The black shale samples from the Niutitang Formation in the Yangtze Block were sequentially treated using organic solvent extraction and wet chemical oxidation. The organic matter (OM) in the shales includes physically mobile OM (PmOM), chemically mobile OM (CmOM), and stable OM (StOM). The CmOM has the strongest CH4 adsorption capacity because it has the largest volume of micropores and mesopores. In contrast, the PmOM has a very negative effect on the CH4 adsorption because it is poreless. The XD shale is a siliceous shale, in which the quartz particles wrap partly OM, preventing extraction and oxidation. The SL shale is an argillaceous shale, in which most of the OM is combined with clay minerals to form organo-clay composites. In both the SL and XD shales, the OM that is extractable via organic solvents is distributed among the mineral particles and is interconnected. The conceptual model of marine black shale in different environments needs to be perfected in the future because quantitative and qualitative methods should be combined to clarify the relationship between the known OM types (e.g., pyrobitumen, solid bitumen, and solid kerogen) and the OM types identified in this study.