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Volume 35 Issue 2
Apr 2024
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Muhammad Awais, Bilal Wadood, Muhammad Ishaq, Muhammad Bilal, Zeeshan Zafar, Nasar Khan, Aminullah Khan. Depositional and Bio-Sequence Stratigraphic Framework of Late Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation, Kala-Chitta Range, Pakistan: Equivalent of Gurpi Formation (Iran). Journal of Earth Science, 2024, 35(2): 332-348. doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1703-4
Citation: Muhammad Awais, Bilal Wadood, Muhammad Ishaq, Muhammad Bilal, Zeeshan Zafar, Nasar Khan, Aminullah Khan. Depositional and Bio-Sequence Stratigraphic Framework of Late Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation, Kala-Chitta Range, Pakistan: Equivalent of Gurpi Formation (Iran). Journal of Earth Science, 2024, 35(2): 332-348. doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1703-4

Depositional and Bio-Sequence Stratigraphic Framework of Late Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation, Kala-Chitta Range, Pakistan: Equivalent of Gurpi Formation (Iran)

doi: 10.1007/s12583-022-1703-4
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  • Corresponding author: Muhammad Awais,
  • Received Date: 12 Sep 2021
  • Accepted Date: 19 Jun 2022
  • Available Online: 11 Apr 2024
  • Issue Publish Date: 30 Apr 2024
  • The present study is focused on evaluation of deep marine pelagic sediments of Late Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation of Kala-Chitta Range in the context of microfacies analysis, paleoenvironmental interpretation, planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and diversification of species. A total of thirty three rock samples were collected from the measured section. Three microfacies are interpreted, namely planktonic foraminifera wackestone, planktonic foraminifera mudstone and sandy mudstone indicating low energy depositional environment i.e., outer ramp. The biostratigraphic studies show plentiful planktonic foraminifera species of Globotruncana, Heterohelix and Globotruncanita. However, no association of benthic or siliceous organisms was observed. On the basis of available species assemblage, a single local planktonic foraminifera biozone i.e., Globotruncana-Heterohelix-Globotruncanita Assemblage Biozone is established. The biozone information is combined with published literature and Lower Santonian to Middle Maastrichtian age has been assigned to the Kawagarh Formation. The trend of species occurrences evinces that species number decreases over time with pulsated rise in the Kawagarh Formation. The Kawagarh Formation carbonates show an overall Transgressive Systems Tract (TST). The Kawagarh Formation of Pakistan evinces analogous characteristics to that of the Late Cretaceous Gurpi Formation of Iran based on the geologic age, outcrop lithology, microfacies, planktonic foraminiferal assemblages, depositional setting and sequence stratigraphy.


  • Conflict of Interest
    The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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