The Xing’an–Inner Mongolia Orogen is a critical tectonic unit for constraining the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. However, the location and time for the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean are still debated. Here, we select a representative basin in Dashizhai in northeastern China, using U-Pb zircon geochronology and geochemistry to analyze the sedimentary facies, depositional ages, and provenance. The results show that the age of the Dashizhai Formation range from 400 to 347 Ma, the Shoushangou Formation range from 400 to 348 Ma, the Zhesi Formation range from 307 to 252 Ma, and the Linxi Formation range from 299 to 241 Ma. The Dashizhai Formation is composed of metamorphic andesite and clastic rocks. The Shoushangou Formation comprises siltstone, rhyolite, and argillaceous siltstone. The Zhesi and Linxi Formations are composed of mudstone and argillaceous siltstone. Geochemical data shows that these rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements and depleted in Eu with various La/Sc, Th/Sc, and La/Co ratios. The Permian Dashizhai Basin is from Permian volcanic and felsic igneous rocks from the Ergun, Xing’an, and Songliao blocks. The absence of the Late Carboniferous strata in the Dashizhai Basin indicates an extension setting during this period. Furthermore, we suggest the Xing’an–Inner Mongolia Orogen was an uplifting process associated with evolution the Paleo-Asian Ocean during the Late Permian.