Advanced Search

Indexed by SCI、CA、РЖ、PA、CSA、ZR、etc .

Volume 34 Issue 2
Apr 2023
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Zhiyuan Lei, Wenli Ling, Hui Wu, Yinghua Zhang, Yanan Zhang. Geochemistry and Mineralization of the Permian Bauxites with Contrast Bedrocks in Northern Guizhou, South China. Journal of Earth Science, 2023, 34(2): 487-503. doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1484-1
Citation: Zhiyuan Lei, Wenli Ling, Hui Wu, Yinghua Zhang, Yanan Zhang. Geochemistry and Mineralization of the Permian Bauxites with Contrast Bedrocks in Northern Guizhou, South China. Journal of Earth Science, 2023, 34(2): 487-503. doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1484-1

Geochemistry and Mineralization of the Permian Bauxites with Contrast Bedrocks in Northern Guizhou, South China

doi: 10.1007/s12583-021-1484-1
More Information
  • Corresponding author: Wenli Ling,
  • Received Date: 28 Feb 2021
  • Accepted Date: 21 May 2021
  • Issue Publish Date: 30 Apr 2023
  • A succession of Permian bauxite deposits are concentrated in Wuchuan, Zheng'an and Daozhen counties of northern Guizhou, South China. These deposits overlie contrast bedrocks, which are discriminated from the other bauxites of karst type in South China. Horizons of these bauxites are typified by sandwiched constructure, the upper and the lower layers of bauxitic claystone interbedded by the ore layer, and by abundant pyrite occurring in the ore and the lower layers. A geochemical study was carried out on samples from two boreholes of bauxitic profiles with claystone and carbonate bedrocks, respectively. It shows that the diverse profiles illustrate contrast mobility of elements. The profile overlying clayey bedrock is depleted in most elements including REE but variously enriched in HFSE, Pb, Mo, and half mass of Al2O3 was leached out; the profile overlying carbonatic bedrock is highly enriched in REE and moderately in HFSE and Pb, its Al2O3 mass was basically preserved. Both horizons are extremely enriched in alkali of Li and variously in Ce. A new genetic model is suggested accordingly. Tropic climate, coastal plain and frequent transgression and regression during the Permian caused a transition of weathering profiles from laterization to bauxitization in northern Guizhou. Massive pyrite in the horizons formed under reducing environment during the transgression through combining of iron enriched in the laterite profile and sulfur from the soaking and penetrating seawater; during the regression, oxidation of pyrite caused strong acid medium and induced the bauxitization.


  • loading
  • Abedini, A., Mongelli, G., Khosravi, M., et al., 2020. Geochemistry and Secular Trends in the Middle–Late Permian Karst Bauxite Deposits, Northwestern Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 124: 103660.
    Babechuk, M. G., Widdowson, M., Kamber, B. S., 2014. Quantifying Chemical Weathering Intensity and Trace Element Release from Two Contrasting Basalt Profiles, Deccan Traps, India. Chemical Geology, 363: 56–75.
    Bárdossy, G., 1982. Karst Bauxites, Bauxite Deposits on Carbonate Rocks. Developments in Economic Geology, 14: 1–441
    Bárdossy, G., Aleva, G. J. J., 1990. Lateritic Bauxites. Economic and Environmental Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam
    Bock, B., McLennan, H., 1998. Geochemistry and Provenance of the Middle Ordovician Austin Glen Member (Normanskill Formation) and the Taconian Orogeny in New England. Sedimentology, 45(4): 635–655.
    Braun, J. J., Pagel, M., Muller, J. P., et al., 1990. Cerium Anomalies in Lateritic Profiles. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 54(3): 781–795.
    Brimhall, G. H., Lewis, C. J., Ague, J. J., et al., 1988. Metal Enrichment in Bauxites by Deposition of Chemically Mature Aeolian Dust. Nature, 333(6176): 819–824.
    Chen, X., Zhang, Y. D., Fan, J. X., et al., 2012. Onset of the Kwangsian Orogeny as Evidenced by Biofacies and Lithofacies. Science China Earth Sciences, 55(10): 1592–1600. 2-4490-4 doi: 10.1007/s11430-012-4490-4
    Chester, R., Jickells, T. D., 1995. Marine Geochemistry (3rd Edition). Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken
    Cox, R., Lowe, D. R., Cullers, R. L., 1995. The Influence of Sediment Recycling and Basement Composition on Evolution of Mudrock Chemistry in the Southwestern United States. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59(14): 2919–2940.
    Deng, J., Wang, Q. F., Yang, S. J., et al., 2010. Genetic Relationship between the Emeishan Plume and the Bauxite Deposits in Western Guangxi, China: Constraints from U-Pb and Lu-Hf Isotopes of the Detrital Zircons in Bauxite Ores. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 37(5/6): 412–424.
    Dold, B., Fontboté, L., 2001. Element Cycling and Secondary Mineralogy in Porphyry Copper Tailings as a Function of Climate, Primary Mineralogy, and Mineral Processing. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 74(1/2/3): 3–55.
    Editorial Committee of Guizhou Province of Regional Geology of China, 2017. Regional Geology of China, Guizhou Province, Geological Publishing Hours, Beijing
    Ellahi, S. S., Taghipour, B., Nejadhadad, M., 2017. The Role of Organic Matter in the Formation of High-Grade Al Deposits of the Dopolan Karst Type Bauxite, Iran: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Sulfur Isotope Data. Minerals, 7(6): 97.
    Esmaeily, D., Rahimpour-Bonab, H., Esna-Ashari, A., et al., 2010. Petrography and Geochemistry of the Jajarm Karst Bauxite Ore Deposit, NE Iran: Implications for Source Rock Material and Ore Genesis. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 19: 267–284
    Freyssinet, P., Butt, C. R. M., Morris, R. C., et al., 2008. Ore-Forming Processes Related to Lateritic Weathering. One Hundredth Anniversary Volume, Society of Economic Geologists, 681–721.
    Gao, L., Li, J. H., Wang, D. H., et al., 2015. Outline of Metallogenic Regularity of Bauxite Deposits in China. Acta Geologica Sinica-English Edition, 89(6): 2072–2084. 4.12618 doi: 10.1111/1755-6724.12618
    Gu, J., Huang, Z. L., Fan, H. P., et al., 2013. Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Genesis of Lateritic Bauxite Deposits in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen Area, Northern Guizhou Province, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 130: 44–59. o.2013.03.003 doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2013.03.003
    Gu, J., Huang, Z. L., Fan, H. P., et al., 2013. Provenance of Lateritic Bauxite Deposits in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen Area, Northern Guizhou Province, China: LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb Dating of Detrital Zircons. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 70/71: 265–282.
    Haskin, L. A., 1984. Petrogenetic Modelling-Use of Rare Earth Elements. Rare Earth Element Geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 115–152.
    Hill, I. G., Worden, R. H., Meighan, I. G., 2000. Geochemical Evolution of a Palaeolaterite: The Interbasaltic Formation, Northern Ireland. Chemical Geology, 166(1/2): 65–84. 41(99)00179-5 doi: 10.1016/s0009-2541(99)00179-5
    Huang, X., Zhang, X., Du, Y., et al., 2013. Control of Sea-Level Changes over the Forming of Bauxite between Carboniferous and Permian in Northern Guizhou and Adjacent Regions. Geological Science and Technology Information, 32(1): 80–86 (in Chinese)
    Ji, H. B., Chang, C., Beckford, H. O., et al., 2021. New Perspectives on Lateritic Weathering Process over Karst Area-Geochemistry and Si-Li Isotopic Evidence. CATENA, 198: 105022. ena.2020.105022 doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2020.105022
    Jin, Z. G., Zou, L., Zhang, L., et al., 2018. Metallogenic and Prospecting Models of Bauxite in Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen Area, Guizhou Province. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 36(5): 914–926 (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Kurtz, A. C., Derry, L. A., Chadwick, O. A., et al., 2000. Refractory Element Mobility in Volcanic Soils. Geology, 28(8): 683.>;2 doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28683:remivs>;2
    Laskou, M., Economou-Eliopoulos, M., 2007. The Role of Microorganisms on the Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of the Parnassos-Ghiona Bauxite Deposits, Greece. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 93(2): 67–77.
    Lei, Z. Y., Weng, S. F., Chen, Q., et al., 2013. Lithofacies Paleogeography of the Dazhuyuan Age, Early Permian in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen Area, Northern Guizhou Province and Its Implication for Bauxitisation. Geological Science and Technology Information, 32(1): 8–12 (in Chinese)
    Li, P. G., Yu, W. C., Du, Y. S., et al., 2020. Influence of Geomorphology and Leaching on the Formation of Permian Bauxite in Northern Guizhou Province, South China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 210: 106446.
    Liao, S. F., 1960. Geology and Exploration Methods of the Qingzhen Type Iron Deposits. Journal of Geology and Exploration, 9: 9–10 (in Chinese)
    Ling, K. Y., Zhu, X. Q., Tang, H. S., et al., 2015. Mineralogical Characteristics of the Karstic Bauxite Deposits in the Xiuwen Ore Belt, Central Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Ore Geology Reviews, 65: 84–96.
    Ling, K. Y., Zhu, X. Q., Tang, H. S., et al., 2017. Importance of Hydrogeological Conditions during Formation of the Karstic Bauxite Deposits, Central Guizhou Province, Southwest China: A Case Study at Lindai Deposit. Ore Geology Reviews, 82: 198–216.
    Ling, K. Y., Zhu, X. Q., Tang, H. S., et al., 2018. Geology and Geochemistry of the Xiaoshanba Bauxite Deposit, Central Guizhou Province, SW China: Implications for the Behavior of Trace and Rare Earth Elements. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 190: 170–186.
    Ling, S. X., Wu, X. Y., Zhao, S. Y., et al., 2014. Geochemical Mass Balance and Elemental Transport during the Weathering of the Black Shale of Shuijingtuo Formation in Northeast Chongqing, China. The Scientific World Journal, 2014: 742950.
    Liu, P., Liao, Y. C., 2012. A Tentative Discussion on the Age of Bauxite-Bearing Rock Series in Central Guizhou-Southern Chongqing Area. Geology in China, 39(3): 661–682 (in Chinese)
    Liu, X. F., Wang, Q. F., Zhang, Q. Z., et al., 2016. Genesis of REE Minerals in the Karstic Bauxite in Western Guangxi, China, and Its Constraints on the Deposit Formation Conditions. Ore Geology Reviews, 75: 100–115.
    Liu, X. F., Wang, Q. F., Zhang, Q. Z., et al., 2017. Genesis of the Permian Karstic Pingguo Bauxite Deposit, Western Guangxi, China. Mineralium Deposita, 52(7): 1031–1048. 26-017-0723-y doi: 10.1007/s00126-017-0723-y
    Long, Y. Z., Chi, G. X., Liu, J. P., et al., 2017. Trace and Rare Earth Elements Constraints on the Sources of the Yunfeng Paleo-Karstic Bauxite Deposit in the Xiuwen-Qingzhen Area, Guizhou, China. Ore Geology Reviews, 91: 404–418. 017.09.014 doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2017.09.014
    Long, Y. Z., Lu, A. H., Gu, X. P., et al., 2020. Cobalt Enrichment in a Paleo-Karstic Bauxite Deposit at Yunfeng, Guizhou Province, SW China. Ore Geology Reviews, 117: 103308. v.2019.103308 doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103308
    MacLean, W. H., 1990. Mass Change Calculations in Altered Rock Series. Mineralium Deposita, 25(1): 44–49. 26382 doi: 10.1007/bf03326382
    MacLean, W. H., Bonavia, F. F., Sanna, G., 1997. Argillite Debris Converted to Bauxite during Karst Weathering: Evidence from Immobile Element Geochemistry at the Olmedo Deposit, Sardinia. Mineralium Deposita, 32(6): 607–616. 0050126 doi: 10.1007/s001260050126
    Mameli, P., Mongelli, G., Oggiano, G., et al., 2007. Geological, Geochemical and Mineralogical Features of Some Bauxite Deposits from Nurra (Western Sardinia, Italy): Insights on Conditions of Formation and Parental Affinity. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 96(5): 887–902.
    Marston, H., 2012. Bauxite Mining in Vietnam's Central Highlands: An Arena for Expanding Civil Society? Contemporary Southeast Asia, 34(2): 173–196.
    McLennan, S. M., 1989. Rare Earth Elements in Sedimentary Rocks: Influence of Provenance and Sedimentary Processes. Reviews in Mineralogy, 21: 169–200.
    Mondillo, N., Boni, M., Balassone, G., et al., 2012. REE in Karst Bauxites: The Campania Example (Southern Italy). Geophysical Research Abstracts, 14: EGU2012-7482
    Mongelli, G., 1997. Ce-Anomalies in the Textural Components of Upper Cretaceous Karst Bauxites from the Apulian Carbonate Platform (Southern Italy). Chemical Geology, 140(1/2): 69–79.
    Mongelli, G., Buccione, R., Gueguen, E., et al., 2016. Geochemistry of the Apulian Allochthonous Karst Bauxite, Southern Italy: Distribution of Critical Elements and Constraints on Late Cretaceous Peri-Tethyan Palaeogeography. Ore Geology Reviews, 77: 246–259.
    Negrão, L. B. A., Costa, M. L. D., 2021. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of a Bauxite-Bearing Lateritic Profile Supporting the Identification of Its Parent Rocks in the Domain of the Huge Carajás Iron Deposits, Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 108: 103164.
    Nesbitt, H. W., Markovics, G., Price, R. C., 1980. Chemical Processes Affecting Alkalis and Alkaline Earths during Continental Weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 44(11): 1659–1666.
    Nesbitt, H. W., Young, G. M., 1984. Prediction of some Weathering Trends of Plutonic and Volcanic Rocks Based on Thermodynamic and Kinetic Considerations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 48(7): 1523–1534.
    Nesbitt, H. W., Young, G. M., 1989. Formation and Diagenesis of Weathering Profiles. The Journal of Geology, 97(2): 129–147.
    Norton, S. A., 1973. Laterite and Bauxite Formation. Economic Geology, 68(3): 353–361.
    Novikov, V. M., Boeva, N. M., Bortnikov, N. S., et al., 2018. Chai Mat Kaolin-Bauxite Deposit (South Vietnam): Typomorphic Features of Kaolinite and Formation Mechanism of the Zonal Profile of the Bauxite-Bearing Weathering Crust of Granites. Geology of Ore Deposits, 60(6): 513–526.
    Ozturk, H., Hein, J. R., Hanilci, N., 2002. Genesis of the Dogankuzu and Mortas Bauxite Deposits, Taurides, Turkey: Separation of Al, Fe, and Mn and Implications for Passive Margin Metallogeny. Economic Geology, 97(5): 1063–1077. 1063 doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.97.5.1063
    Pourbaix, M., 1966. Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions. Pergamon Press, Oxford and New York. 644
    Qi, H. W., Hu, R. Z., Jiang, K., et al., 2019. Germanium Isotopes and Ge/Si Fractionation under Extreme Tropical Weathering of Basalts from the Hainan Island, South China. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 253: 249–266.
    Retallack, G. J., 2010. Lateritization and Bauxitization Events. Economic Geology, 105(3): 655–667.
    Rong, J. Y., Chen, X., Wang, Y., et al., 2011. Northward Expansion of Central Guizhou Oldland through the Ordovician and Silurian Transition: Evidence and Implications. Science China Earth Sciences, 41: 1407–1415 (in Chinese)
    Rudnick, R. L., Gao, S., 2003. Composition of the Continental Crust. Treatise on Geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 6/b0-08-043751-6/03016-4 doi: 10.1016/b0-08-043751-6/03016-4
    Ryu, J. S., Vigier, N., Derry, L., et al., 2021. Variations of Mg Isotope Geochemistry in Soils over a Hawaiian 4 Myr Chronosequence. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 292: 94–114. 16/j.gca.2020.09.024 doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2020.09.024
    Schroll, E., Sauer, D., 1968. Beitrag Zur Geochemie von Titan, Chrom, Nikel, Cobalt, Vanadium Und Molibdan in Bauxitischen Gestermen und Problem der Stofflichen Herkunft des Aluminiums. Travaux ICSOBA, 5: 83–96.
    Sugitani, K., Horiuchi, Y., Adachi, M., et al., 1996. Anomalously Low Al2O3/TiO2 Values for Archean Cherts from the Pilbara Block, Western Australia—Possible Evidence for Extensive Chemical Weathering on the Early Earth. Precambrian Research, 80(1/2): 49–76.
    Sun, S. S., McDonough, W. F., 1989. Chemical and Isotopic Systematics of Oceanic Basalts: Implications for Mantle Composition and Processes. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 42(1): 313–345.
    Tardy, Y., 1997. Petrology of the Latérites and Tropical Soils. Taylor & Francis, Abingdon. 419
    Taylor, S. R., McLennan, S. M., 1985. The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford
    Valeton, I., 1983. Palaeoenvironment of Lateritic Bauxites with Vertical and Lateral Differentiation. Geological Society, London, Special Publica-tions, 11(1): 77–90.
    Valeton, I., Biermann, M., Reche, R., et al., 1987. Genesis of Nickel Laterites and Bauxites in Greece during the Jurassic and Cretaceous, and Their Relation to Ultrabasic Parent Rocks. Ore Geology Reviews, 2(4): 359–404.
    Walder, I., Schuster, P., 1998. Environmental Geochemistry of Ore Deposits and Mining Activities. In: Sarb Consulting I. Acid Rock Drainage, Albuquerque
    Wang, D. H., Li, P. G., Qu, W. J., et al., 2013. Discovery and Preliminary Study of the High Tungsten and Lithium Contents in the Dazhuyuan Bauxite Deposit, Guizhou, China. Science China Earth Sciences, 56(1): 145–152.
    Wang, Q. F., Deng, J., Liu, X. F., et al., 2010. Discovery of the REE Minerals and Its Geological Significance in the Quyang Bauxite Deposit, West Guangxi, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 39(6): 701–712.
    Weng, S. F., Yu, W. C., Algeo, T. J., et al., 2019. Giant Bauxite Deposits of South China: Multistage Formation Linked to Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) Eustatic Fluctuations. Ore Geology Reviews, 104: 1–13.
    Yang, R. D., Yuan, S. T., Wei, H. R., et al., 2011. Sediment Geochemical Character of Carboniferous "Qingzhen-Type Fe Deposit" in Central Guizhou Area. Geological Review, 57(1): 24–35 (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Yang, Z. Y., Sun, Z. M., Yang, T., et al., 2004. A Long Connection (750–380 Ma) between South China and Australia: Paleomagnetic Constraints. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 220(3/4): 423–434.
    Yu, W. C., Algeo, T. J., Yan, J. X., et al., 2019. Climatic and Hydrologic Controls on Upper Paleozoic Bauxite Deposits in South China. Earth-Science Reviews, 189: 159–176. 8.06.014 doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.06.014
    Yu, W. C., Wang, R. H., Zhang, Q. L., et al., 2014. Mineralogical and Geochemical Evolution of the Fusui Bauxite Deposit in Guangxi, South China: From the Original Permian Orebody to a Quarternary Salento-Type Deposit. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 146: 75–88.
    Zhang, L., Park, C., Wang, G. H., et al., 2017. Phase Transformation Processes in Karst-Type Bauxite Deposit from Yunnan Area, China. Ore Geology Reviews, 89: 407–420. v.2017.06.026 doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2017.06.026
    Zhang, W., Hu, Z. C., Liu, Y. S., et al., 2012. Total Rock Dissolution Using Ammonium Bifluoride (NH4HF2) in Screw-Top Teflon Vials: A New Development in Open-Vessel Digestion. Analytical Chemistry, 84(24): 10686–10693.
    Zhang, Y. N., 2013. A Geochemical Study of Bauxite Deposits in the Wu-Zheng-Dao Area, Northern Guizhou Province and Its Implications for Metallogenic Mechanism: [Dissertation]. China University of Geosciences, Wuhan (in Chinese with English Abstract)
    Zhu, R. X., Yang, Z. Y., Wu, H. N., et al., 1998. Paleomagnetic Constraints on the Tectonic History of the Major Blocks of China during the Phanerozoic. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 41(2): 1–19.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌,
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(10)  / Tables(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article views(33) PDF downloads(49) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint