The complex plate collision process led the South Yellow Sea Basin (SYSB) to go through an intensity tectonic inversion during the early Cenozoic, which led to a regional unconformity surface development. As a petroliferous basin, SYSB saw intensity denudation and deposition process, making it hard to characterize their source-to-sink system(S2S), and this study provided a new sight to reveal them quantitatively. According to the seismic interpretation, it was found that two types of tectonic inversion led to the strata shortening process, which was classified according to their difference in planar movements, dip-slip faults, and strike-slip ones. As for dip-slip faults, the inversion structure was primarily formed by the dip-slip movement and many fault-related folds developed, which mainly developed in the North Depression Zone of the SYSB. The strike-slip ones, accompanying developed with some negative flower structures, are dominated in the South Depression Zone of the SYSB. Then, to reveal its source-to-sink system in the tectonic inversion basin, we speculated the sediments’ provenance area and their migration distance, referring to the zircon U-Pb data and heavy mineral assemblage. As for the North Depression Zone, it is shown that fewer distal sediments from the West Sulu Orogenic Belt are infilled, and proximal slump or fan delta are prominently developed during the tectonic inversion stage. The provenance rebuild in the South Depression Zone shows increasing sediments from the proximal area (Central Uplift Zone in SYSB and Wunansha Uplift) and the prograding delta long-axis parallel to these boundary faults during the tectonic inversion stage. Calculations were conducted on the coarse sediments content, faults displacements, catchment relief, sediments migration distance, and discussions about the impact factors to the Source-to-sink system developed in various strata shortening patterns with a statistical method. It was found that, within the dip-slip faults-dominated zone, the volume of the sediment routing system and the ratio of coarse-grained sediments merely has a relationship with the amount of sediment supply and average faults broken displacement. Compared with the strike-slip faults-dominated zone, the source-to-sink system shows a lower level of sandy sediment influx, and its coarse-grained content is mainly determined by the average faults broken displacement.