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2009 Vol. 20, No. 6

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Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating and neoproterozoic metamorphism of Kangding and Yuanmou intrusive complexes, Sichuan and Yunnan
Dapeng Li, Yuelong Chen, Zhaohua Luo, Junxiang Zhao
2009, 20(6): 897-908. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0076-2

To clarify the relationship of the metamorphic intrusions along the west margin of the Yangtze craton and their metamorphic history after crystallization, the petrochemical and trace element geochemical characters, zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating, and the chemical compositions of coexisting hornblendes and plagioclases from Neoproterozoic metamorphic intrusions in Kangding (康定), Sichuan (四川) Province, and Yuanmou (元谋), Yunnan (云南) Province, were studied. Combined with the former published data, it is indicated that the Kangding granitic plutons and Yuanmou complex in the west margin of the Yangtze craton generally formed at the same period. Metamorphic event at ~700 Ma existed extensively, at least covering from Kangding area in Sichuan to the Eshan (峨山) area in Central Yunnan. Moreover, amphibolite facies may represent the peak regional metamorphic condition.

Clay rocks around Permian-Triassic boundary at Daxiakou Section in Hubei Province, China
Suxin Zhang, Peng Yuan, Laishi Zhao, Jinnan Tong, Hao Yang, Jishun Yu, Yufang Shi
2009, 20(6): 909-920. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0077-1

We studied the clay rocks around the Permian-Triassic boundary at the Daxiakou (大峡口) Section in Xingshan (兴山), Hubei (湖北) Province, China. All clay rocks are predominated by illitemontmorillonite (I/M) mixed-layer minerals, and high-temperature hexagonal bipyramid (HB) quartz and pyrite are contained in different abundances. Clay microspheres are even found in some beds. The results show that volcanic activity was very frequent in this area or in the neighboring areas during the Permian-Triassic transition though the intensity of eruption and the position of the eruption center might have varied during the period. The frequent volcanic activity should be at least one of the leading events to cause the momentous turnover of biota and the ecosystem during the great Permian-Triassic transition.

Hemipelagic deposition of the Silurian Kepingtage formation in Tarim basin and its sedimentologic significance
Zaixing Jiang, Yue Wang, Chuigao Wei
2009, 20(6): 921-931. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0079-z

Hemipelagic contourites were interpreted in the Silurian Kepingtage (柯坪塔格) Formation in the Tarim basin, Northwest China, through studies of outcrop, core, well-log, and seismic data. They are characterized by thin to thick bedded mudstone, with contour current irregularly thin bedded-lentiform siltstone and sandstone. Chitin stone, graptolite, thin-shelled bivalve, dissoconch, and acritatch fossils are present in dark-colored mudstones. A Helminthopsis-Scolicia trace fossil assemblage was observed in the outcrop and drilling core. Sandstones are mainly well-sorted and subangular-subrounded sublitharenite. Sedimentary structures include oriented current structure, erosional surface, and small-scale cross stratifications. The potential of contourites as hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks was evaluated on the basis of previous interpretations of paleoclimate and paleosalinity.

Sequence stratigraphic analysis of the first layer, upper second submember, Shahejie formation in Pucheng oilfield
Jinliang Zhang, Zhiqiang Jiang, Deyong Li, Jing Sun
2009, 20(6): 932-940. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0078-0

In view of the high accuracy and predictability, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy had been extensively applied to oil exploration and gotten prominent practicable results. This article takes the first layer, upper second submember, Shahejie (沙河街) Formation from Pucheng (濮城) oilfield as an example to analyze the application of high-resolution sequence stratigraphy in reservoir study on the basis of a comprehensive study of core log data. Firstly, facies analysis of this area reveals the corresponding terminal fan system occurring where sediment-laden streams decrease in size and vanish as a result of evaporation and transmission losses. The model includes a tripartite zonation of terminal fan into feeder, distributary, and basinal zones. Secondly, electrofacies were made by well-log analysis and then matched with sedimentary facies defined by core analysis. Four electrofacies characterizing the main sedimentary facies association and depositional environments within target area are defined (channel, lag deposit, lake or flood-plain, and overflow deposits). Thirdly, related correlations based on high-resolution sequence stratigraphy were established. By observing the stacking arrangement of genetic sequences, different scales of stratigraphic cycle can be identified. Within scale and duration, the stratigraphic cycles are termed as genetic sequences, genetic sequence sets, and minor cycles.

Ce anomalies of the Yangtze Region, South China, through the Ordovician and Silurian Transition
Detain Yan, Liqin Zhang, Shuangjian Li
2009, 20(6): 941-948. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0087-z

Systematic Ce anomalies for whole-rock have been obtained from the shale-dominated, continuous, and pelagic sedimentary sequences spanning the Ordovician/Silurian (O/S) boundary at the Tieshui (铁水) of Xiushan (秀山), Chongqing (重庆), South China. Ce anomalies across the O/S boundary are recognized in three intervals, Wufeng (五峰), Guanyinqiao (观音桥) and Longmaxi (龙马溪). The calculated Ce/Ce* values of Wufeng Formation range from 0.84 to 0.96 (avg. 0.90). In the Guanyinqiao Formation, the values of calculated Ce/Ce* range from 0.73 to 0.85 (avg. 0.79). The Ce/Ce* values of uppermost Longmaxi Formation range from 0.87 to 0.96 (avg. 0.91). All along the section, the magnitude of the Ce anomaly is always negative, but is more significant in the Guanyinqiao Formation. The relatively higher Ce/Ce* values in the Wufeng and Longmaxi shales are likely to be due to the sediments deposited under rather reducing conditions. The Ce anomaly apparently does play some regular roles in the anoxic events that accompany prominent mass extinctions, and this work provides new data of critical importance for constraining models on the end-Ordovician anoxic events and mass extinctions.

Syndepositional fault controlling on depositional filling of the third member of Shahejie Formation in Beitang sag
Chuanyan Huang, Hua Wang, Dunqing Xiao, Si Chen, Jiahao Wang, Yuantao Liao
2009, 20(6): 949-958. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0080-6

In the continental lake basin whose structures were extraordinarily active, tectonism is an important factor in controlling the sequence and the depositional filling of the basin. This article reports the assemble patterns of syndepositional fault in the third member of Shahejie (沙河街) Formation in Beitang (北塘) sag. The results show that the comb-shape fracture system and the fracture transformation zone were developed in Beitang sag. These assemble patterns obviously controlled the sand-body and spatial distribution of sedimentary system. However, the steep slope belt of fault terrace, the multistage slope belt and the low uplift gentle slope belt controlled the development of sequence styles. Analyses of the spatial-temporal relationship of the assemble pattern of syndepositional faults and the sedimentary system help predict the favorable exploration zone.

Geochemical Evidence of Gas Sources of CO2-Rich Cold Springs from Wudalianchi, Northeast China
Xumei Mao, Yanxin Wang, Oleg V. Chudaev, Xun Wang
2009, 20(6): 959-970. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0081-5

CO2-rich cold springs occur near the active volcanoes at Wudalianchi (五大连池), Northeast China. The springs are rich in CO2, with HCO3 as the predominant anion and have elevated contents of total dissolved solid (TDS) (> 1 000 mg/L), Fe2+ (> 20 mg/L), Sr (> 1 mg/L), and dissolved Si (> 20 mg/L). The compositions of escaped and dissolved gases of the springs are similar. The δ13C values of escaped gases and dissolved gases in mineral springs at Wudalianchi vary from −8.77‰ to −4.53‰ and −8.24‰ to −5.26‰, while δ18O values vary from −10.68‰ to −7.65‰ and −10.30‰ to −8.84‰, respectively, indicating the same upper mantle origin of CO2 of escaped gases and dissolved gases in the springs. Carbon and oxygen isotope fractionations and water-CO2 exchange were weak in the process of groundwater flow. The 4He content exceeds 5 000×10−6 cm3·STP/mL in escaped gases of the mineral springs, and the 3He/4He ratios of the escaped and dissolved gases vary from 2.64Ra to 3.87Ra and 1.18Ra to 3.30Ra, respectively. It can be postulated that the CO2 of mineral springs deriving from the magma chamber of the upper mantle moves upward to the surface, to increase the content of 4He in the mineral springs and decrease the ratio of 3He/4He. The helium origin of escaped gases in springs can be calculated with the MORB-crust mixing model, but that in the north spring can be better explained with the MORB-crust-air mixing model due to the effect of mixing with surface water. However, dissolved helium in springs, except the north spring, is better explained with the MORB-crust-ASW mixing model.

Landslide Prediction Based on Wavelet Analysis and Cusp Catastrophe
Changdong Li, Huiming Tang, Xinli Hu, Dongming Li, Bin Hu
2009, 20(6): 971-977. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0082-4

During the monitoring engineering of landslides, the monitoring data of accumulated displacement are usually affected by the external factors. Therefore, the displacement curve always has step-like character, which brings some difficulties to the accurate prediction of landslides. In order to solve this problem, based on the wavelet analysis and cusp catastrophe, a new kind of analysis method is proposed in this article. First, Fourier transform method can be used to extract the frequency component of the curve of monitoring displacement. Second, the wavelet transform was adopted to inspect the breakpoints of signals, which can be used to analyze the cause of the occurrence of the step-like character in the curve of landslide monitoring. Based on the cusp catastrophe theory, a nonlinear dynamic model was established to conduct the simulation calculation of time forecasting of landslides. According to a case study of landslide, the periodical rainfall and reservoir level fluctuation are the main factors leading to the step-like changes in the curve of monitoring displacement. In addition, the results of simulation calculation are in agreement with the fact of local failure of landslides. This method can provide a new analysis way for the time prediction of landslides.

Modeling of Borehole Radar for Well Logging Using Pseudo-spectral Time Domain Algorithm
Shuhai Lin
2009, 20(6): 978-984. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0084-2

In this article, numerical modeling of borehole radar for well logging in time domain is developed using pseudo-spectral time domain algorithm in axisymmetric cylindrical coordinate for proximate true formation model. The conductivity and relative permittivity logging curves are obtained from the data of borehole radar for well logging. Since the relative permittivity logging curve is not affected by salinity of formation water, borehole radar for well logging has obvious advantages as compared with conventional electrical logging. The borehole radar for well logging is a one-transmitter and two-receiver logging tool. The conductivity and relative permittivity logging curves are obtained successfully by measuring the amplitude radio and the time difference of pulse waveform from two receivers. The calculated conductivity and relative permittivity logging curves are close to the true value of surrounding formation, which tests the usability and reliability of borehole radar for well logging. The numerical modeling of borehole radar for well logging laid the important foundation for researching its logging tool.

Characterization of Fault Zones by Analysis of Aftershock Waveform Data
Hongyi Li, Songlin Li, Xiaoling Lai
2009, 20(6): 985-994. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0083-3

Large property contrasts between materials in a fault zone and the surrounding rock are often produced by repeating earthquakes. Fault zones are usually characterized by fluid concentration, clay-rich fault gouge, increased porosity, and dilatant cracks. Thus, fault zones are thought to have reduced seismic velocities than the surrounding rocks. In this article, we first investigated the synthetic waveforms at a linear array across a vertical fault zone by using 3D finite difference simulation. Synthetic waveforms show that when sources are close to, inside, or below the fault zone, both arrival times and waveforms of P- and S-waves vary systematically across the fault zone due to reflections and transmissions from boundaries of the low-velocity fault zone. The arrival-time patterns and waveform characteristics can be used to determine the fault zone structure. Then, we applied this method to the aftershock waveform data of the 1992 Landers M7.4 and the 2008 Wenchuan (汶川) M8.0 earthquakes. Landers waveform data reveal a low-velocity zone with a width of approximately 270-370 m, and P- and S-wave velocity reductions relative to the host rock of approximately 35%–60%; Wenchuan waveform data suggest a low-velocity zone with a width of approximately 220–300 m, and P- and S-wave velocities drop relative to the host rock of approximately 55%.

Computation of Magnetic Anomalies and Gradients for Spatial Arbitrary Posture Regular Body
Dongming Hong, Changli Yao, Yuanman Zheng, Wei Guo, Yao Luo
2009, 20(6): 995-1002. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0085-1

In the interaction computation for 3D gravity and magnetic anomalies due to arbitrarily shaped homogenous magnetized polyhedron model composed of triangular facets, there are many difficult points, such as mass computing, absence of a mature computer technique in 3D geological body modeling, inconvenient human-computer interaction, hard program coding, etc.. Based on the formulae of the magnetic field due to horizontal regular bodies, and by applying forward theory with the three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system transformation, the forward problems of magnetic anomalies and gradient tensors for arbitrary slantwise regular bodies were solved. It is shown that the magnetic calculating expressions of the arbitrary posture regular body are corrected by comparing results with the homogeneous polyhedral body model outcome data. Furthermore, in the same condition, the former significantly reduced forward time. Applying a new forward method of regular body expressions in arbitrary posture, developed software for interaction computation between the 3D geological body model and magnetic field has advantages of fast calculation speed, easy manipulation, etc..

Logging Evaluation Method of Low Resistivity Reservoir—A Case Study of Well Block DX12 in Junggar Basin
Liqun Chen, Changchun Zou, Zhonghao Wang, Haijun Liu, Shuang Yao, Dong Chen
2009, 20(6): 1003-1011. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0086-0

The Hutubi (呼图壁) River reservoir of well block DX12 is a lithologic hydrocarbon reservoir that is under tectonic settings. The main oil-bearing sand body in this area is thin and has a poor transverse connectivity. Because of the complexity of the oil-water relationship, the oil reservoir presents a low resistivity feature, which brings great difficulties to hydrocarbon reservoir identification. This article develops an effective method of well log interpretation that can meet the requirement of low resistivity reservoir well logging evaluation. The authors combine the oil reservoir geology feature, the oil well logging curve characteristics and chemical analytical data to analyze the reasons for low resistivity, then establish the appropriate reservoir parameter explanation model, which uses different saturation computational methods according to different generations. When the clay content is more than 5%, we select W-S dual water model; when the shale content is more than 13%, we use the Schlumberger formula; when the shale content is less then 13%, we use Archie's formula. The well logging evaluation method of low resistivity reservoir has been improved by the irreducible water saturation formula which is established by the permeability, the porosity, the coefficient of pore structure and the shale content, hydrocarbon reservoir recognition charts, and the non-resistivity logging methods (repeat formation test (RFT); modular dynamic test (MDT), etc.). The coincidence rate for this arrangement of the well logging integrated interpretation is 82.6% in the well block DX12. It is a powerful direction for low resistivity well log interpretation.

Estimation of Depth to Salt Domes from Normalized Full Gradient of Gravity Anomaly and Examples from the USA and Denmark
Hamid Aghajani, Ali Moradzadeh, Hualin Zeng
2009, 20(6): 1012-1016. doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0088-y

We present an estimation of depth of anomalous bodies using normalized full gradient (NFG) of gravity anomaly. Maxima in the NFG map can locate the bodies and indicate their depth. Model calculation using a sphere and application of the NFG method to gravity anomalies over salt domes in the USA and Denmark shows effectiveness of the method. However, the accuracy of depth estimation strongly depends on the number of term N in the Fourier series used to calculate the NFG. An optimum N for the calculation can be given from a test.