Advanced Search

Indexed by SCI、CA、РЖ、PA、CSA、ZR、etc .

Volume 35 Issue 3
Jun 2024
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Qianyun Wang, Huiming Tang, Pengju An, Kun Fang, Junrong Zhang, Minghao Miao, Qingwen Tan, Lei Huang, Shengming Hu. Insight into the Permeability and Microstructure Evolution Mechanism of the Sliding Zone Soil: A Case Study from the Huangtupo Landslide, Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Journal of Earth Science, 2024, 35(3): 941-954. doi: 10.1007/s12583-023-1828-0
Citation: Qianyun Wang, Huiming Tang, Pengju An, Kun Fang, Junrong Zhang, Minghao Miao, Qingwen Tan, Lei Huang, Shengming Hu. Insight into the Permeability and Microstructure Evolution Mechanism of the Sliding Zone Soil: A Case Study from the Huangtupo Landslide, Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Journal of Earth Science, 2024, 35(3): 941-954. doi: 10.1007/s12583-023-1828-0

Insight into the Permeability and Microstructure Evolution Mechanism of the Sliding Zone Soil: A Case Study from the Huangtupo Landslide, Three Gorges Reservoir, China

doi: 10.1007/s12583-023-1828-0
More Information
  • Corresponding author: Huiming Tang,
  • Received Date: 08 Nov 2022
  • Accepted Date: 14 Feb 2023
  • Issue Publish Date: 30 Jun 2024
  • A large number of laboratory investigations related to the permeability have been conducted on the sliding zones. Yet little attention has been paid to the particular sliding zones of the slide-prone Badong Formation. Here, we experimentally investigate the permeability nature and the mechanism of seepage in the viscous sliding zone of the Huangtupo Landslide. Saturated seepage tests have been performed first with consideration of six dry densities and thirteen hydraulic gradients, in conjunction with the mercury intrusion porosimetry test and scanning electron microscopy test for the microstructure analysis after seepage. The results show that seepage in the sliding zone soil does not follow Darcy's Law, since there is a threshold hydraulic gradient (i0) below which no flow is observed and a critical hydraulic gradient (icr) over which the hydraulic conductivity (K) tends to be stable. The percentage of bound water could be responsible for the occurrence ofi0 and icr. Furthermore, pore size distributions (PSD) less than 0.6 µm and between 10 and 90 µm exhibit positive and negative correlations with the i0, respectively, indicating that the i0 is related to the PSD. The mechanism accounting for this result is that pore water pressure forces fine clay particles into the surrounding large pores and converts arranged particles to discretely distributed ones, thereby weakening the connectivity of pores. The seepages in the sliding zones behave differently from that in the sliding mass and sliding bed in response to the permeability.


  • Conflict of Interest
    The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
  • loading
  • ASTM, 2011. Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System) D2487. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA
    Adeyilola, A., Nordeng, S., Hu, Q. H., 2022. Porosity and Pore Networks in Tight Dolostone—Mudstone Reservoirs: Insights from the Devonian Three Forks Formation, Williston Basin, USA. Journal of Earth Science, 33(2): 462–481.
    Al-Mukhtar, M., Khattab, S., Alcover, J. F., 2012. Microstructure and Geotechnical Properties of Lime-Treated Expansive Clayey Soil. Engineering Geology, 139/140: 17–27.
    Bernadiner, M. G., Protopapas, A. L., 1994. Progress on the Theory of Flow in Geologic Media with Threshold Gradient. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology, 29(1): 249–275.
    Boynton, S. S., Daniel, D. E., 1985. Hydraulic Conductivity Tests on Compacted Clay. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 111(4): 465–478.
    Celata, G. P., Cumo, M., McPhail, S., et al., 2006. Characterization of Fluid Dynamic Behaviour and Channel Wall Effects in Microtube. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 27(1): 135–143.
    Chapuis, R. P., 2012. Predicting the Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils: A Review. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 71(3): 401–434.
    Chen, J., Fang, Y. G., Gu, R. G., et al., 2019. Study on Pore Size Effect of Low Permeability Clay Seepage. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 12(7): 238.
    Chen, W. Z., Ma, Y. S., Yu, H. D., et al., 2017. Effects of Temperature and Thermally-Induced Microstructure Change on Hydraulic Conductivity of Boom Clay. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3): 383–395.
    Criss, R. E., Yao, W. M., Li, C. D., et al., 2020. A Predictive, Two-Parameter Model for the Movement of Reservoir Landslides. Journal of Earth Science, 31(6): 1051–1057.
    Cuisinier, O., Auriol, J. C., Le Borgne, T., et al., 2011. Microstructure and Hydraulic Conductivity of a Compacted Lime-Treated Soil. Engineering Geology, 123(3): 187–193.
    Deirieh, A., Casey, B., Germaine, J. T., et al., 2018. The Integration of Magnifications: A Novel Approach to Obtain Representative Information about the Pore Space of Mudrocks from SEM Images. Applied Clay Science, 154: 73–82.
    Deng, Y. F., Yue, X. B., Liu, S. Y., et al., 2015. Hydraulic Conductivity of Cement-Stabilized Marine Clay with Metakaolin and Its Correlation with Pore Size Distribution. Engineering Geology, 193: 146–152.
    Fang, K., Miao, M. H., Tang, H. M., et al., 2023a. Insights into the Deformation and Failure Characteristic of a Slope due to Excavation through Multi-Field Monitoring: A Model Test. Acta Geotechnica, 18(2): 1001–1024.
    Fang, K., Tang, H. M., Li, C. D., et al., 2023b. Centrifuge Modelling of Landslides and Landslide Hazard Mitigation: A Review. Geoscience Frontiers, 14(1): 101493.
    Fu, H. J., Yan, D. T., Yao, C. P., et al., 2022. Pore Structure and Multi-Scale Fractal Characteristics of Adsorbed Pores in Marine Shale: A Case Study of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in the Sichuan Basin, China. Journal of Earth Science, 33(5): 1278–1290.
    Furuki, H., Chigira, M., 2019. Structural Features and the Evolutionary Mechanisms of the Basal Shear Zone of a Rockslide. Engineering Geology, 260: 105214.
    Gallagher, S. R., 2014. Digital Image Processing and Analysis with ImageJ. Current Protocols Essential Laboratory Techniques, 9(1): 1–29.
    Gao, Q. F., Zhao, D., Zeng, L., et al., 2019. A Pore Size Distribution-Based Microscopic Model for Evaluating the Permeability of Clay. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 23(12): 5002–5011.
    Guo, L., He, K., Liu, H., et al., 2022. Physical Prediction Model of Compound Hydrodynamic Unload-Load Response Ratio and Its Application in Reservoir Colluvium Landslide. Journal of Earth Science,
    Hansbo, S., 2001. Consolidation Equation Valid for both Darcian and Non-Darcian Flow. Géotechnique, 51(1): 51–54.
    Hu, X. L., Tang, H. M., Li, C. D., et al., 2012. Stability of Huangtupo Riverside Slumping Mass Ⅱ# under Water Level Fluctuation of Three Gorges Reservoir. Journal of Earth Science, 23(3): 326–334.
    Huang, D., Gu, D. M., Song, Y. X., et al., 2018. Towards a Complete Understanding of the Triggering Mechanism of a Large Reactivated Landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Engineering Geology, 238: 36–51.
    Jiao, Y. Y., Song, L., Tang, H. M., et al., 2014. Material Weakening of Slip Zone Soils Induced by Water Level Fluctuation in the Ancient Landslides of Three Gorges Reservoir. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2014: 202340.
    Jin, F., Zhou, D., Zhu, L. Y., 2022. Analysis of the Microstructure and Macroscopic Fluid-Dynamics Behavior of Soft Soil after Seepage Consolidation. Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, 18(2): 285–302.
    Kargas, G., Londra, P. A., Sotirakoglou, K., 2021. Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements in a Loam Soil Covered by Native Vegetation: Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Upper Soil Layer. Geosciences, 11(2): 105.
    Kutiĺek, M., 1972. Non-Darcian Flow of Water in Soils—Laminar Region: A Review. In: IAHR, ed., Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 327–340.
    Lapierre, C., Leroueil, S., Locat, J., 1990. Mercury Intrusion and Permea-bility of Louiseville Clay. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 27(6): 761–773.
    Li, Q. Q., Huang, D., Pei, S. F., et al., 2021. Using Physical Model Experiments for Hazards Assessment of Rainfall-Induced Debris Landslides. Journal of Earth Science, 32(5): 1113–1128.
    Li, Y., 2013. An Earthquake Fault Zone Discovered in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. In: Zhang, X. D., Li, H. N., Feng, X. T., et al., eds., Advances in Civil Engineering Ⅱ, Pts. 1–4. Trans Tech Publications Ltd., Stafa-Zurich. (2022-11-15).–2211
    Li, D. Y., Yin, K. L., Leo, C., 2010. Analysis of Baishuihe Landslide Influenced by the Effects of Reservoir Water and Rainfall. Environ-mental Earth Sciences, 60: 677–687.
    Liao, K., Wu, Y., Miao, F., 2022. System Reliability Analysis of Reservoir Landslides: Insights from Long-Term Reservoir Operation. Journal of Earth Science.
    Liu, H. H., Birkholzer, J., 2012. On the Relationship between Water Flux and Hydraulic Gradient for Unsaturated and Saturated Clay. Journal of Hydrology, 475: 242–247.
    Liu, Z. Y., Ma, J. W., Xia, D., et al., 2023. Toward the Reliable Prediction of Reservoir Landslide Displacement Using Earthworm Optimization Algorithm-Optimized Support Vector Regression (EOA-SVR). Natural Hazards.
    Liu, Z. M., Pang, Y., 2015. Effect of the Size and Pressure on the Modified Viscosity of Water in Microchannels. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 31(1): 45–52.
    Long, Y. J., Li, W. L., Huang, R. Q., et al., 2023. A Comparative Study of Supervised Classification Methods for Investigating Landslide Evolution in the Mianyuan River Basin, China. Journal of Earth Science, 34(2): 316–329.
    Ma, J. W., Lei, D. Z., Ren, Z. Y., et al., 2023. Automated Machine Learning-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping for the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Mathematical Geosciences.
    Miao, F. S., Wu, Y. P., Xie, Y. H., et al., 2019. Influence of Permeation Effect on the Microfabric of the Slip Zone Soils: A Case Study from the Huangtupo Landslide. Journal of Mountain Science, 16(6): 1231–1243.
    Miller, R. J., Low, P. F., 1963. Threshold Gradient for Water Flow in Clay Systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 27(6): 605–609.
    Neuzil, C. E., 1986. Groundwater Flow in Low-Permeability Environments. Water Resources Research, 22(8): 1163–1195.
    Ninjgarav, E., Chung, S. G., Jang, W. Y., et al., 2007. Pore Size Distribution of Pusan Clay Measured by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 11(3): 133–139.
    Park, S., Yoon, S., Kwon, S., et al., 2021. Temperature Effect on the Thermal and Hydraulic Conductivity of Korean Bentonite Buffer Material. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 137: 103759.
    Shan, W. C., Chen, H. E., Yuan, X. Q., et al., 2021. Mechanism of Pore Water Seepage in Soil Reinforced by Step Vacuum Preloading. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 80(3): 2777–2787.
    Sivapullaiah, P. V., Sridharan, A., Stalin, V. K., 2000. Hydraulic Conductivity of Bentonite-Sand Mixtures. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 37(2): 406–413.
    Somo, T. R., Hato, M. J., Modibane, K. D., 2022. Characterization of Macroporous Materials. In: Uthaman, A., Thomas, S., Li, T. D., et al., eds., Advanced Functional Porous Materials. Springer International Publishing, Cham. 87–111.
    Sun, G. H., Zheng, H., Tang, H. M., et al., 2016. Huangtupo Landslide Stability under Water Level Fluctuations of the Three Gorges Reservoir. Landslides, 13(5): 1167–1179.
    Sun, H. Q., Mašín, D., Najser, J., et al., 2020. Fractal Characteristics of Pore Structure of Compacted Bentonite Studied by ESEM and MIP Methods. Acta Geotechnica, 15(6): 1655–1671.
    Swartzendruber, D., 1962. Modification of Darcyʼs Law for the Flow of Water in Soils. Soil Science, 93(1): 22–29.
    Tan, Q. W., Tang, H. M., Fan, L., et al., 2018. In situ Triaxial Creep Test for Investigating Deformational Properties of Gravelly Sliding Zone Soil: Example of the Huangtupo 1# Landslide, China. Landslides, 15(12): 2499–2508.
    Tanaka, H., Shiwakoti, D. R., Omukai, N., et al., 2003. Pore Size Distribution of Clayey Soils Measured by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry and Its Relation to Hydraulic Conductivity. Soils and Foundations, 43(6): 63–73.
    Tang, H. M., Li, C. D., Hu, X. L., et al., 2015. Evolution Characteristics of the Huangtupo Landslide Based on in situ Tunneling and Monitoring. Landslides, 12(3): 511–521.
    Tang, H. M., Li, C. D., Hu, W., et al., 2022a. What is the Physical Mechanism of Landslide Initiation?. Earth Science, 47(10): 3902–3903. (in Chinese)
    Tang, H. M., Li, C. D., Gong, W. P., et al., 2022b. Fundamental Attribute and Research Approach of Landslide Evolution. Earth Science, 47(12): 4596–4608. (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Tang, M. G., Xu, Q., Yang, H., et al., 2019. Activity Law and Hydraulics Mechanism of Landslides with Different Sliding Surface and Permeability in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Engineering Geology, 260: 105212.
    Tong, D. F., Su, A. J., Tan, F., et al., 2023. Genetic Mechanism of Water-Rich Landslide Considering Antecedent Rainfalls: A Case Study of Pingyikou Landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Journal of Earth Science, 34(6): 1878–1891.
    Vandamme, J., Zou, Q. P., 2013. Investigation of Slope Instability Induced by Seepage and Erosion by a Particle Method. Computers and Geotechnics, 48: 9–20.
    Wang, H. K., Qian, H., Gao, Y. Y., 2020. Non-Darcian Flow in Loess at Low Hydraulic Gradient. Engineering Geology, 267: 105483.
    Wang, S., Wang, J. G., Wu, W., et al., 2020. Creep Properties of Clastic Soil in a Reactivated Slow-Moving Landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. Engineering Geology, 267: 105493.
    Wang, S. F., Yang, P., Dai, D. W., et al., 2020. A Study on Micro-Pore Characteristics of Clay due to Freeze-Thaw and Compression by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry. Frontiers in Earth Science, 7.
    Wang, S. W., Zhu, W., Fei, K., et al., 2018. Study on Non-Darcian Flow Sand-Clay Mixtures. Applied Clay Science, 151: 102–108.
    Wang, S., Zhu, W., Qian, X., et al., 2016. Study of Threshold Gradient for Compacted Clays Based on Effective Aperture. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(8): 693.
    Wang, S. W., Zhu, W., Qian, X. D., et al., 2017. Temperature Effects on Non-Darcy Flow of Compacted Clay. Applied Clay Science, 135: 521–525.
    Wen, B. P., Aydin, A., 2004. Deformation History of a Landslide Slip Zone in Light of Soil Microstructure. Environmental and Engineering Geoscience, 10(2): 123–149.
    Wen, B. P., Aydin, A., Duzgoren-Aydin, N. S., et al., 2007. Residual Strength of Slip Zones of Large Landslides in the Three Gorges Area, China. Engineering Geology, 93(3/4): 82–98.
    Wu, J. B., Wu, Q. H., 2020. Pore Structure and Seepage Characteristics of Slip Zone of Huangtupo Landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Journal of Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute, 37(9): 102–109.
    Xie, H.-L., Wu, Q., Zhao, Z.-M., et al., 2007. Consolidation Computation of Aquitard Considering Non-Darcy Flow. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 28(5): 1061–1065. (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Xie, Y. H., Zeng, Z. T., Zhang, B. H., et al., 2021. Analysis and Modeling of Bound Water Adsorption by Mixed Clay Based on Adsorption Theory. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14(12): 1089.
    Xu, P. P., Zhang, Q. Y., Qian, H., et al., 2020. Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentration on Saturated Permeability of Remolded Loess. Minerals, 10(2): 199.
    Xu, P. P., Zhang, Q. Y., Qian, H., et al., 2021. Microstructure and Permeability Evolution of Remolded Loess with Different Dry Densities under Saturated Seepage. Engineering Geology, 282: 105875.
    Xu, S. L., Yue, X. G., Hou, J. R., 2007. Experimental Investigation on Flow Characteristics of Deionized Water in Microtubes. Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(6): 849–854.
    Zhang, L. L., Wu, F., Zhang, H., et al., 2019. Influences of Internal Erosion on Infiltration and Slope Stability. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 78(3): 1815–1827.
    Zhang, N., He, M. C., Zhang, B., et al., 2016. Pore Structure Characteristics and Permeability of Deep Sedimentary Rocks Determined by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry. Journal of Earth Science, 27(4): 670–676.
    Zhu, D. P., He, L., 2022. Study on the Influence of Groundwater on Landslide Stability in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 47(4): 4211–4223.
    Zhu, H. J., Huang, C., Ju, Y. W., et al., 2021. Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Characterization of Clay-Hosted Pore Networks of Shale Using FIBSEM, TEM, and X-Ray Micro-Tomography: Implications for Methane Storage and Migration. Applied Clay Science, 213: 106239.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌,
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(19)  / Tables(3)

    Article Metrics

    Article views(7) PDF downloads(13) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint