2005 Vol. 16, No. 1
Based on interpretations of the apatite fission track analysis data for 10 outcrop samples and forward modeling of confined fissiontrack length distributions, the thermal history of rocks in the Shiwandashan basin and its adjacent area, southern China, has been qualitatively and semi~quantitatively studied. The results reflect several features of the thermal history. Firstly, all the samples have experienced temperatures higher than 60~70 ℃. Secondly, the time that the basement strata (T1b) on the northwestern side of the Shiwandashan basin were uplifted and exhumed to the unannealed upper crust (with a paleogeotemperature of below 60~70 ℃) is much earlier than the basement rocks （γ15） on the southeastern side of the basin. Thirdly, the thermal history of samples from the basin can be divided into six stages, i.e., the fast burial and heating stage (220~145 Ma), the transient cooling stage （145~135 Ma), the burial and heating stage (135~70 Ma), the rapid cooling stage (70~50 Ma), the relatively stable stage (50~20 Ma) and another rapid cooling stage (20 Ma to present).
Noiseremoval routines (destriping) were performed on Landsat ETM+ data as adjustments for atmospheric and distortion factors, prior to further image enhancement and interpretation. The image enhancement techniques were contrast stretching, density slicing, spatial filtering, Fourier analysis, brightness inversion, band combinations, and band ratioing. It has been revealed that, owing to the presence of gossans at Paishanlou, the mixture of iron oxide and clay minerals affects the spectral reflectance in satellite data. The mineral and hydrothermal composite images with band ratios 5/7+5/4+3/1 RGB and 5/7+3/1+4/3 RGB, respectively, yielded the best results for their sensitivity to lithologic variables, and lack of statistical redundancy. Ratio 3/1 clearly highlighted ferric (Fe3+) iron; 5/4 depicted ferrous (Fe2+) iron, and 5/7 depicted clays, carbonates, and hydroxyl bearing minerals. Vegetation was also successfully discriminated by ratio 5/7. Finally, coupled with field surveys, petrographical and geochemical data, the observed anomalies led to the discovery of three new sites, which are gold mineralized. The prime objective of this study was to map supergene and/or hypogene signatures in the goldmineralized areas using Landsat ETM+ data at Paishanlou.
This paper investigates the main factors contributing to bank slope failures, such as the structure of rock and soil, water level change, bank slope gradient, vegetation, weathering and human activities. Based on these investigations, the bank slope failure models are analyzed. The stability of bank slopes in Wanzhou is investigated using geological surveying, 2D resistivity imaging surveying, excavated trenches and other methods. Finally, the disasters of bank slope failures in Wanzhou were investigated in detail. The results show that instability problems might occur in 60.38 km of bank slopes when the water level rises to 175 m. It is suggested that 37.8 km of unstable bank slopes should be stabilized, and 14.2 km of unstable banks should be moved or avoided after further geological surveying and reconnaissance. These results provide scientific basis and reliable data for the government to develop the third geodisaster prevention plan for the Three Gorges reservoir.
The vegetation geosynthetic reinforced slope is one of the new composite structures in civil engineering. It has a series of characteristics, such as low cost, convenient construction, optimal land utilization and flexible structure, and it has been widely used in hydraulic engineering, road, railway and harbor construction. The Three Gorges reservoir bank protection system is a challenging work. As the background, the interaction mechanism of soil and reinforced material has been studied. The test engineering is simulated by the numerical methods. The failure mechanism of the reinforced slope in the process is studied through analyzing the variation of the displacement, stress, plastic failure fields and factor of safety in the changing process of the water level. The reasonable evaluation of the protecting effect and bank slope stability is carried out. The research results could be used in the protective design and construction in the high slope in the Three Gorges reservoir region, and it also could provide reference to other protective engineerings in the littoral area.
The undrained change in pore fluid pressure that accompanies dike intrusion may be conveniently represented as a moving volumetric dislocation. The concept of a dilation center was developed to represent the field of undrained pressure change in a saturated linear elastic medium. Since instantaneous pore fluid pressures can be developed to a considerable distance from the dislocation, monitoring the rate of pressure generation and subsequent pressure dissipation in a fully coupled manner enables certain characteristics of the resulting dislocation to be defined. The principal focus of this study is the application of dislocation based methods to analyze the behavior of the fluid pressure response induced by intrusive dislocations in a semi~infinite space, such as dike intrusion, hydraulic fracturing and piezometer insertion. Partially drained pore pressures result from the isothermal introduction of volumetric moving pencil like dislocations described as analogs to moving point dislocation within a semi~infinite saturated elastic medium. To represent behavior within the halfspace, an image dislocation is positioned under the moving coordinate frame fixed to the front of the primary moving dislocation, to yield an approximate solution for pore pressure for constant fluid pressure conditions. Induced pore pressures are concisely described under a minimum set of dimensionless parameter groupings representing propagation velocity, and relative geometry. Charts defining induced pore fluid pressure at a static measuring point provide a meaningful tool for determining unknown parameters in data reduction. Two intrusive events at Krafla, Iceland are examined using the type curve matching techniques. Predicted parameters agree favorably with field data.
The threedimensional leadrubber dishspring bearing (3DB) is proposed in this paper. The 3DB is composed of lead rubber bearing (LRB) and dish spring bearing (DSB) with damper in series. The 3DB put forward in this paper is effective in the resolution of difficulties in strong vertical capacity and vertical damping of three dimensional isolation bearings. It effectively suppresses rocking motions as well. The analytical model and motion equations of multidimensional seismic responses of 3D base isolated frame structures are established. Taking a five storey frame structure as an example, an extensive simulation analysis is carried out. The results show that the 3D base isolated structure with the proposed 3DB is effective in 3D isolation; it can reduce seismic responses by 50 % compared to a nonisolated structure. Therefore, the 3D isolation problem in building can be solved easily and effectively with the 3DB proposed in this paper.
By utilizing the current finite element program ANSYS, two types of finite element models (FEM), the beam model (BM) and shell model (SM), are established for the nonlinear stability analysis of a practical rigid frame bridge—Longtanhe Great Bridge. In these analyses, geometrical and material nonlinearities are simultaneously taken into account. For geometrical nonlinearity, updated Lagrangian formulations are adopted to derive the tangent stiffness matrix. In order to simulate the nonlinear behavior of the plastic hinge of the piers, the multilines spring element COMBIN39 is used in the SM while the bilinear rotational spring element COMBIN40 is employed in the BM. Numerical calculations show that satisfying results can be obtained in the stability analysis of the bridge when the double coupling nonlinearity effects are considered. In addition, the conclusion is significant for practical engineering.
Transient dynamic analysis is used to study the effect of the bidirectional interaction of friction on the response of sliding displacement of a sliding structure subjected to bidirectional earthquake ground motion. The analysis varies the parameters of amplitude ratio of earthquake excitation, the period of the superstructure, and the coefficient of friction in the sliding support. Numerical results show that the sliding structure is significantly influenced by the interaction of frictional forces. So the sliding displacement may be underestimated and the acceleration of the superstructure may be overrated if the bidirectional interaction of frictional forces is neglected.
The various factors influencing the settlement of composite foundation have been more completely studied through numerical simulation. The influence on the settlement of composite foundation of the geometry and mechanical properties of the pile, soil, cushion, and the interface between pile and soil have been investigated through computer simulation, in which the contact elements with zero thickness are used. Some valuable conclusions for the settlement of composite foundation have been obtained: (1) The method using the contact element of zero thickness is successful when used in the simulation of the settlement of composite foundation; (2) Among the factors influencing the settlement of composite foundation, the compression modulus of the soil is the largest, and the cohesion of the soil is the second largest; (3) The effects on settlement of the internal friction angle of the soil, the elastic modulus, the radius, and the length of the pile, and the elestic modulus of the cushion are also more obvious.
In total, there are 12 systems, 60 point groups and 89 single forms in crystals and quasicrystals. Among them, 5 new systems, 28 new point groups and 42 new single forms belong to quasicrystals, while the other 7 systems, 32 point groups and 47 single forms belong to crystals. In this paper, the point groups and single forms of quasicrystals are deduced and drawn as stereographic projections by the rules of crystallographic point groups. These stereographic projections integrate the crystal and quasicrystal symmetry theories
Organic carbon isotopes, CaCO3 content, coupled with carbonate carbon and oxygen isotopes are presented for identifying the climatic instability of Lanzhou from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). A wavelet analysis of these indices was conducted in the Hongzuisi Section, Lanzhou area. The results indicate that some important variations dominated by global factors occurred in 11.5, 13.9, and 15.1 kaB.P. respectively. In addition, several abrupt oscillations on different time scales during the Holocene can be revealed, indicating the complexity of the climatic system. Although the mechanism of these events has not been interpreted successfully, wavelet analysis can offer a valuable mathematic tool for a detailed analysis and greater understanding of climatic instability, thus providing a useful basis for the research of abrupt events.
here is fine and uniform clay with aluminous and ferrous cementation in the red clay found in Guigang, Guangxi. It has the characteristics of shrinkage outwardly, rigid upper but soft lower and wellgrown fissure. In addition there are engineering characteristics such as high water content, low compactness and low compressibility, high strength and high contractility but slight expansibility. This paper discusses the red clay's engineering characteristics and its change regulation with depth by analyzing changes in the red clay's grain size composition, mineralogical constitution, and chemical composition.
Sediments of carbonate gravity flows and terrigenous debris turbidites, and normal bathyal deposits were found at the Shaiwa Section,Ziyun County, Guizhou Province, southwestern China.Through grainsize analysis of some typical sediments at this section,the changing patterns of the grain parameters and the grain size cumulations were recovered. Results show that the study area was deposited under turbidite control during the Late Permian period, which we also recognized at the outcrop section upon sedimentary characteristics of the sediments. In addition, fossils are abundant in the Upper Permian of the Shaiwa Section, including radiolarians,sponge spicules,bivalves,brachiopods, ammonoids and trace fossils. Radiolarians and siliceous spongespicules are typical deep water assemblages. Bivalves are dominated by genera of Hunanopecten and Claraia,both showing deep water living characteristics.Ammonoids are composed of planktonic types, showing characteristics of smooth and flat shells. Brachiopods are dominated by a small and thin shelled assemblage, which are commonly flat in shape and usually of slight ornamentations on shells. In addition, trace fossils found at the Shaiwa Section are also common types of deep water facies.Thus,the fossil evidence of the Shaiwa Section also suggests a deep water environment, possibly from the bathyal slope to the basin margin facies, of the studied area during the Late Permian period.
He and Ar isotopes of the Tertiary volcanic rocks from Jiyang basin and nearby Shanwang and Qixia areas in Shandong peninsula have been analyzed. The results show that all samples are characterized by an enrichment of radiogenic 4He leading to extremely low 3He/4He ratios (0.017 8-3.225)×10-6. They also have atmospheric like 38Ar/36Ar ratios and slightly higher 40Ar/36Ar ratios (395.4~1 312.7) than air value. The enrichment of radioactive 4He is attributed to the long term radiogenic accumulation of U and Th in the mantle. The low concentration of 3He is considered to be due to 3He loss during magma eruption. The loss is more obvious in the Neogene than in the Paleogene. Low 40Ar/36Ar ratios of all volcanic rocks may imply that subducted materials with atmospheric components have been preserved in the mantle, thus indicating that crust mantle circulation occurred.