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2004 Vol. 15, No. 2

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2004, 15(2): 133-134.
Pressure State in Deep Crust and Formation Depth of UHP Metamorphic Rocks
Guxian Lü, Ruixun Liu, Fangzheng Wang
2004, 15(2): 135-144.

This paper presents some questions to the formula of pressure=depth×specific gravity from the viewpoint that the hydrostatic pressure is equal to the gravity of overlying rocks and the rocks in a static fluid state, which is drawn from the research and analysis of the research field and the corresponding problems of the pressure state in the deep crust and the formation depth of the UHP metamorphic rocks. In this research, the underground rocks are considered as the solid possessing some rheological behaviors to discuss the polysource stress state and to obtain a more reasonable method for the calculation of depths using the model of the unbalanced force solid. It is suggested from this paper that the P/SW method for the calculation of the ultrahigh pressure stemming only from the gravity has obviously overstated the formation depth of the UHP metamorphism. The formation model emphasizing the effect of the gravity, the tectonic force and the metamorphic force of the facies change concludes that such UHP minerals as coesite may have been produced in the inner crust.

Methods for Calculation of Geogenetic Depth
Ruixun Liu, Guxian Lü, Fangzheng Wang, Changshan Wei, Chusun Guo
2004, 15(2): 145-151.

Some current methods for the calculation of the geogenetic depth are based on the hydrostatic model, it is induced that the depth in certain underground place is equal to the pressure divided by the specific weight of rock, on the assumption that the rock is hydrostatic and overlain by no other force but gravity. However, most of rock is in a deformation environment and non hydrostatic state, especially in an orogenic belt, so that the calculated depth may be exaggerated in comparison with the actual depth according to the hydrostatic formula. In the finite slight deformation and elastic model, the relative actual depth value from the 3 axis strain data was obtained with the measurement of strain including that of superimposed tectonic forces but excluding that of time factor for the strain. If some data on the strain speed are obtained, the depth would be more realistically calculated according to the rheological model because the geological body often experiences long term creep strains.

Mechanical Nature of Gravity and Tectonic Forces
Ruixun Liu, Guxian Lü, Fangzheng Wang, Changshan Wei, Chusun Guo
2004, 15(2): 152-154.

There are two models of ultrahigh pressure metamorphism (UHPM) zone in Dabie: the model of under thrusting returning which even arrives at the mantle and the superimposed model of tectonics in the crust. There are two points of view in the argument about formation depth of ultrahigh pressure metamorphism: (1) the depth can be calculated by hydrostatic equation; (2) the high pressure was composed of gravity, tectonic and other forces instead of merely gravity force. Some misunderstandings of mechanical conceptions presented in the paper showing the hydrostatic viewpoints should be open to question. The main conceptions are: (1) the confining pressure was only formed by gravity, and the differential stress was only formed by tectonic force; (2) the differential stress is not big enough to lead to form ultrahigh pressure metamorphism; (3) once tectonic overpressure goes beyond the limited strength of rocks the tectonic force would disappear and the rocks would be broken or rheomorphied at the same time. A short discussion in basic mechanics is made in this paper for a perfect process for discussing the argument.

Effects of Tectonic Force on Hydrostatic Pressure in Crust
Guxian Lü, Changshan Wei, Tao Guo
2004, 15(2): 155-161.

The research into the hydrostatic pressure in the crust has been previously conducted from the viewpoint that the hydrostatic pressure is equal to the gravity, based on the fact that the hydrostatic pressure is derived mainly from the gravity of its overlying rocks. In this paper, the stress state of any point in the crust is suggested to have been caused by both the gravity and the tectonic force. The author proposes that the hydrostatic pressure is a combination or superposition of two isotropic stresses in the tectonic force and gravity stress fields. The results obtained with a finite element simulation indicate that the additional hydrostatic pressure borne by rocks decreases gradually from the compression zone (pcs), the shear zone (pshs) to the tensile zone (pts), and that the difference in the additional tectonic hydrostatic pressure between these deformed zones tends to increase, following the increase in the absolute value and/or the difference in external forces between different directions. This paper presents the foundation for the research into the tectonic physicochemistry.

Experimental Study of Confining Pressure Initiated by Tectonic Force
Guxian Lü, Rui Ma, Ruixun Liu, Fangzheng Wang, Chusun Guo
2004, 15(2): 162-166.

An experimental study of the confining pressure, i.e. additional hydrostatic pressure initiated by the tectonic force is presented. The experimental progress is that the σ1 is gradually increasing from 0 in a limiting movement (ε1=0) in the σ1 direction and the speed rate of the accelerating load is 0.4 MPa·s-1 in the lateral and level directions. When σ2= σ3 < 200 MPa, Δσl is nearly lacking, Δσl is increasing at a high speed only when the horizontal force reaches 250-380 MPa, and Δσl almost ceases to increase at the level force of 380 MPa. It is calculated that the tectonic force can produce the confining pressure which is gradually increasing with σ2= σ3 before it reaches 380 MPa in an experiment. It is supposed that the horizontal force is almost all transformed into the confining pressure with the increase of the creep deformation of rocks.

Upper Limit for Rheological Strength of Crust in Continental Subduction Zone: Constraints Imposed by Laboratory Experiments
Yongsheng Zhou, Dalai Zhong, Changrong He
2004, 15(2): 167-174.

The transitional pressure of quartz coesite under the differential stress and highly strained conditions is far from the pressure of the stable field under the static pressure. Therefore, the effect of the differential stress should be considered when the depth of petrogenesis is estimated about ultrahigh pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rocks. The rheological strength of typical ultrahigh pressure rocks in continental subduction zone was derived from the results of the laboratory experiments. The results indicate the following three points. (1) The rheological strength of gabbro, similar to that of eclogite, is smaller than that of clinopyroxenite on the same condition. (2) The calculated strength of rocks (gabbro, eclogite and clinopyroxenite) related to UHPM decreases by nearly one order of magnitude with the temperature rising by 100 ℃ in the range between 600 and 900 ℃. The calculated strength is far greater than the faulting strength of rocks at 600 ℃, and is in several hundred to more than one thousand mega pascals at 700-800 ℃, which suggests that those rocks are located in the brittle deformation region at 600 ℃, but are in the semi brittle to plastic deformation region at 700-800 ℃. Obviously, the 700 ℃ is a brittle plastic transition boundary. (3) The calculated rheological strength in the localized deformation zone on a higher strain rate condition (1.6×10-12 s-1) is 2-5 times more than that in the distributed deformation zone on a lower strain rate condition (1.6×10-14 s-1). The average rheological stress (1 600 MPa) at the strain rate of 10-12 s-1 stands for the ultimate differential stress of UHPM rocks in the semi brittle flow field, and the average rheological stress (550-950 MPa) at the strain rate of 10-14 - 10-13 s-1 stands for the ultimate differential stress of UHPM rocks in the plastic flow field, suggesting that the depth for the formation of UHPM rocks is more than 20-60 km below the depth estimated under static pressure condition due to the effect of the differential stress.

Experimental Study of Migration of Gabbro Elements during Deformation
Rui Ma
2004, 15(2): 175-177.

Gabbro is selected as a sample for experimental deformation to investigate and validate the migration of elements during rock deformation. Samples are deformed for 3 h under a strain of about 5 % at T =700 ℃, p =100 MPa, σ =50 MPa. It is shown that there are 4 areas with different colors in the section of the samples parallel to σ1: the extensional, contractional, and strongly compressional areas and a ductile shear zone, respectively on the basis of the stress states and the direction of material movement. The chemical components such as K, Na, Al and Fe from materials in different areas have changed. The four elements mentioned above in pyroxene grains decrease in content from the extensional area through the ductile shear zone, the contractional area, to the strongly compressional area. The contents of the same elements in feldspar grain vary in a reverse direction.

Geobarmal Gradient in Orogenic Belt and Metamorphism Caused by Ultrahigh Pressure
Fangzheng Wang, Baoqun Hu, Guxian Lü, Ruixun Liu
2004, 15(2): 178-182.

The components and structures of lithosphere, inhomogeneous, are changing incessantly in different periods. Therefore, the state of load, called the pressure, in lithosphere is also incessantly changing. When the lithosphere volume remains the same, namely on the premise of isovolumes, the geobarmal gradient is: (dp/dh)v=(∂p /∂h)v+(∂p /∂T)v(dT/dh)v. If β =(dp/dh)v/(∂p /∂h)vis supposed, then β =1+ rg-1 Cv(dT/dh)v. When the geothermal degree in (dT/dh)vis zero, then the pressure grade of lithosphere is equal to the lithostatic grade, which is the minimum value in the pressure grade of lithosphere. Suppose that the lithosphere is made only up of quartz, CvCp =0.782+5.718×10-4 T-1.883×104T-2 (J·g-1·K-1) is obtained, which is the minimum one in lithospheric rock, and then the geothermal grade value of 20 ℃/km is calculated according to the geophysical transection data of Qinling Mountain orogeny. The results show that the high pressure and ultrahigh pressure eclogites in Jiangsu Province and Huangzhen, Dabie may, on the condition of incompletely isovolumes, occur in the depths of 17-40 km with the increase in geothermal temperature, whose values of β do not correspond to the theoretic value of 3.08.

Preliminary Statistics of Temperatures and Pressures for Formation of Eclogites, Granulites and Peridotites in China
Baoqun Hu, Fangzheng Wang, Zhanxue Sun, Chengdong Liu, Lihong Bai
2004, 15(2): 183-192.

The rock forming temperatures and pressures represent the p-T points of the local regions in the lithosphere at a certain age, providing some important information on rock formation. Based on the preliminary statistics on the temperatures and pressures for the formation of eclogites, granulites and peridotites in China, the variant ranges are given, in this paper, of temperatures, pressures and linear geothermal gradients of eclogites, granulites and peridotites. In addition, since the eclogite is different from granulite and peridotite in the p-T diagram, these three rocks can be classified into two groups: the first group includes eclogites and the second group granulites and peridotites. Then, the p-T correlation functions of these two groups of rocks are provided. Finally, the two groups of rocks have different geothermal gradients at the same pressure gradient or have different pressure gradients at the same geothermal gradient. The temperatures and pressures for the formation of the rocks can be calculated from the mineral chemical compositions, but the depths (H) for the rock formation can be calculated only under the hypotheses of given p-H (or T-H) correlation functions. The explanations for the ultrahigh pressure metamorphism vary obviously with different hypotheses.

Formation Mechanism and Exhumation Processes for HP-UHP Metamorphic Rocks in Dabie Mountains
Mingjin Hou, Jiafu Tang
2004, 15(2): 193-205.

The high, ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks, widely distributed in Dabie Mountains, were described in terms of the geological setting, the marks of the petrology and the mineralogy of the ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. According to the estimated uplifting and denudation of the Dabie Mountains, and to the thermodynamics theory, were assessed the depth and pressure (high pressure autoclave) of the formation setting of the UHP metamorphic rocks. Based on all the information mentioned above, a new explanation is derived from the mechanism of formation and the processes of exhumation of the UHP metamorphic rocks.

Formation Depth of Coesite-Bearing Eclogite, Dabie UHPM Zone, China
Guxian Lü, Ruixun Liu, Fangzheng Wang, Jing Chen
2004, 15(2): 206-215.

The plastic deformation of garnet in coesite bearing eclogite, quartz eclogite and garnet amphibolite of the UHPM complex in Yingshan County in the Dabie Mountains has been studied. The stress generated by the strong tectonic movement was an important component of the total pressure that resulted in the formation of the eclogite in the Dabie UHPM zone. The three dimensional tectonic principal stresses and additional tectonic stress induced hydrostatic pressure [ ps= (σ1+ σ2+ σ3) /3] are reconstructed according to the differential stress and the strain ratio (α) of the garnet in the minor coesite bearing eclogite of the Yingshan County. Then the gravity induced hydrostatic pressure (pg) is calculated following the equation p minus ps, where p is estimated to be 2.8 GPa based on the quartz coesite geobarmeter. Therefore, the thickness of the rock column overlying the coesite bearing eclogite in the Ying shan County is determined ≥32 km. This estimation, significantly different from ≥100 km, the previous one obtained solely based on the weight/specific weight ratio (W/SW), offers a proper explanation for the puzzle that no tracer of the addition of mantle derived material has been found in the Dabie UHPM zone during the process of UHPM, although a number of researchers claim that this process took place at the depth of the mantle (≥100 km). It is concluded that attention should be paid to the additional tectonic stress induced hydrostatic pressure in the study of UHPM zones.

Formation Depth Estimation of Coesite-Bearing Eclogite in Dabie UHPM Zone, China: Constrained by Isotopic Studies
Tiping Ding
2004, 15(2): 216-219.

The formation depth of metamorphic rocks in the Dabie ultrahigh pressure metamorphic (UHPM) zone influences not only our understanding of formation mechanism and evolution processes of collision orogenic belt, but also the studies on earth's interior and geodynamic processes. In this study, the isotopic data of metamorphic rocks in the Dabie UHPM zone are discussed to give constraints on the formation depth in the Dabie UHPM zone. The εSr of eclogite in the Dabie UHPM zone varies from 18 to 42, and the εNd varies from -6.1 to -17, both of them show the characters of isotopic disequilibrium. The oxygen isotope studies indicate that the protoliths of these UHPM rocks have experienced oxygen isotope exchange with meteoric water (or sea water) before metamorphism and no significant changes in the processes of metamorphism on their oxygen isotope composition have been recorded in these rocks. Except for one sample from Bixiling, all samples of eclogite from Dabie UHPM zone show the 3He 4He ratios from 0.79×10-7 to 9.35×10-7, indicating the important contribution of He from continental crust. All Sr, Nd, O and He isotopic studies indicate that the UHPM rocks retain the isotopic characteristics of their protoliths of crust origin. No significant influence of mantle materials has been found in these metamorphic rocks. Trying to explain above isotopic characteristics, some researchers assume that the speeds of dipping thrust and uplifting of rocks were both very high. In this condition, there will not be enough time for isotopic exchange between crust protolith and mantle materials. Therefore, we can not see the tracer of mantle materials in these UHPM rocks. However, this assumption can not be justified with available knowledge. Firstly, it was estimated that the whole process of UHPM took at least 15 Ma. During such a long period, and at the metamorphic temperature of ≥700 ℃, the protolith of crust origin can not escape from isotopic exchange with mantle materials if the UHPM have happened in the mantle depth of ≥100 km. In contrast, all problems will be dismissed if we assume that the UHPM have happened at the depth still in crust.

Primary Deformation Analyses of High Pressure Metamorphic Rock in Western Dabie Mountain Area
Changshan Wei, Guxian Lü, Yeming Zhang, Chengyun Xiong
2004, 15(2): 220-223.

In the western Dabie Mountain area, the eclogites have similar compositions and tectonic environment, which could be contrastively researched. Except for the reservation of the early structural deformation inside and outside of the eclogite lens, there is no obvious difference between the characteristics of the foliation and lineation in the eclogite lens from the one in surrounding region. So this paper concludes that the eclogites or blueschists (high pressure metamorphic rocks, i. e. HPM) are basically situated in the original position. The eclogites are mostly superposed by the ductile shear zone and show the feature of structural displacement, but so far we have not discovered any large scale structural zone to uplift eclogite return. Based on the analyses of finite strain measure, petrofabric analysis and TEM image for some minerals such as quartz and garnet, we could efficiently know the deforming characteristics of the eclogite in the prophase and anaphase of the main deforming epoch, and finally determine the forming condition of eclogite according to the strain and the differential stress. This paper puts forward preliminary conclusion that some HPM rocks could be formed by the deep layer embedding and local stress concentration in the process of regional metamorphism.

Characteristics of Blueschist in Shuangjiang Tectonic Mélange Zone, West Yunnan Province
Zhibin Zhang, Jing Li, Guxian Lü, Hua Yu, Fangzheng Wang
2004, 15(2): 224-231.

Glaucophane in Shuangjiang area, West Yunnan Province, supplies a chance for studying south segment of Lancangjiang tectonic zone. But people are at odds as to whether two-stage glaucophane exists or not, glaucophane is the result of dynamic metamorphism later, or indicates a high P/T metamorphic belt when Paleozoic Tethys Sea closed. Authors discover in a recent research that there is only one-stage glaucophane in Shuangjiang area, and three blueschist belts are distributed near N-S-tending, and glaucophane in Shuangjiang area is related to the eastward subduction of ChangningMenglian basin.

Measurement of Metallogenic Depth and Deep Second Enrichment Belt Forecasting in Jiaodong Gold Deposit
Tao Guo, Guxian Lü
2004, 15(2): 232-237.

The depth is important for ore finding in Jiaodong gold deposit. However, many geologists are still discussing how to confirm the depth for the tectonic and metallogenesis formation. The authors of this paper propose a new method-the correction of metallogenic depth via its structure to calculate the depth. This method, based on the crust rock in a solid stress state, emphasizes the elastic pattern rather than the static fluid pattern. In addition, this method is more appropriate to the actual situation in the crust than the method of weight/special weight. The authors of this paper illustrating, with the Jiaodong gold deposit as an example, the metallogenic depth correction via structure conclude that the depth of the most deposits, lower than 4-6 km, is often 2.5 km. Therefore, the authors suggest that there exists a second enrichment belt and that ore resources are more potential at the belt of Jiaodong area. These results have been demonstrated by years of exploration.

Structural Effects of Overpressure Fluid Activities in Yinggehai Basin
Xiulan Yin, Sitian Li, Yinsheng Ma, Jihai Yang
2004, 15(2): 238-244.

The characteristics and distribution of faults in Yinggehai basin discussed in this paper reveal the structural effects of the overpressure fluid expulsion. The rapid subsidence and mud rich intervals of the marine rocks dominate the formation of the overpressure systems and the enormous volumes of the overpressure fluids in the basin. Triggered by some faults, the overpressure fluids were expulsed rapidly from the overpressure compartments to form a series of diapirs in the basin, resulting in the dense fractures or faults and folds in the limbs of diapirs. These fractures and faults provided the migration pathway for the vertical flow of hydrocarbons, so that the gas fields arising from this process might migrate upwards to the sandstone reservoir. Therefore, the hydrocarbon accumulations are usually located in the upper parts of diapiric structures.