Interactions between anchored slide-resistant piles and landslides with weak-hard interbedded bedrock have not yet been systematically studied. Physical models of landslides reinforced by anchored slide-resistant piles are investigated based upon the self-developed testing system. The landslide system evolution with increasing loading force is revealed; the internal force and deformation of anchored slide-resistant piles in weak-hard interbedded bedrock are analyzed. A single anchored pile in weak-hard interbedded bedrock is analyzed theoretically, and an optimized calculation method for the axial force of the anchor cable is proposed. The results show that (1) The landslide system evolves through four stages: creeping, coordinated deformation, uncoordinated deformation, and failure. (2) The thrust sharing ratio of the pile-anchor first increases, then decreases slightly, and finally stabilizes; the maximum thrust sharing ratio is 12.22. (3) The anchoring force provided by weak-hard interbedded bedrock is between those of homogeneous hard and homogeneous weak rocks. The horizontal displacement of the pile in homogeneous hard rock is small, but more thrust is borne by the pile, and vice versa. (4) The theoretical value for a single anchored pile calculated by the optimized method is close to the measured value. These findings provide a scientific basis for landslide control projects in areas with weak-hard interbedded bedrock.