., Lashin, A., Abdalla, F., et al., 2017. Assessing the Hydrogeochemical Processes Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Arid Areas Using an Integration of Geochemical Equilibrium and Multi-variate Statistical Techniques. Environmental Pollution, 229: 760–770.
    Fu, C. C., Li, X. Q., Ma, J. F., et al., 2018. A Hydrochemistry and Multi-Isotopic Study of Groundwater Origin and Hydrochemical Evolution in the Middle Reaches of the Kuye River Basin. Applied Geochemistry, 98: 82–93.
    Gaillardet, J., Dupré, B., Louvat, P., et al., 1999. Global Silicate Weathering and CO2 Consumption Rates Deduced from the Chemistry of Large Rivers. Chemical Geology, 159(1/2/3/4): 3–30.
    Gibbs, R. J., 1970. Mechanisms Controlling World Water Chemistry. Science, 170(3962): 1088–1090.
    Güler, C., Ali Kurt, M., Alpaslan, M., et al., 2012. Assessment of the Impact of Anthropogenic Activities on the Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in Tarsus Coastal Plain (Mersin, SE Turkey) Using Fuzzy Clustering, Multivariate Statistics and GIS Techniques. Journal of Hydrology, 414/415: 435–451.
    Guyonnet, D. A., 1991. Numerical Modeling of Effects of Small-Scale Sedimentary Variations on Groundwater Discharge into Lakes. Limnology and Oceanography, 36(4): 787–796.
    Huang, X. J., Wang, G. C., Liang, X. Y., et al., 2018. Hydrochemical and Stable Isotope (δD and δ18O) Characteristics of Groundwater and Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Ningtiaota Coalfield, Northwest China. Mine Water and the Environment, 37(1): 119–136.
    Jiang, Y. X., Guo, H. M., Jia, Y. F., et al., 2015. Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Arsenic Groundwater Geoche-mistry in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia. Geochemistry, 75(2): 197–205.
    Li, P. Y., Wu, J. H., Qian, H., 2013. Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation Purposes and Identification of Hydrogeochemical Evolution Mechanisms in Pengyang County, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 69(7): 2211–2225.
    Lin, C. Y., Abdullah, M. H., Praveena, S. M., et al., 2012. Delineation of Temporal Variability and Governing Factors Influencing the Spatial Variability of Shallow Groundwater Chemistry in a Tropical Sedi-mentary Island. Journal of Hydrology, 432/433: 26–42.
    Liu, J. T., Gao, Z. J., Wang, M., et al., 2019. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Possible Controls in the Groundwater of the Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 78(3): 76.
    Moon, S. K., Woo, N. C., Lee, K. S., 2004. Statistical Analysis of Hydrographs and Water-Table Fluctuation to Estimate Groundwater Recharge. Journal of Hydrology, 292(1/2/3/4): 198–209.
    Nawalany, M., Sinicyn, G., Grodzka-Łukaszewska, M., et al., 2020. Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction—Analytical Approach. Water, 12(6): 1792.
    Niu, B. B., Wang, H. H., Loáiciga, H. A., et al., 2017. Temporal Variations of Groundwater Quality in the Western Jianghan Plain, China. The Science of the Total Environment, 578: 542–550.
    Rajesh, R., Brindha, K., Murugan, R., et al., 2012. Influence of Hydrogeochemical Processes on Temporal Changes in Groundwater Quality in a Part of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 65(4): 1203–1213.
    Rautio, A., Korkka-Niemi, K., 2015. Chemical and Isotopic Tracers Indicating Groundwater/Surface-Water Interaction within a Boreal Lake Catchment in Finland. Hydrogeology Journal, 23(4): 687–705.
    Reghunath, R., Sreedhara Murthy, T. R., Raghavan, B. R., 2002. The Utility of Multivariate Statistical Techniques in Hydrogeochemical Studies: An Example from Karnataka, India. Water Research, 36(10): 2437–2442.
    Ruiz-Pico, Á., Pérez-Cuenca, Á., Serrano-Agila, R., et al., 2019. Hydrochemical Characterization of Groundwater in the Loja Basin (Ecuador). Applied Geochemistry, 104: 1–9.
    Sophocleous, M., 2002. Interactions between Groundwater and Surface Water: The State of the Science. Hydrogeology Journal, 10(1): 52–67.
    Su, C. L., Wang, Y. X., Ge, S. M., et al., 2020. Origin of the Crescent Moon Spring in the Gobi Desert of Northwestern China, Based on Understanding Groundwater Recharge. Journal of Hydrology, 580: 124344.
    Su, C. L., Wang, Y. X., Xie, X. J., et al., 2013. Aqueous Geochemistry of High-Fluoride Groundwater in Datong Basin, Northern China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 135: 79–92.
    Su, H., Geng, D. J., Zhang, Z. Y., et al., 2020. Assessment of the Impact of Natural and Anthropogenic Activities on the Groundwater Chemistry in Baotou City (North China) Using Geochemical Equilibrium and Multivariate Statistical Techniques. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(22): 27651–27662.
    Sun, H. Y., Wei, X. F., Gan, F. W., et al., 2020. Genetic Type and Formation Mechanism of Strontium-rich Groundwater in the Upper and Middle Reaches of Luanhe River Basin. Acta Geoscientica Sinica, 41(1): 65–79. (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    van Geldern, R., Schulte, P., Mader, M., et al., 2018. Insights into Agricultural Influences and Weathering Processes from Major Ion Patterns. Hydrological Processes, 32(7): 891–903.
    Wang, R., Bian, J. M., Gao, Y., 2014. Research on Hydrochemical Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Groundwater Quality of Different Aquifer Systems in Songhua River Basin, Eastern Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7(12): 5081–5092.
    Wang, X. X., 2014. Groundwater Cycle along Luan River: [Dissertation]. Chang'an University, Xi'an. 30–50 (in Chinese)
    Wang, X. X., Wang, W. K., Wang, Z. F., et al., 2014. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of River Water and Groundwater along the Downstream Luanhe River, Northeastern China. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 41(1): 25–33, 73 (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Ward, A. S., Payn, R. A., Gooseff, M. N., et al., 2013. Variations in Surface Water-Ground Water Interactions along a Headwater Mountain Stream: Comparisons between Transient Storage and Water Balance Analyses. Water Resources Research, 49(6): 3359–3374.
    Wen, X. H., Wu, Y. Q., Wu, J., 2008. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Zhangye Basin, Northwestern China. Environ-mental Geology, 55(8): 1713–1724.
    White, W. B., 1988. Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrain. Oxford University Press, New York. 103–148.
    WHO, 2011. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. WHO, Geneva
    Wu, J. H., Li, P. Y., Qian, H., et al., 2014. Using Correlation and Multivariate Statistical Analysis to Identify Hydrogeochemical Processes Affecting the Major Ion Chemistry of Waters: a Case Study in Laoheba Phosphorite Mine in Sichuan, China. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7(10): 3973–3982.
    Wu, J. H., Li, P. Y., Wang, D., et al., 2020. Statistical and Multivariate Statistical Techniques to Trace the Sources and Affecting Factors of Groundwater Pollution in a Rapidly Growing City on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 26(6): 1603–1621.
    Xiao, K., Li, H. L., Shananan, M., et al., 2019. Coastal Water Quality Assessment and Groundwater Transport in a Subtropical Mangrove Swamp in Daya Bay, China. Science of the Total Environment, 646: 1419–1432.
    Xie, X. J., Wang, Y. X., Su, C. L., 2012. Influence of Irrigation Practices on Arsenic Mobilization: Evidence from Isotope Composition and Cl/Br Ratios in Groundwater from Datong Basin, Northern China. Journal of Hydrology, 424/425: 37–47.https://doi./org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.12.017 doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.12.017
    Yang, J., McMillan, H., Zammit, C., 2017. Modeling Surface Water-Groundwater Interaction in New Zealand: Model Development and Application. Hydrological Processes, 31(4): 925–934.
    Yidana, S. M., Dzikunoo, E. A., Aliou, A. S., et al., 2020. The Geological and Hydrogeological Framework of the Panabako, Kodjari, and Bimbilla Formations of the Voltaian Supergroup—Revelations from Groundwater Hydrochemical Data. Applied Geochemistry, 115: 104533.
    Zabala, M. E., Manzano, M., Vives, L., 2016. Assessment of Processes Controlling the Regional Distribution of Fluoride and Arsenic in Groundwater of the Pampeano Aquifer in the Del Azul Creek Basin (Argentina). Journal of Hydrology, 541: 1067–1087.
    Zhang, G. X., Deng, W., Yang, Y. S., et al., 2007. Evolution Study of a Regional Groundwater System Using Hydrochemistry and Stable Isotopes in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Hydrological Processes, 21(8): 1055–1065.
    Zhang, Z. W., Liu, J. W., 2008. Analysis of Surface Water Quality in Chengde City. Hebei Water Resources, 9: 32. (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Zhao, X., Li, F. D., 2017. Isotope Evidence for Quantifying River Evaporation and Recharge Processes in the Lower Reaches of the Yellow River. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76(3): 123.
    Zhao, Z. H., Wu, J. C., Yuan, G. X., et al., 2016. Hydrochemical Investigation of Shallow Groundwater in Northwest Margin of Lop Nur, Northwest China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(3): 214.
    Zhou, Z. W., Zhou, Z. F., Xu, H. Y., et al., 2021. Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions of Xiluodu Reservoir Based on the Dynamic Evolution of Seepage, Temperature, and Hydrochemistry due to Impoundment. Hydrological Processes, 35(8): e14304.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌,
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(10)  / Tables(3)

    Article Metrics

    Article views(9) PDF downloads(15) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint