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Volume 31 Issue 3
Jul.  2020
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Bülent Doğan. Comparative New Insight into the Tectonic Origin of Folds and Thrust Faults of an Extensional Basin: Söke-Kuşadasi Basin, Aegean, Western Turkey. Journal of Earth Science, 2020, 31(3): 582-595. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1400-0
Citation: Bülent Doğan. Comparative New Insight into the Tectonic Origin of Folds and Thrust Faults of an Extensional Basin: Söke-Kuşadasi Basin, Aegean, Western Turkey. Journal of Earth Science, 2020, 31(3): 582-595. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1400-0

Comparative New Insight into the Tectonic Origin of Folds and Thrust Faults of an Extensional Basin: Söke-Kuşadasi Basin, Aegean, Western Turkey

doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1400-0
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  • The Aegean area of the western Anatolian region of Turkey, controlled by the low-angle detachment normal fault system, forms an extensional province, the West Anatolian Extensional Province (WAEP). The tectonic deformation which occurred in the Miocene Period, including the Plio-Quaternary Period has created different structures in both the basement rocks and intra-basin deposits of the crust. One of these structures, high-angle normal faults, controls the supradetachment Söke-Kuşadasi Basin (SKB). Within this basin, there are folds with different axes and thrust faults with a north-northwest-northeast (N, NW, NE) trend. These folds and thrust faults in the SKB deformed the sedimentary structures of intra-basin deposits. The folds and thrust faults, which caused the rotation of beddings and imbrications in the SKB, are mainly associated with the tectonic process of the low angle detachment normal fault, which affected the SKB and the Aegean part of western Anatolia. In the SKB, during the process of extensional deformation associated with primary low angle detachment normal faulting, the ramp-flat and inversion geometry observed in the basement rocks and basin deposits of the crust caused folds and thrust faults in only intra-basin deposits. In the WAEP, it is determined for the first time that the folds and thrust faults causing limited shortening deformed the Plio-Quaternary sediments.
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Comparative New Insight into the Tectonic Origin of Folds and Thrust Faults of an Extensional Basin: Söke-Kuşadasi Basin, Aegean, Western Turkey

doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1400-0

Abstract: The Aegean area of the western Anatolian region of Turkey, controlled by the low-angle detachment normal fault system, forms an extensional province, the West Anatolian Extensional Province (WAEP). The tectonic deformation which occurred in the Miocene Period, including the Plio-Quaternary Period has created different structures in both the basement rocks and intra-basin deposits of the crust. One of these structures, high-angle normal faults, controls the supradetachment Söke-Kuşadasi Basin (SKB). Within this basin, there are folds with different axes and thrust faults with a north-northwest-northeast (N, NW, NE) trend. These folds and thrust faults in the SKB deformed the sedimentary structures of intra-basin deposits. The folds and thrust faults, which caused the rotation of beddings and imbrications in the SKB, are mainly associated with the tectonic process of the low angle detachment normal fault, which affected the SKB and the Aegean part of western Anatolia. In the SKB, during the process of extensional deformation associated with primary low angle detachment normal faulting, the ramp-flat and inversion geometry observed in the basement rocks and basin deposits of the crust caused folds and thrust faults in only intra-basin deposits. In the WAEP, it is determined for the first time that the folds and thrust faults causing limited shortening deformed the Plio-Quaternary sediments.

Bülent Doğan. Comparative New Insight into the Tectonic Origin of Folds and Thrust Faults of an Extensional Basin: Söke-Kuşadasi Basin, Aegean, Western Turkey. Journal of Earth Science, 2020, 31(3): 582-595. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1400-0
Citation: Bülent Doğan. Comparative New Insight into the Tectonic Origin of Folds and Thrust Faults of an Extensional Basin: Söke-Kuşadasi Basin, Aegean, Western Turkey. Journal of Earth Science, 2020, 31(3): 582-595. doi: 10.1007/s12583-020-1400-0
  • The continental crust of the West Anatolian Extensional Province (WAEP), located in West Anatolia and east of the Aegean Sea, has been subject to the effects of detachment extensional tectonics between the Neogene and Quaternary periods (Seyítoğlu and Işik, 2015; Jolivet and Brun, 2010; Işik and Tekeli, 2001; Bozkurt, 2000; Seyítoğlu and Scott, 1996; Taymaz et al., 1991; Şengör et al., 1985) (Fig. 1a). Deformation of both low-angle (detachment) and high-angle normal faults, with different strikes, has occurred in the region (Hetzel et al., 2013; Jolivet et al., 2010; Işik et al., 2003a). These extensional tectonics led to the development of firstly NNW-SSE, then ENE-WSW-directed horsts and grabens, resulting in cross-shaped features in the region (Bozkurt, 2001). The four distinctive crustal deformation models which may explain the origin of extension in the WAEP have been proposed as (1) tectonic escape from 12–11 Ma (Şengör et al., 1985; Dewey and Şengör, 1979); (2) back-arc spreading 60–5 Ma (Jackson and McKenzie, 1988; McKenzie, 1978); (3) orogenic collapse ~29 Ma (Şen and Seyítoğlu, 2009; Seyítoğlu and Scott, 1991); and (4) episodic two-stage extension, first period: 29–5 Ma, and second period: 5 Ma–recent (Beccaletto and Stenier, 2005; Bozkurt and Rojay, 2005; Koçyiğit et al., 1999).

    Figure 1.  (a) Simplified map showing the active tectonic lines and regions of Turkey (Bozkurt, 2001). K. Karliova; EAFZ. East Anatolian fault zone; NAFZ. North Antolian fault zone; NEAFZ. Northeast Anatolian fault zone; blue box. West Anatolian Province. (b) Regional geological map showing the large structures (detachment normal fault) around the Menderes Core Complex in WAEP (Kaya, 2015). KM. Kahramanmaraş; red box. the study area, Söke-Kuşadasi Basin.

    Strike-slip faulting and the associated structures are observed in the WAEP and explained by the extension originated tectonic escape model. During the deformational development of all grabens located between Gökova Bay in the south and Kazdaği-Edremit Bay in the north of Turkey, the normal detachment fault has been indicated as the prime tectonic source (Gürer et al., 2009; Yaltirak and Okay, 2004; Işik et al., 2003a; Kurt et al., 1999; Bozkurt and Park, 1997). According to this, deformation caused by low-angle detachment in the deep parts of the crust and basement rocks has continued in the region, with high-angle and oblique normal faults with tiny little strike-slip component (Yilmaz et al., 2000; Görür et al., 1995). The extensional crustal deformation started in the Oligo–Miocene Period, confronted with the North Anatolian fault system (NAFS) around the Pliocene Period (Zanclean) in the region, including the north of the WAEP and Kazdaği area to the north of Edremit Bay (Irrlitz, 1972). Therefore structural elements, such as normal faults and strike-slip faults and complex basins (graben within the pull-apart pools), developed together in this region. The short-term contraction has been described for some of the grabens located in the WAEP (Ersoy et al., 2010; Emre and Sözbilir, 2007; Kaya et al., 2004; Koçyiğit et al., 1999). Thus, it has been shown that fold and thrust faults have affected some sedimentary deposits overlying the bedrock of the basin since Early Miocene (Çiftçi and Bozkurt, 2009; Emre and Sözbilir, 2007; Bozkurt and Sözbilir, 2006; Bozkurt and Rojay, 2005). The development of these structures is still controversial. On the crustal-scale, it is not clear why short-term compression is related to the origin of the folds and thrust faults in western Anatolia (Çiftçi and Bozkurt, 2010). However, the extensional development of the folds and thrust faults is also controversial on the basin-scale without knowledge of specific structural elements (Seyítoğlu and Işik, 2009; Seyítoğlu et al., 2002; Sözbilir, 2002). Another view for these structures is that they are related to strike-slip faulting in the region (Uzel et al., 2013; Sözbilir et al., 2011), but there is no noteworthy strike-slip offset in western Anatolia.

    The purpose of this study is to refine a tectonic model of how the folds and thrust faults developed in the basin filling deposits of Miocene Kuşadasi and Fevzipaşa formations in the NNW-SSE trending Söke-Kuşadasi supradetachment basin (SKB) and in the Plio–Quaternary alluvial fan deposits of the Yamaçköy Formation. Besides, an approach to explain the macro, micro-folds, and thrust faults in this basin is proposed based on whether the SKB was connected to extensional regime during the tectonic-evolution period. This interpretation has been developed by assessing the geometric differences around the low angle detachment normal fault, high angle normal fault, all folds, directional trending of the folding axes, and changes in the thrust faults and structures during sedimentation, under the impact of tectonics. The tectonic-sedimentary arrangements in the basin (SKB) were detailed using 1/25 000 scale structural mapping, evaluated diagrammatically, and compared with the kind of deformation elements basin may contain (Van Norman et al., 2018) (Fig. 2). The geometry of fold and thrust faults in the SKB is compared with the basic structural elements developed in both the extensional and compressional regions. Also, why and how fold and thrust faults are formed in the extensional basin are explained by kinematic analysis.

    Figure 2.  Map of all structural elements found in the intra-basin sediments in SKB (numbers 1 to 21 belongs to fold axes shown by contour diagrams made according to Allmendinger et al., 2012). High angle normal faults mapped in this study are numbered from NF-1 to NF-8.

  • The SKB, located in the West Anatolian Extensional Province, is an extensional basin where both Miocene and Plio–Quaternary deposits are controlled by NE, NW, and E-W trending high angle normal faults on the eastern edge of the SKB (Sümer et al., 2013; Gürer et al., 2001). In some basins around the SKB, the stratigraphy and lithology of the Miocene and Plio–Quaternary sedimentary and magmatic geologic units overlying the bedrock were defined in some studies (Seyidoğlu and Işik, 2015; Sözbilir et al., 2011; Bozkurt and Sözbilir, 2004; Bozkurt, 2000; Koçyiğit et al., 1999).

    The WAEP includes basins associated with the deformational process of detachment normal faults bordering on metamorphic core complexes (Öner and Dilek, 2011; Işik et al., 2003b) (Fig. 1b). These faults are supradetachments and control the contact between the Menderes Massif and intra-basin deposits. Approximately E-W trending detachment normal faulting has been determined in the main rocks (Menderes Massif—brittle zone of crust) of the eastern uplift of the SKB (Sümer et al., 2013). In this study, a trace of low angle detachment normal fault in the intra-basin sediments, including Kuşadasi Formation from Miocene to the present, is determined and shown in the column section (Fig. 3). In addition to the intra-basin deposits of SKB; the folds and thrust faults that are synsedimentary with the Miocene Kuşadasi and Fevzipaşa formations and Plio–Quaternary Yamaçköy Formation have been defined in the stratigraphic column sections of the region (see Fig. 3). According to this outcome, thrust faults were also effective in Plio–Quaternary. Also, from Miocene to Plio–Quaternary, the geometric differences between sedimentary and syn-tectonic beddings, which are contemporaneous with folding and thrust faulting deformation, indicate the presence of tectonic-rotation associated with deformation. This tectonic-rotation is consistent with a clockwise rotation determined by paleomagnetic data (Uzel et al., 2015) around the Menderes Massif (see Fig. 1b).

    Figure 3.  Geological column sections of Söke-Kuşadasi Basin (SKB) and its vicinity according to different researchers (Sümer et al., 2013). In the rightmost column section; blue colored thrust faults and red colored normal faults are drawn according to the data of this study.

  • Both E-W and N-S trending, low-angle detachment, normal faults border the Büyük Menderes graben, and the brittle zone in the north of the massif (Gürer et al., 2009). The continuation of this primary extensional system in the west is found in the brittle zone of the crust to the west of Kuşadasi Bay. These faults are the E-W trending, detachment normal faults described by Sümer et al. (2013) in the Oyukdaği basement rocks in the east of the SKB and the low-angle detachment normal fault in the Cyladic Core Complex border to the northwest of Samos Island (Jolivet et al., 2010; Ring et al., 2007) (see Fig. 1b). The geometry of the detachment normal faults around Kuşadasi Bay resembles an open drawbridge. There are NE, NW, and E-W extending basins in western Anatolia (Ersoy and Helvaci, 2016; Sözbilir et al., 2011; Seyidoğlu et al., 2009; Emre and Sözbilir, 2007; Bozkurt, 2003; Şengör, 1987). The SKB is one of these basins and the contacts between basin-filling deposits and basement rocks are controlled by high-angle normal faults numbered from 1 to 8 in this study and undifferentiated faults (Sümer et al., 2013; Gürer et al., 2001) (see Fig. 2). The high-angle normal faults on the east margin of the SKB are transverse with approximate N35ºE, N20ºW, and E-W trendings, on the south margin are E-W and N70ºW. These faults are supradetachments and control the contact between Menderes Massif and the intra-basin deposits. In addition, these faults have dip angles up to 80º and are dipped to both north and south. The E-W trending, ramp-flat detachment normal fault, which is described in this study in the SKB and shows cross-graben geometry, is notable for cutting and deforming the Kuşadasi Formation. This structural setting tectonically links the above-described drawbridge formation in Kuşadasi Bay (see Figs. 1b, 2, and 4). From Miocene to the present, the contact of the Menderes Massif and the intra-basin sediments on the eastern part of the SKB is completely controlled by high angle normal faults (Fig. 5a, see Fig. 2). Accordingly, the contact between the basement rocks and the Kuşadasi and Fevzipaşa formations, which characterize the lacustrine and shallow marine environment, is controlled by the high angle normal faults with NE and NW trendings. Yamaçköy Formation has also developed in the Plio–Quaternary alluvial fan facies in the hanging-wall blocks of some of these faults (see Fig. 5a). The Holocene colluvium in the SKB bounded by transverse extensional faults, developed during the late stage of the deformation of high angle normal faults (Figs. 5b, 5c). Since faults control these lithologic levels, the pebbles within the levels are entirely angular and belong to the Menderes Massif rocks (Figs. 5b, 5d). It is seen that the type of faulting accompanying sedimentation in the intra-basin sediments of the SKB was normal faulting and detachment low angle normal faulting, then supradetachment high angle normal faulting were effective in the initial phase of the tectonic evolution process, which the basin has undergone both as morphotectonic and sedimentation. Along with the high angle, normal faults in the intra-basin sediments, a maximum vertical offset of 6 m is observed, sometimes forming conjugate zones (Figs. 5e, 5f).

    Figure 4.  Cross section photograph showing the location of the ramp-flat detachment normal fault developed in the intra-basin deposits of Miocene Kuşadasi Formation in the SKB and the other structural elements around it, the appearance of synsedimentary bedding, gentle or open folding and how the bedding changes in the immediate vicinity of the faults.

    Figure 5.  Field photographs of the east of Söke-Kuşadasi Basin (SKB) showing: (a) high angle normal fault following the contact of Yamaçköy Formation and Menderes Massif rocks and a view of slickenside and striae in the small photo at the bottom right; (b) Menders Massif basement rocks with high angle normal fault-controlled colluvium in the right bottom (in hanging-wall block) of the first type monoclinal folds and slickenside striae in the foot-wall block of the fault; (c) the hanging-wall block of the high angle normal fault plane and the fault breccia developing on it; (d) the high angle normal fault forming the contact between the massif and the colluvium; and conjugate high angle normal faults in (e) the Kuşadasi Formation and (f) the Yamaçköy Formation.

  • Two different fold types have developed in two different locations in the SKB (see Fig. 2). The first type of folds is small-scale monoclinal seen in the hanging wall blocks of the transverse-shaped high-angle normal faults on the eastern margin of the basin (Fig. 6a). The folds formed in this way are in the form of roll-over anticline or syncline and develop in the hanging-wall blocks of normal faults as a ramp-flat geometry (see Fig. 4). The second type of fold is the anticlines and synclines developed in the Miocene units (Kuşadasi and Fevzipaşa formations) in the basin. These folds have a large wavelength, long fold axis, and isoclinal shape and are more spread and dominant ample folds compared with the monoclinal type folds (Figs. 4, 6b, 6c, 6d). In addition, they can be observed in some locations as recumbent and rollover. The bedding positions were evaluated by the "Faultkin Program" of Allmendinger et al. (2012) in the study area. As a result, the folding axes of these folds in the SKB are numbered from 1 to 21 with dipping NW, NE, horizontal and different directions (see Fig. 2). Sporadic slumping has also developed between the folds in the region. The distance between the limbs of all folds is generally wide, but their wavelengths are short. The wavelength of the folds in the SKB is broad and does not resemble those in the pure compressional area (Turner and Williams, 2004; Ramsay, 1974). Folds usually fall into the space between extensions or extension and shortening in the normalized layer-parallel strain mode classification (Frehner, 2011). Thrust faults indicating the transition stage from elastic deformation to plastic deformation have been formed in some locations of the second type of folds (see Figs. 4, 6d).

    Figure 6.  Field photographs showing (a) appearance of the first type monoclinal folds developed in the hanging-wall block of the high angle normal fault and related to listric faulting in deep parts; (b) the isoclinal fold of the second type of anticline and syncline; (c) the second type of isoclinal fold developed in the Kuşadasi Formation; (d) appearance of thrust faults verifying the kind of deformation from elastic to plastic with gentle and open-shaped folds.

  • The geometry of the thrust faults, especially in the intra-basin deposits, from Miocene to Plio–Quaternary in the SKB, was determined, and the tectonic origins of these faults were analytically detailed for the first time. Thrust faults in the SKB are observed in a range of different positions (Fig. 7). They do not cut the basement rocks in any part of the basin and are seen to be entirely in the intra-basin deposits of the crust. Thrust faults are in conformity with the experimental structures developed by McClay (1996) near the detachment ramp-flat normal fault and developed due to inversion tectonics (see Fig. 4). Thrust faults caused a tectonic-originated rotation up to 40º in the imbrication of the Plio–Quaternary units and the beddings of the Miocene units between 14º and 46º (Figs. 7b, 7e, 7h). Thus, the paleo-topography of the deposition is seen to have evolved by tectonic origin. The rotation developed due to the syn-sedimentation with tectonism is continuous from the bottom of the related thrust fault planes to the top around the normal detachment fault, while others are observed in a specific surface area (see Fig. 4).

    Figure 7.  Field photographs of the Kuşadasi and Fevzipaşa formations showing: (a) high-angle normal and thrust faults; (b) syn-sedimentary thrust fault distributing in the deposition bedding; (c) conjugate high-angle normal and thrust faults; (d) micro-thrust faults; (e) syn-sedimentary thrust faults and joints; (f) syn-sedimentary; first in the second type of folding (clearly seen in the lower left photo) followed by thrust faulting occurs in the zone; conjugate high angle normal and thrust faulting, together with the low angle detachment of the normal faulting structural products of joints; (g) second type of micro folding, followed by en-echalon thrust faulting and (h) syn-sedimentary thrust faulting changing the imbrication occurring at the time of deposition in the Plio–Quaternary sediments for the first time detailed by this study.

    The thrust faults in the SKB are all within the intra-basin sediments and are not included in the geological contact of basement rocks and intra-basin deposits (Fig. 7a). Thrust faults are relatively less and smaller in size and contain lower vertical offsets than normal faults in the whole basin. Therefore, these thrust faults are secondary structures developed during the tectonic-sedimentary process of the SKB. Also, thrust faults deform or rotate sedimentary structures accompanying deposition continued in the Plio–Quaternary Period.

  • The normal fault, fold, thrust fault, conjugate normal/thrust faults and their joints in the vicinity and the striae on each slickenside were evaluated in the "Wintensor Program" developed by Delvaux and Sperner (2003) and the distribution of principal stress axes was determined (Fig. 8) (Table 1). All measurements of the structural planes defined in the field are taken as dip direction/dip angle. In the intra-basin sediments in the SKB, in the vicinity of the normal detachment fault shown in Fig. 4, all high angle normal and thrust faults (numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4) and the trendings of the second type of fold axes are generally parallel to each other. In other words, the maximum principal tensional stress axis (S3) and the principal maximum principal compressional stress axis (S1) in the region are also approximately parallel or there is a small angle between them. This view is supported by the slickenside and striae data of thrust fault numbered 4, and normal fault numbered 1 in Fig. 4. The faults on the southern and eastern margins of the SKB are high angle normal faults (Figs. 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d). Also, both the basin edge and in-basin structural data indicate that the maximum principal tensional stress axis (S3) is in N, N15ºE, and N40ºW strikes, proving that the basin is transverse. Sümer et al. (2013) identified a similar extension (σ3) direction. In this study, the ramp-flat detachment of the SKB, especially in the intra-basin deposits, indicates both conjugate and slickenside and striae data within the normal fault zone, indicating transverse extension. Also, the existence of limited compression is evident in the extensional stress domain (Figs. 8e, 8f, 8g, 8h). In this situation, low angle detachment of normal faulting, the ramp-flat and inversion geometry is similar to the high angle normal faults that control the supradetachment basin (Öner and Dilek, 2011; Purvis and Robertson, 2005). Stress ratio (R) and stress index (Ri), which are the critical structural parameters around SKB, indicate that pure or radial extension is the primary source in the basin tectonic history (see Table 1).

    Figure 8.  Kinematics characteristics of the faults in the SKB in the Wintensor Program (Delvaux and Sperner, 2003). (a) Basement rocks in the Kuşadasi Formation; (b) basement rocks in the Fevzipaşa Formation; (c) and (d) high angle normal faults controlling geologic contacts between basement rocks and colluvium in different locations, the Kuşadasi Formation; (e) low angle normal faults, (f) thrust, (g) high angle normal faults in the Fevzipaşa and Kuşadasi formations; (h) conjugated high angle normal faults, (i) thrust, (j) conjugated thrust faults, (k) thrust faults in the Yamaçköy Formation; and (m) analysis of the principal stress distributions of high angle normal faults in the Yamaçköy Formation.

    Name and age of data Type of data and formation name Number of data Latitude(ºN) Longitude (ºE) Strain mode S1(σ1)(azimuth/ plunge) S2(σ2) S3(σ3) ϕ
    (º)
    α
    (º)
    R Ri
    Between basement units and intra basin deposits (from Miocene to Holocene) Slickenside, striae (normal fault) 6 37º48'33" 27º19'48" Pure extension 064/62 161/04 253/28 44.82 8.2 0.5 0.5
    Slickenside, striae (normal fault) 5 37º53'08" 27º16'29" Radial extension 277/86 082/04 172/01 45.0 2.7 0.0 0.0
    Slickenside striae (normal fault) 5 37º51'20" 27º17'06" Pure extension 012/67 112/04 204/23 45.48 3.6 0.6 0.6
    Slickenside, striae (normal fault) 5 37º51'39" 27º17'18" Radial extension 163/62 254/01 344/27 45.60 5.9 0.2 0.2
    Intra-basin depoists, Kuşadasi and Fevzipaşa formations, Miocene) Slickenside striae (on detachment normal fault) 11 37º49'17" 27º16'22" Pure extension 258/68 142/10 049/19 42.16 22.5 0.73 0.73
    Slickenside, striae (near detachment thrust fault) 6 37º49'17" 27º16'22" Radial compression 204/21 295/02 031/63 46.33 7.8 1.00 3.00
    Conjugated normal faults 12 37º51'36" 27º17'21" Pure extension 218/66 042/66 312/01 70.17 6.31 0.67 0.67
    Slickenside, striae (normal fault) 5 37º50'48" 27º16'09" Radial extension 105/72 207/04 298/18 44.12 2.6 0.0 0.0
    Conjugated thrust faults 12 37º50'48" 37º51'32" 27º16'09" 27º17'24" Pure compression 348/08 254/28 092/61 72.54 11 0.42 2.42
    Slickenside, striae (thrust faults) 7 37º50'48" 27º16'09" Radial compression 171/05 081/01 340/85 45.79 9.44 1.0 3.0
    Plio–Quaternary units Conjugated normal faults 14 37º47'18" 27º20'26" Pure extension 293/50 106/40 189/03 45.83 6.9 0.68 0.68
    Slickenside, striae(thrust faults) 4 37º47'18" 37º47'18" Pure compression 054/09 324/01 226/81 44.70 5.25 0.75 2.75
    ϕ. Friction angle; α. misfit angle between observed and modeled directions; R. stress ratio; Ri. stress regime index; values determined by "Wintensor Program" of Delvaux and Sperner (2003).

    Table 1.  Parameters of the principal stress types and origin deformation type distribution obtained from some structural data of both thrust and low and high angle normal faults shown in Figs. 5, 6, 7 and different locations of the geological units in the SKB

    The general trend of the axes of the second type of folds indicating the shortening in the SKB is between N10º-65ºE, E-W, and N30º-40ºW (see Fig. 2). Vertical offset values on thrust fault planes vary from 5 to 55 cm. At the same time, these faults are observed with antithetic faults or joints. In Miocene Kuşadasi and Fevzipaşa formations, the maximum principal compressional stress axes (S1) caused by the thrust faulting range from N60º to 70ºE and N5º to 70ºW. In addition, thrust faults that cut Plio– Quaternary deposits (Yamaçköy Formation) in the WAEP and SKB were determined for the first time with this study. The maximum principal compressional stress axes (S1) created by these thrust faults is N65ºE trending (Fig. 8k). It was determined that the thrust faults in the region pointed out both radial as well as pure compression. Spencer et al. (2016) stated that the axes of Oligocene–Miocene folds above the Buckskin-Rawhide extensional detachment fault in western Arizona maybe both perpendicular and parallel to the regional extension. This geometric setting is due to the fact that the normal detachment faulting in the region has both E-W and N-S trendings (on their Figs. 1, 3, 4, 6). According to the same authors, the geometric features of the folds within the units above the Buckshin-Rawhide detachment fault, such as gentle and open (on their Fig. 5, see Fig. 2), are similar to those of the SKB (see Figs. 2, 4).

    It can be stated that the principal stress axes causing thrust and high angle normal faults in the SKB are generally parallel. Stress distribution, size, and direction of normal faults indicate that extension is dominant both in the basement rock-intra-basin boundary and in intra-basin sediments. This process has continued since Miocene. However, the maximum contraction effect of fold and thrust faults was determined locally within the whole basin and occurred only during the sedimentation of intra-basin deposits. Accordingly, only in the intra-basin deposits, both are folding, and thrust faulting has created limited shortening, approximately parallel to the principal stress axes that extend the basin. This shortening is associated with the tectonodynamic process of the low angle detachment normal fault in the brittle zone of crust.

  • The main structure deforming the brittle zone of the crust in the WAEP is the normal detachment fault, and the extensional tectonic regime associated with this fault controls the evolution of all basins in the region from Miocene to Holocene (Glodny and Hetzel, 2006; Bozkurt and Mittwede, 2005; Seyítoğlu and Scott, 1996, 1991). This situation indicates that fault geometry in both basement and intra-basin deposits of all major basins in the WAEP is the normal faulting, especially in the shape of listric, high-angle and ramp-flat features (Çiftçi et al., 2010; Seyítoğlu et al., 2002; Sözbilir, 2002). The tectonic origin of folds and thrust faults developed in the intra-basin deposits in extensional basins is still not clear in West Anatolia.

    There are four essential opinions on this subject. The first one is related to short-term contraction in the Oligo–Miocene (Çiftçi and Bozkurt, 2009; Emre and Sözbilir, 2007; Bozkurt and Rojay, 2005; Koçyiğit et al., 1999); the second one suggests strike-slip faulting (Sümer et al., 2013; Uzel et al., 2013; Sözbilir et al., 2011; Ersoy et al., 2010); and the third one proposes that all fold and thrust faults are associated with the extension (Seyítoğlu and Işik, 2009; Seyítoğlu et al., 2002); the fourth opinion states that Miocene fold and thrust faults are associated with low angle detachment normal fault. Accordingly, it is stated that detachment, which has a low plane dip angle in the depth of the crust, forms a normal shear zone on the normal fault plane and that folds and thrust faults develop in this zone (Şengör and Bozkurt, 2013). The same authors have defined the fold and thrust faults seen in intra-basin deposits as "extension-related structures formed by layer-parallel shortening."

    In some basins in western Anatolia, the seismic reflection at a certain depth of the crust indicated by basement rocks and deformation elements in the intra-basin deposits are due to an extensional detachment fault (Çiftçi and Bozkurt, 2010). According to findings, the folds in the basin are on a larger scale than the thrust faults and spread over the entire SKB (see Fig. 2). Some of the second types of folds observed in the whole SKB have a horizontal axis, and the rest has the maximum 12º plunging angle of the fold axis. In addition, some basic geometric features of folding and thrust faulting in the SKB were compared with folding thrust faulting derived from contractional or transpressional (related to strike-slip faulting) (Figs. 9, 10). According to this comparison, the folds and thrust faults in the SKB are similar to the structures that developed in the "extensional supradetachment basin" (Jagger and McClay, 2018; McClay and Buchanan, 1992; McClay and Ellis, 1987). It is clear that in the extensional basins, the folding and thrust faults only deform the crustʼs intra-basin deposits. Besides, the basement rocks within the brittle zone can not overlap intra-basin deposits with thrust faults. Therefore, the folds and thrust faults, indicating shortening type deformation, are observed in the basin deposits rather than the basement rocks of the crust in the SKB. This structural cycle suggests the evolution of the tectonic process in an extension-origin supradetachment SKB, not the presence and direction of compression. In this tectonostratigraphic period, intra-basin deposits in the SKB include high-angle normal faults as well as deformation marks of the folds and thrust faults with the effect of inversion tectonics. This means that the trends of low angle normal faults defined in the WAEP occasionally parallel to the topographic contour curves are related to the various ramp-flat structure (Jagger and McClay, 2018; Janecke et al., 1998; Guimerà et al., 1995; Xiao et al., 1991). The ramp-flat structure generally observed in the supradetachment deposits is also consistent with the low angle detachment normal fault mapped in the intra-basin deposits of the SKB (see Figs. 2, 4).

    Figure 9.  A comparative explanation of the geometrical positions of the fold, thrust and reverse faults identified in the SKB in the regions deformed by pure extensional, pure compressional and strike-slip tectonics affecting the intra-basin deposits with the basement rocks, of developing some syntectonic structural elements (numbers 1 to 9 describes the characteristics compared).

    Figure 10.  (a) Faultings between the ice (low friction) and dry sand, which are numbered 1, 2, 3 with respect to different fault plane angles, and occurred in the sand extended by the tractor along the fault plane (thrust fault plane formed in phase 2 is drawn in blue). The position of these three different conditions in the surface slope/basal dip graph. Intra-basin deposits at the SKB were considered to be unstable, and recrystallized limestone within the Menderes Massif, which forms basement rocks, was considered stable (inspired by Xiao et al, 1991; Dahlen, 1984). (b) Five different critical taper regions have been identified in the SKB, which are similar to the different critical-taper parameter units numbered from 1 to 10 in Spencer et al. (2016) of the"above the Bucksk in-Rawhide extensional detachment fault". These are, 1. the border between basement rock recrystallized limestone and the sandstone of the Kuşadasi Formation; 2. folded sandstone-limestone alternation in Kuşadasi Formation cut by detachment faulting; 3. basement rock of schist and tilted sand-matrix pebble-sand alternation or border between colluvium; 4. folded sandston-limestone alternation of Kusadasi Formation; 5. pebble-sand intercalation in the Yamaçköy Formation and principal stress distributions therein. (c) Tectonostratigraphic block diagram of supradetachment SKB from Miocene to the present in the x-x' directional structural cross section; the appearance of thrust faults with extensional origin open and gentle folds that provide shortening with low angle detachment normal fault and supradetachment high angle normal faults determined for the first time in the Neogene-Quaternary deposits of the SKB crust.

    The Buckshin-Rawhide detachment folds developed over normal fault and normal/thrust fault boundaries were analytically modeled according to Dahlenʼs ice-dry sand boundary experimental surface slope-basal dip model (Spencer et al., 2016; Dahlen, 1984) (Fig. 10a). The stress distributions of maximum principal extensional and compressional (S3, S1) of the fold and thrust faults in the SKB are also found in Dahlenʼs model; high angle indicates normal and thrust faults. Accordingly, both in the Dahlen (1984) model and the tectonic process between Miocene and Holocene in the SKB, the extension is dominated by the maximum principal tensional vector (S3). In addition, Dahlen (1984) model can be matched with geological units in the SKB as stable (basement rocks of Menderes Massif-recrystallized limestone) and unstable (limestone, sandstone, mudstone, clayey limestone alternation and sand-pebble with sand alternation). Accordingly, the geologic contact of the sliding zones is controlled by the low angle detachment fault and the high angle normal faults, similar to that of the SKB. In addition, in extensional tectonic regimes, the maximum principal compressional stress areas that indicate shortening were limited (Spencer et al., 2016; Dahlen, 1984). Therefore, it can be stated that the fold and thrust faults determined in this study occur in the second phase of the tectonic process of extensional detachment normal faulting proposed by Dahlen (1984) (see Fig. 10a).

    When all zones including different fault types in the Kuşadasi, Fevzipaşa and Yamaçköy formations in the SKB are compared with the Buckshin-Rawhide detachment fault modeling described by Spencer et al. (2016), it can be stated that the basal dip varies between 20º and 75º and surface slope ranges between 0º and 21º. In addition, four different taper-parameter regions with fold and thrust faults have been identified in the SKB and the type, size and spatial distribution of principal stress vectors have been identified, based on findings of Dahlen (1984) and Spencer et al. (2016) (see Fig. 10b). Thus, the origin of the fold and thrust faults determined in the SKB is related to the extensional regime initiated by the low angle detachment normal fault in the brittle (stable) zone of the crust. These limited shortening structures are also in the supradetachment section of the crust and develop only in intra-basin deposits. Some other extensional fields in the world contain similar structures (Brandes and Tanner, 2014; Rotevatn and Jackson, 2014; Burton and Wood, 2010; Guimerà et al., 1995; Schlische, 1995). Basin development from Miocene to the present at SKB, sediment deposition and all structural elements controlling deposition are associated with phases of crust deformation of pure or radial extensional origin. In the basement rocks and intra-basin deposits of the crust both low angle and high angle normal faults are dominant, whereas folds and thrust faults define limited shortening only in the SKB (Fig. 10c).

  • The structural position and geometry of the folds and thrust faults observed in intra-basin deposits of the Söke-Kuşadasi Basin (SKB) has been investigated in detail. The deformation elements of the basement rocks and intra-basin sediments in the crust, under only the effect of extension, can be very different from each other and were described in comparison with proposed models and other experimental studies. The SKB, located in the West Anatolian extensional province, is a supradetachment basin and a low-angle, ramp-flat shaped detachment normal fault is the only tectonic source for the basin. The cross high-angle normal faults with E-W, NE, and NW trendings, related to the evolution of the low angle detachment normal fault, affect and deform the SKB. In this tectonic process, two types of folds formed in the basin. The first type folds are the small wavelength, monoclinals in the hanging walls of high-angle normal faults, and the second type folds are widely distributed, gentle, and open folds with long wavelengths. The thrust faults, which are less frequent than the folds, are the structures that deform only the intra-basin deposits of the extensional origin, supradetachment basin crust. Syn-sedimentary beddings and imbrications in the basin were disturbed because of the ramp-flat detachment normal fault tectonics occurring with the sedimentation from Miocene, including to the Plio–Quaternary in the SKB. Also, it was determined for the first time that thrust faults related to the extensional tectonic process were formed during the sedimentation of the Plio–Quaternary sediments in all western Anatolian basins. Thus, the activity of the low angle detachment normal fault lasted at least up to Pliocene. The axes of the folds in the SKB and the strikes of the principal maximum compressional stress axes obtained from thrust faults are approximately parallel. The directions of the maximum principal extensional stress axes obtained from thrust faults and normal faults are generally transverse. The geometry and kinematic analysis of the folds and thrust faults in this type of basin is congruent with the geometry of the different structural elements formed by the low-angle detachment normal fault in the region, especially in the intra-basin deposits of the crust, rather than compression.

  • The author would like to thank the graduate students of Deparment of Geological Engineeering, Kocaeli University (Turkey), the editors Dr. Yanru Song and Dr. Ge Yao and the reviewers for their important contributions. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-020-1400-0.

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