On the basis of the analyses of TOC, CaCO3, δ13Corg, δ18O, and δ13C of the shell bar section in the Qaidam basin, and compared with grain size data, the environmental change history of the high water level of paleolake Qarhan was reconstructed and it could be divided into five stages. From 39.7 to 35.8 kaBP was the development period of high paleolake level. From 35.8 to 33.6 kaBP and 33.6 to 27.2 kaBP, TOC and CaCO3 contents and δ18O values were high, whereas, δ13Corg values and median size content were low, reflecting a warm-humid climate and high lake level. During 27.2–22.3 kaBP and 22.3–17.5 kaBP, both temperature and the lake level were lower than those in the previous stages, but the climate was still warmer and more humid than that of today. The lake level decreased between 32.4 and 32.2 kaBP, 30.4 and 29.8 kaBP, and 28.4 and 27.2 kaBP. Generally, the climate was warm and humid in Qaidam basin and the high lake level sustained between 39.7 and 17.5 kaBP. The lake retreated abruptly at 17.5 kaBP, with a very strong increase in evaporation, which resulted in salt formation and the extinction of Corbicula.
This work deals with the evolution of carbon isotope composition in the Luoyixi (罗依溪) Section, a candidate of the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP), defining the base of the as-yet-undefined seventh stage of Cambrian System at the first appearance of the cosmopolitan agnostoid Lejopyge laevigata. This level is favored in a vote of International Subcommission on Cambrian Stratigraphy (ISCS) as the biohorizon for defining the base of a global stage. Two hundred and sixty-four samples for carbon and oxygen isotope analysis have been collected from the carbonate successions at an interval of 0.25 to 0.5 m in this section. Results of the carbon isotope data exhibit a remarkable disciplinarian trend. The pattern of the carbon isotope evolution is gently undulant with a relatively long period during the underlying Drumian Stage, and then the values of δ13C fluctuate sharply with a short period in provisional seventh stage. The onset of sharp fluctuation in the δ13C values begins at the proposed GSSP level, defining the base of the global seventh stage, where δ13C values change from a gentle trend to a sharp trend. Distinct covariant-relationships among δ13C, δ18O, and sea level fluctuations suggest that a warming change in paleoclimate took place during the early global seventh stage, which led to a positive shift in δ13C values.
Clay mineral assemblages, crystallinity, chemistry, and micromorphology of clay particles in sediments from ODP Site 1146 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed, and used to trace sediment sources and obtain proxy records of the past changes in the East Asian monsoon climate since the Miocene, based on a multi-approach, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Clay minerals consist mainly of illite and smectite, with associated chlorite and kaolinite. The illite at ODP Site 1146 has very well-to-well crystallinity, and smectite has moderate-to-poor crystallinity. In SEM the smectite particles at ODP Site 1146 often appear cauliflower-like, a typical micromorphology of volcanic smecites. The smectite at ODP Site 1146 is relatively rich in Si element, but poor in Fe, very similar to the smectite from the West Philippine Sea. In contrast, the chemical composition of illite at ODP Site 1146 has no obvious differences from those of the Loess plateau, Yellow River, Yangtze River, and Pearl River. A further study on sediment source indicates that smectite originates mainly from Luzon, kaolinite from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite from the Pearl River, Taiwan and/or the Yangtze River. The clay mineral assemblages at ODP Site 1146 were not only controlled by continental eathering regimes surrounding the SCS, but also by the changing strength of the transport processes. The ratios of (illite+chlorite)/smectite at ODP Site 1146 were adopted as proxies for the East Asian monsoon evolution. Relatively higher ratios reflect strongly intensified winter monsoon relative to summer monsoon, in contrast, lower ratios indicate a strengthened summer monsoon relative to winter monsoon. The consistent variation of this clay proxy from those of Loess plateau, eolian deposition in the North Pacific, planktonic, benthic foraminifera, and black carbon in the SCS since 20 Ma shows that three profound shifts of the East Asian winter monsoon intensity, and aridity in the Asian inland and the intensity of winter monsoon relative to summer monsoon, occurred at about 15 Ma, 8 Ma, and the younger at about 3 Ma. The phased uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau may have played a significant role in strengthening the Asian monsoon at 15 Ma, 8 Ma, and 3 Ma.
The morphological characteristics of the Zhongxiang (钟祥) rectorite have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The structural formula of the Zhongxiang rectorite is:(Na0.45K0.32Ca0.37Mg0.08)(Al3.78Fe0.11Ti0.10)[(Si6.22Al1.78)O20](OH)4·nH2O. It should be confined to a regular interstratification of (K, Na)-mica and Ca-montmorillonite. SEM observations show that Zhongxiang rectorite occurs as platy and fold-shaped crystals, and mainly as extremely thin plates with thickness ranging from 0.4 to 0.05 μm and a smooth (001) surface. There are well-developed polygonal steps on the surfaces of some thick crystals, suggesting a layer-by-layer growth mechanism. AFM observations show a series of steps with a height of 2 nm on the platy particles, suggesting the stacking of 20 nm fundamental particles. Club-like or fiber-shaped halloysite is included in the platy crystals with their elongated dimension paralleling (001) of the platy crystals or crossing the (001) surface of the platy rectorite, indicating multi-stage crystallization and involvement of hydrothermal fluids. The Zhongxiang rectorite was generated by both layer-by-layer growth mechanism and dissolution and crystallization growth mechanism with multistages.
Genesis of metasedimentary-volcanics outcroped in Kangxian-Pipasi-Nanping (康县－琵琶寺－南坪) tectonic zone is closely related with tectonic evolution of the Mianlue (勉略) Ocean. In the west end of Kangxian-Pipasi-Nanping tectonic zone, there are hundred meters of andesitic ignimbrites and tuffites. Zircon U-Pb dating on these volcanics has great significance to the tectonic implication of the volcanic rocks. Zircons from an ignimbrite sample (JZG-L) have been collected from Yazhagou (牙扎沟) in the east end of the Tazang-Longkang (塔藏－隆康) Section for LA-ICP MS U-Pb dating. The zircons from Longkang andesitic ignimbrites are magmatic genesis with oscillatory zoning and high U ((35–750) ppm), Th ((311–717) ppm) contents with high Th/U (0.44–1.30) ratios. The measured 206Pb/238U ratios are in good analytical precision, yielding a weighted mean age of (246±3) Ma (MSWD=2.6, n=12, 2σ). Some detrital zircons have also been observed, they have maximal concordia age of (2 481±33) Ma, which indicates the existence of Precambrian material in the Jiuzhaigou (九寨沟) area. Combined with regional geology and the volcanic rocks in the studied area, the (246±3) Ma zircon U-Pb age suggests a Late Permian orogenic volcanism and provides important geochronology evidence for the Mianlue suture westward extension.
Based on the analysis of well logs, seismic data, core studies, the Dongying (东营) Formation along the nearshore and adjacent sea areas, Bohai (渤海) Bay basin has been subdivided into three third-order sequences from base to top: namely, sequences SQ1, SQ2 and SQ3. The three sequences have different wireline (SP) log responses, showing triple-section characteristics with SQ1 being characterized by primarily flat baseline with intercalation of relatively low spontaneous potential, SQ2 generally exhibiting weak or moderate amplitude spontaneous potential with finger-shaped peaks, and SQ3 having relatively high spontaneous potential with funnel-shaped log curves. On the basis of the triple-section characteristics, the stratigraphic sequences can be correlated consistently throughout the entire study area. A stratigraphic and sedimentary model for sequences SQ1 to SQ3 of the Dongying Formation in the study area has been proposed. The accommodation space change in the two sides of the asymmetrical basin was examined and the asymmetrical basin has the feature of the asymmetrical accommodation space change. The asymmetrical physiography is a vital factor to influence the accommodation changes in additional to the lake level change, tectonism and sediment supply. This may have important implications to similar basins in other parts of China or elsewhere.
Indicator kriging (IK) is a spatial interpolation technique devised for estimating a conditional cumulative distribution function at an unsampled location. The result is a discrete approximation, and its corresponding estimated probability density function can be viewed as a composition in the simplex. This fact suggested a compositional approach to IK which, by construction, avoids all its standard drawbacks (negative predictions, not-ordered or larger than one). Here, a simple algorithm to develop the procedure is presented.
Sphalerite banding is a common texture in Jinding (金顶) Pb-Zn deposit, Yunnan (云南), southwestern China. The frequency distribution and irregularity of sphalerite grains observed in the bandings are characterized quantitatively by fractal models. Fractal dimensions calculated by several fractal models including box-counting model, perimeter-area (P-A) model, and number-area (N-A) model show the gradual change from outer banding to inner banding, indicating a decrease in area percentage, in irregularity, in shape and in grain size, and an increase in the numbers of grains. These results may imply an inward growth of sphalerite during mineralization, and self-organization properties are involved in the nonlinear process of mineralization.
An analysis of statistical expected values for transformations is performed in this study to quantify the effect of heterogeneity on spatial geological modeling and evaluations. Algebraic transformations are frequently applied to data from logging to allow for the modeling of geological properties. Transformations may be powers, products, and exponential operations which are commonly used in well-known relations (e.g., porosity-permeability transforms). The results of this study show that correct computations must account for residual transformation terms which arise due to lack of independence among heterogeneous geological properties. In the case of an exponential porosity-permeability transform, the values may be positive. This proves that a simple exponential model back-transformed from linear regression underestimates permeability. In the case of transformations involving two or more properties, residual terms may represent the contribution of heterogeneous components which occur when properties vary together, regardless of a pair-wise linear independence. A consequence of power- and product-transform models is that regression equations within those transformations need corrections via residual cumulants. A generalization of this result is that transformations of multivariate spatial attributes require multiple-point random variable relations. This analysis provides practical solutions leading to a methodology for nonlinear modeling using correct back transformations in geology.
The indicator kriging (IK) is one of the most efficient nonparametric methods in geo-statistics. The order relation problem in the conditional cumulative distribution values obtained by IK is the most severe drawback of it. The correction of order relation deviations is an essential and important part of IK approach. A monotone regression was proposed as a new correction method which could minimize the deviation from original quintiles value, although, ensuring all order relations.