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2007 Vol. 18, No. 2

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Deepwater Ventilation and Stratification in the Neogene South China Sea
Qianyu Li, Quanhong Zhao, Guangfa Zhong, Zhimin Jian, Jun Tian, Xinrong Cheng, Pinxian Wang, Muhong Chen
2007, 18(2): 95-108.

Combined data of physical property, benthic foraminifera, and stable isotopes from ODP Sites 1148, 1146, and 1143 are used to discuss deep water evolution in the South China Sea (SCS) since the Early Miocene. The results indicate that 3 lithostratigraphic units, respectively corresponding to 21–17 Ma, 15–10 Ma, and 10–5 Ma with positive red parameter (a*) marking the red brown sediment color represent 3 periods of deep water ventilation. The first 2 periods show a closer link to contemporary production of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) and Northern Component Water (NCW), indicating a free connection of deep waters between the SCS and the open ocean before 10 Ma. After 10 Ma, red parameter dropped but stayed higher than the modern value (a*=0), the CaCO3 percentage difference between Site 1148 from a lower deepwater setting and Site 1146 from an upper deepwater setting enlarged significantly, and benthic species which prefer oxygen-rich bottom conditions dramatically decreased. Coupled with a major negative excursion of benthic δ13C at ~10 Ma, these parameters may denote a weakening in the control of the SCS deep water by the open ocean. Probably they mark the birth of a local deep water due to shallow waterways or rise of sill depths during the course of sea basin closing from south to east by the west-moving Philippine Arc after the end of SCS seafloor spreading at 16–15 Ma. However, it took another 5 Ma before the dissolved oxygen approached close to the modern level. Although the oxygen level continued to stabilize, several Pacific Bottom Water (PBW) and Pacific Deep Water (PDW) marker species rapidly increased since ~6 Ma, followed by a dramatic escalation in planktonic fragmentation which indicates high dissolution especially after ~5 Ma. The period of 5–3 Ma saw the strongest stratified deepwater in the then SCS, as indicated by up to 40% CaCO3 difference between Sites 1148 and 1146. Apart from a strengthening PDW as a result of global cooling and ice cap buildup on northern high latitudes, a deepening sea basin due to stronger subduction eastward may also have triggered the influx of more corrosive waters from the deep western Pacific. Since 3 Ma, the evolution of the SCS deep water entered a modern phase, as characterized by relative stable 10% CaCO3 difference between the two sites and increase in infaunal benthic species which prefer a low oxygenated environment. Thesubsequent reduction of PBW and PDW marker species at about 1.2 Ma and 0.9 Ma and another significant negative excursion of benthic δ13C to a Neogene minimum at ~0.9 Ma together convey a clear message that the PBW largely disappeared and the PDW considerably weakened in the Mid-Pleistocene SCS. Therefore, the true modern mode SCS deep water started to form only during the "Mid-Pleistocene climatic transition" probably due to the rise of sill depths under the Bashi Strait.

Nd Isotopes and Geochemistry of Phanerozoic Clastic Sedimentary Rocks from the Yangtze Block and Their Tectonic Implication
Lian Zhou, Shan Gao, Yongsheng Liu, Corey Archer
2007, 18(2): 109-127.

This article presents Sm-Nd and geochemical data on fine-grained sediments of the northern margin from the Yangtze block, China, to understand the variations of Nd isotopic compositions and crustal evolution history in this area. The results are as follows: (1) Nd isotopic compositions for clastic sedimentary rocks of the Middle–Late Proterozoic have relatively positive Nd(t) values (+ 2.72 to + 0.69), with Nd model ages from 1.38 Ga to 1.55 Ga, corresponding to the contemporaneous volcanic rocks from the Xixiang (西乡) Group. This indicates that the arc-related materials from Middle–Late Proterozoic dominate the provenances of the Middle–Late Proterozoic periods. (2) The gradual decrease in εNd(t) during the Cambrian–Carboniferous periods is likely to reflect the progressively increasing proportion of erosion materials from the Foping (佛坪) and Qinling (秦岭) complexes, corresponding to a gradually decreasing trend in the La/Th ratios. (3) A prominent increase in the εNd(t) value of the Late Permian strata probably reflects the significant incorporation of the mantle-derived materials. The trace element data are compared with data of the Emeishan (峨嵋山) flood basalts. These data indicate that the volcanic dust has been added to the Late Permian strata during the Late Permian, represented by periods of extremely high Emeishan flood basalt activity in the south-eastern margin of the Yangtze block.

Mineral Components, Texture, and Forming Conditions of Hydrothermal Chimney on the East Pacific Rise at 9°–10°N
Jianbin Zheng, Zhimin Cao, Wei An
2007, 18(2): 128-134.

To characterize the hydrothermal processes of East Pacific rise at 9°–10°N, sulfide mineral compositions, textural, and geochemical features of chimney ores were studied using ore microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis, and electron microprobe techniques. Results show that there are three mineral assemblages for the hydrothermal chimney ores, namely: (ⅰ) anhydrite + marcasite + pyrite, (ⅱ) pyrite + sphalerite + chalcopyrite, and (ⅲ) chalcopyrite + bornite + digenite + covellite. Mineral assemblages, zonational features, and geochemical characteristics of the ore minerals indicate that ore fluid temperature changed from low to high then to low with a maximum temperature up to 400 ℃. The chimney is a typical black smoker. The initial structure of the chimney was formed by the precipitation of anhydrites, and later the sulfides began to precipitate in the inner wall.

Manganese Abnormity in Holocene Sediments of the Bohai Sea
Jianguo Liu, Anchun Li, Zhaokai Xu, Fangjian Xu
2007, 18(2): 135-141.

Manganese abnormity has been observed in the Holocene sediments of the mud area of Bohai Sea. On the basis of grain size, chemical composition, heavy mineral content and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating of foraminifer, relationships between manganese abnormity and sedimentation rates, material source, hydrodynamic conditions are probed. Manganese abnormity occurred during the Middle Holocene when sea level and sedimentation rates were higher than those at present. Sedimentary hiatus was not observed when material sources and hydrodynamic conditions were quite similar. Compared with the former period, the latter period showed a decrease in reduction environment and an inclination toward oxidation environment with high manganese content, whereas provenance and hydrodynamic conditions showed only a slight change. From the above observations, it can be concluded that correlation among manganese abnormity, material source, and hydrodynamic conditions is not obvious. Redox environment seems to be the key factor for manganese enrichment, which is mainly related to marine authigenic process.

Using Remote Sensing Data to Delineate the Lineaments for Hydrothermal Mineral Prediction in Heqing Area, Northwest Yunnan Province, China
Mansour S Al-Mokredi, Guangdao Hu, Bassam F Al Bassam
2007, 18(2): 142-147.

Lineament extraction and analysis is one of the routine work in mapping medium and large areas using remote sensing data, most of which are satellite images. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) of 945×1 232 pixels subscene acquired on 21 March 2000 covering the northwestern part of Yunnan Province has been digitally processed using ER Mapper software. This article aims to produce lineament density map that predicts favorable zones for hydrothermal mineral occurrences and quantify spatial associations between the known hydrothermal mineral deposits. In the process of lineament extraction a number of image processing techniques were applied. The extracted lineaments were imported into MapGIS software and a suitable grid of 100 m×100 m was chosen. The Kriging method was used to create the lineament density map of the area. The results show that remote sensing data could be useful to extract the lineaments in the area. These lineaments are closely correlated with the faults obtained through other geological investigation methods. On comparing with field data the lineament-density map identifies two important high prospective zones, where large-scale deposits are already existing. In addition the map highlights unrecognized target areas that require follow up investigation.

Synthesis and Growth Process: A Tetrapod-Like ZnO Nanostructure
Zhenbang Pi, Xiaolu Su, Tian Tian, Fang Pei, Chao Yang, Xike Tian
2007, 18(2): 148-152.

Three kinds of tetrapod-like ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized simultaneously via pure Zn chemical vapor deposition on silicon wafers with (111) orientation (Si (111)) at 920 ℃. X-ray diffraction indicates that the nanotetrapods are of wurtzite structure. The morphology and the microstructure of the nanotetrapods are investigated by the scanning electron microscopy. Selected area electron diffraction shows the growth direction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the atomic composition ratio of Zn/O. The growth process is briefly discussed. The optical property of the products was also recorded by means of photoluminescence spectroscopy.

Synthesis and Properties of Poly (n-Octyl Acrylate) with Uniform Polystyrene Grafts
Guiying Liao, Shengbin Jiang
2007, 18(2): 153-157.

Poly (n-octyl acrylate) with uniform polystyrene grafts (POA-g-PS) was obtained by radical copolymerization of n-octyl acrylate (OA) with PS macromer, in solution. The reactivity ratio and effects of copolymerization conditions on grafting efficiency were studied. The crude products were purified by extraction with cyclohexane and n-butanol successively. POA-g-PS exhibited a very good compatibilizing effect on the acrylic rubber/polystyrene blends. 2%–3% of the graft copolymer was enough for enhancing the tensile strength of the blends. DSC and SEM demonstrated the enhancement of compatibility in the presence of the graft copolymer.

Solvothermal Synthesis of CdSxSe1-x Nanorods by Polymer Gel-Controlled Growth Strategy
Chao Yang, Longyan Wang, Xike Tian, Zhenbang Pi, Ping Hua, Yanxi Zhao
2007, 18(2): 158-162.

Alloyed ternary CdSxSe1-x nanorods have been synthesized by the thermal treatment of Cd2+-dispersed polyethylene glycol 2 000 gel (PEG 2000) with ethylenediamine solution of sulfur and selenium in a sealed system at 180 ℃ for 24 h, in which the ratio of S to Se in the nanorods was controlled by adjusting the relative amounts of the starting materials. Based on the results of experiments, it is found that the CdSxSe1-x nanorods were also synthesized with several sulfur sources by the method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the alloyed ternary CdSxSe1-x nanorods are highly crystalline, and no other phase was observed in these nanorods.

Neutral Leaching of Low-Grade Pyrolusite with High Silica Content
Jianhua Zheng, Hongyu Luo, Xike Tian, Longyan Wang, Chao Yang, Zhenbang Pi
2007, 18(2): 163-166, 176.

Leaching studies of low-grade pyrolusite, containing 11.84% Mn with high silicon, were carried out using sodium sulfite as a reductant in ammonium sulfate medium. Various process parameters including temperature, leaching time, solid-liquid ratio, quantity of ammonium sulfate, as well as the amount of reducing agent were studied in detail. The manganese extraction yield was the response of the process. Temperature and reagent concentration exerted the most important positive effect on the manganese extraction. The optimized conditions showed that when the amount of reducing agent was a stoichonmetric amount, over 90% manganese extraction and the lowest impurities were achieved, the amount of heavy metal impurities in the manganese leaching liquid was less than 5 mg/L, and almost no iron and aluminum were extracted in 3 mol/L ammonium sulfate concentration at 100 ℃ in 45 min.

Shape-Controlled Synthesis of ZnO Nano- and Microstructures by Tuning the Alkalinity via a Hydrothermal Process in the Presence of Poly (Acrylic Acid) (PAA)
Hanzhong Ke, Xike Tian, Jianhua Zheng, Zhenbang Pi
2007, 18(2): 167-171.

The sizes and morphologies of hexagonal phase ZnO crystals were successfully controlled by a hydrothermal process in the presence of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA). The dosage of NaOH in this reaction system proved to be crucial in the growth process. With the increase of dosage from 0.7 g to 3.0 g, the morphologies of the ZnO crystals changed from nanoplates to microrods. Their optical properties were also investigated.

The Composite Effect of Nanometer MnO2 Mixed with the Electrolytic MnO2
Chao Yang, Zhuoqin Liu, Xike Tian, Zhenbang Pi, Shengping Wang
2007, 18(2): 172-176.

The nanometer MnO2 has outstanding electrochemical performance theoretically, but it is not suitable for actual utilization, which may result in capacity decrease and resource waste. In this study we have utilized the characterizations of the nanometer material, synthesized a type of nanometer α-MnO2 through KMnO4 and KNO3 with hydrothermal method, and mixed the products into micron electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) to enhance the electrochemical performance of the electrode. The cyclic voltammogram and galvanostatical discharge measurements of the samples were investigated. It is found that the 50% nanometer MnO2 mixed electrode has the best electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance improvement mechanism of the sample nanometer MnO2 mixed into micron EMD was discussed. With the existence of electrolyte, the nanometer MnO2 particles filled into the interspaces of the micron EMD particles, the mass and charge transfer conditions of the electrode reaction were improved, and the electrode polarization was diminished.

Genesis of Sr Isotopes in Groundwater of Hebei Plain
Ping Ye, Aiguo Zhou, Cunfu Liu, Hesheng Cai, Yiqun Gan, Xiaoqian Li, Qinsheng Jin
2007, 18(2): 177-184.

To analyze the genesis of Sr isotopes in groundwater of Hebei plain, time-accumulative effect of 87Sr/86Sr ratio was studied. It is shown that 87Sr/86Sr ratio increases with the increasing age and depth of groundwater and has a positive correlation to 4Heexc and a negative correlation to δ18O and δD. The groundwater is divided into three groups to discuss the relation between 87Sr/86Sr ratio and Sr2+ content: ① moderate Sr2+ content and higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅰ); ② lower Sr2+ content and higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅱ); and ③ higher Sr2+ content and lower 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅲ), that is hot water. On the basis of integrated analysis, it was considered that ① the radiogenic Sr in the Quaternary groundwater (Q4–Q1) originates from weathering of silicate rich in Na and Rb, mainly from plagioclase; ② the radiogenic Sr of hot water in Huanghua port is attributed to carbonate dissolution, with lower 87Sr/86Sr ratio and higher Sr/Na ratio; ③ the recharge area is laterally recharged by the groundwater flowing through igneous and metamorphic rocks, with moderate 87Sr/86Sr ratio. However, the formation mechanism of Sr isotopes in Tertiary groundwater needs further studies.

Computing of the Anchor by the Method of Three-Dimension Point-Radiate Infinite Elements
Yanfen Wang, Yuanhan Wang, Hongyang Xie
2007, 18(2): 185-190.

On the basis of the one-dimension infinite element theory, the coordinate translation and shape function of 3D point-radiate 8-node and 4-node infinite elements are derived. They are coupled with 20-node and 8-node finite elements to compute the compression distortion of the prestressed anchorage segment. The results indicate that when the prestressed force acts on the anchorage head and segment, the stresses and the displacements in the rock around the anchorage head and segment concentrate on the zone center with the anchor axis, and they decrease with exponential forms. Therefore, the stresses and the displacement spindles are formed. The calculating results of the infinite element are close to the theoretical results. This indicates the method is right. This article introduces a new way to study the mechanism of prestressed anchors. The obtained results have an important role in the research of the anchor mechanism and engineering application.