A particular non-stromatolitic carbonate succession making up the third member of the Mesoproterozoic Gaoyuzhuang (高于庄) Formation might demonstrate that a stromatolite decline of the Mesoproterozoic occurring at ca. 1 450 Ma besides other three events of the Proterozoic, respectively, occurred at ca. 2 000 Ma, ca. 1 000 Ma, and ca. 675 Ma. The forming duration of this non-stromatolitic carbonate succession can be generally correlative to that of a similar depositional succession in North America, i.e. a non-stromatolitic carbonate succession made up by the Helena Formation of the Belt Supergroup, which suggests that the stromatolite decline occurring at ca. 1 450 Ma may be a global event. This information endows the non-stromatolitic carbonate succession making up the third member of the Gaoyuzhuang Formation in the Yanshan (燕山) area with important significance for the further understanding of Precambrian sedimentology. The Mesoproterozoic Gaoyuzhuang Formation in Yanshan area is a set of more than 1 000 m thick carbonate strata that can be divided into four members (or subformations). The first member (or the Guandi (官地) subformation) is marked by a set of stromatolitic dolomites overlying a set of transgressive sandstones; the second member (or the Sangshu’an (桑树鞍) subformation) is a set of manganese dolomites with a few stromatolites; the third member (or the Zhangjiayu (张家峪) subformation) is chiefly made up of leiolite and laminite limestones and is characterized by the development of molar-tooth structures in leiolite limestone; the fourth member (or the Huanxiusi (环秀寺) subformation) is composed of a set of dolomites of stromatolitic reefs or lithoherms. Sequence-stratigraphic divisions at two sections, i.e. the Jixian (蓟县) Section in Tianjin (天津) and the Qiangou (千沟) Section of Yanqing (延庆) County in Beijing (北京), demonstrate that a particularly non-stromatolitic succession making up the third member of the Mesoproterozoic Gaoyuzhuang Formation is developed in the Yanshan area of North China, in which lots of grotesque matground structures (wrinkle structures and palimpsest ripples) are developed in beds of leiolite limestone at the Qiangou Section and lots of molar-tooth structures are developed in beds of leiolite limestone at the Jixian Section. The time scale of the Gaoyuzhuang Formation is deduced as 200 Ma (from 1 600 Ma to 1 400 Ma). The duration of an obvious hiatus between the Gaoyuzhuang Formation and the underlying Dahongyu (大红 峪) Formation is deduced as 50 Ma to 100 Ma, thus the forming duration of the Gaoyuzhuang Formation is thought as 100 Ma (1 500 Ma to 1 400 Ma). Furthermore, the age of the subface of the third member of the Gaoyuzhuang Formation that is just in the mid position of the Gaoyuzhuang Formation can be deduced as about 1 450 Ma, which is the basis to infer a stromatolite decline of the Mesoproterozoic occurring at ca. 1 450 Ma. Importantly, several features of both the molar-tooth structure and the stromatolite, such as the particular forming environment, the important facies-indicative meaning, and the episodic distribution in the earth history, might express the evolutionary periodicity of the surface environment of the earth and can provide meaningful clues for the understanding of the Precambrian world, although their origin and forming mechanism is highly contentious. Therefore, like other three stromatolitic declines, respectively, occurring at ca. 675 Ma, ca. 1 000 Ma, and ca. 2 000 Ma, the identification of the stromatolite decline occurring at ca. 1 450 Ma during the Golden Age of stromatolites (2 800 Ma to 1 000 Ma) has important meaning for the further understanding of the evolving carbonate world of the Precambrian.
Clastic sedimentary rocks are natural samples of the exposed continental crust over large areas. The Hanjiang (汉江) River drains the northern Yangtze craton, including the South Qinling (秦岭) belt and the northern parts of the Yangtze craton. Detrital zircons from this river thus provide an ideal sample for studying the formation and evolution of the northern Yangtze craton. Here we report laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer U-Pb ages of 122 detrital zircons from one sand sample of the Hanjiang River. The 110 concordant zircons reveal four major age groups of 768, 444, 212, and 124 Ma, which well correlate with known magmatic events in the northern Yangtze craton. A minor group is present at 1 536 Ma, which is less known in the study area. Only seven zircons have ages of >1 750 Ma. Our results show that the Early Paleozoic, Late Triassic, and Early Cretaceous are important episodes of zircon growth and crustal growth/reworking in addition to the previously documented Neoproterozoic event. Our results suggest very limited exposures of Paleoproterozoic and Archean rocks in the northern parts of the Yangtze craton.
The formation and distribution of fractures are controlled by paleotectonic stress field, and their preservative status and effects on development are dominated by the modern stress field. Since Triassic, it has experienced four tectonic movements and developed four sets of tectonic fractures in the extra low-permeability sandstone reservoir at the south of western Sichuan depression. The strikes of fractures are in the S-N, NE-SW, E-W, and NW-SE directions respectively. At the end of Triassic, under the horizontal compression tectonic stress field, for which the maximum principal stress direction was NW-SE, the fractures were well developed near the S-N faults and at the end of NE-SW faults, because of their stress concentration. At the end of Cretaceous, in the horizontal compression stress fields of the NE-SW direction, the stress was obviously lower near the NE-SW faults, thus, fractures mainly developed near the S-N faults. At the end of Neogene–Early Pleistocene, under the horizontal compression tectonic stress fields of E-W direction, stress concentrated near the NE-SW faults and fractures developed at these places, especially at the end of the NE-SE faults, the cross positions of NE-SW, and S-N faults. Therefore, fractures developed mostly near S-N faults and NE-SW faults. At the cross positions of the above two sets of faults, the degree of development of the fractures was the highest. Under the modern stress field of the NW-SE direction, the NW-SE fractures were mainly the seepage ones with tensional state, the best connectivity, the widest aperture, the highest permeability, and the minimum opening pressure.
Overpressure is a hot topic in the study of sedimentary basins. It is important in generation, maturation migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbon, but the effects of overpressure on rock frame have not been investigated. In this study, experiments were carried out to study the effects of overpressure on rock frame structures using five core samples from the Junggar basin, Northwest China. The deformations and velocities for the samples were measured at different effective pressures related to non-equilibrium compaction and fluid expansion overpressure mechanisms. The results show that the effect of overpressure on rock frames gradually increases when the effective pressure drops down to a certain value (called critical pressure). Moreover, non-equilibrium compaction mechanism has more effects on rock frames than fluid expansion mechanism under the same effective pressure. Furthermore to study rock frame structural changes, we use Kuster and Toks?z's expressions to simulate the effective aspect ratios of inclusions α (penny shapes) for different effective pressures. The results show that the α decreases dramatically when the effective pressure decreases from the critical pressure. Changes of α can be interpreted as responses to the rock frame changes when grains conform one another by rotating and self-adjusting. However, different mechanisms of overpressure have different effects on rock frames. The rock frame can be affected more easily by overpressure in shallow regions generated by non-equilibrium compaction mechanism. Once this kind of rock frames are preserved after overpressure releases to a normal hydrostatic pressure, they can be identified by their specific rock frame characters. This method provides a new way to study overpressure release and fluid migration and accumulation.
On the basis of local measurements of hydraulic conductivity, geostatistical methods have been found to be useful in heterogeneity characterization of a hydraulic conductivity field on a regional scale. However, the methods are not suited to directly integrate dynamic production data, such as, hydraulic head and solute concentration, into the study of conductivity distribution. These data, which record the flow and transport processes in the medium, are closely related to the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity. In this study, a three-dimensional gradient-based inverse method—the sequential self-calibration (SSC) method—is developed to calibrate a hydraulic conductivity field, initially generated by a geostatistical simulation method, conditioned on tracer test results. The SSC method can honor both local hydraulic conductivity measurements and tracer test data. The mismatch between the simulated hydraulic conductivity field and the reference true one, measured by its mean square error (MSE), is reduced through the SSC conditional study. In comparison with the unconditional results, the SSC conditional study creates the mean breakthrough curve much closer to the reference true curve, and significantly reduces the prediction uncertainty of the solute transport in the observed locations. Further, the reduction of uncertainty is spatially dependent, which indicates that good locations, geological structure, and boundary conditions will affect the efficiency of the SSC study results.
Since the Xingtai (邢台) earthquake in 1966, China Earthquake Administration has carried out a survey campaign along more than thirty deep seismic sounding (DSS) profiles altogether about twenty thousand kilometers long in North China to study the velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle in this region, and has obtained a great number of research findings. However, these researches have not provided a 3D velocity structure model of the crust of North China and cannot provide seismic evidence for the study of the deep tectonic characteristics of the crust of the whole region. Hence, based on the information from the published data of the DSS profiles, we have chosen 14 profiles to obtain a 3D velocity structure model of North China using the vectorization function of the GIS software (Arc/Info) and the Kriging data gridding method. With this velocity structure model, we have drawn the following conclusions: (1) The P-wave velocity of the uppermost crust of North China changes dramatically, exhibiting a complicated velocity structure in plane view. It can be divided into three velocity zones mainly trending towards north-west. In the research area, the lowest-velocity zones lie in the Haihe (海河) plain and Bohai (渤海) Bay. Although the geological structure of the sedimentary overburden in the study area is somewhat inherited by the upper crust, there are still several differences between them. (2) Generally, the P-wave velocity of the crust increases with depth in the study area, but there still exists local velocity reversion. In the east, low-velocity anomalies of the Haihe plain gradually disappear with increasing depth, and the Shanxi (山西) graben in the west is mainly characterized by relatively low velocity anomalies. Bounded by the Taihang (太行) Mountains, the eastern and western parts differ in structural trend of stratum above the crystalline basement. The structural trend of the Huanghuaihai (黄淮海) block in the east is mainly north-east, while that of the Shanxi block and the eastern edge of the Ordos block is mainly north-west. (3) According to the morphological features of Moho, the crust of the study area can be divided into six blocks. In the Shanxi block, Moho apppears like a nearly south-north trending depression belt with a large crustal thickness. In the southern edge of the Inner Mongolia block and the south of the Yanshan (燕山) block, the Moho exhibits a feature of fold belt, trending nearly towards east-west. In the eastern edge of the Ordos block, the structure of Moho is relatively complex, presenting a pattern of fold trending nearly towards north-west with alternating convexes and concaves. Beneath the Huanghuaihai block, the middle and northern parts of the North China rift zone, the Moho is the shallowest in the entire region, with alternating uplifts and depressions in its shape. For the anteclise zone in the west of Shandong (山东) Province, the Moho is discontinuous for the fault depression extending in the north-west direction along Zaozhuang (枣庄) -Qufu (曲阜).
The upper spontaneous potential produced by oil and gas accumulation is of a stable potential field, and its intensity is directly proportional to the content of the source and inversely proportional to the radius apart from the source. Theoretical research and practical results show that anomalies of spontaneous potential can indicate oil-bearing sandstone bodies and locate the areas of oil and gas accumulation. In oil areas which have fewer reservoir beds, the petroleum reservoir thickness can be predicted by determining the linear relationship between potential intensity and apparent equivalent thickness. In the Weixing (卫星) oilfield, which is devoid of sufficient reservoir beds, its apparent equivalent thickness can be predicted by the linear equation h= -0.19x+0.74. On the basis of geological research, we use the spontaneous potential method to predict the equivalent thickness, helping in the selection of the most appropriate drill sites to enhance the probability of successful well boring so as to serve the next round development of the oilfield.
On the basis of the results of improved analytical expression of computation of gravity anomalies due to a homogeneous polyhedral body composed of polygonal facets, and applying the forward theory with the coordinate transformation of vectors and tensors, we deduced both the analytical expressions for gravity gradient tensors and for magnetic anomalies of a polygon, and obtained new analytical expressions for computing vertical gradients of gravity anomalies and vertical component of magnetic anomalies caused by a polyhedral body. And also we developed explicitly the complete unified expressions for the calculation of gravity anomalies, gravity gradient, and magnetic anomalies due to the homogeneous polyhedron. Furthermore, we deduced new analytical expressions for computing vertical gradients of gravity anomalies due to a finite rectangular prism by applying the newly obtained expressions for gravity gradient tensors due to a polyhedral target body. Comparison with forward calculation of models shows the correctness of these new expressions. It will reduce forward calculation time of gravity-magnetic anomalies and improve computational efficiency by applying our unified expressions for joint forward modeling of gravity-magnetic anomalies due to homogeneous polyhedral bodies.