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2010 Vol. 21, No. 2

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Glacier Changes at Svartisen, NorthernNorway, during the Last 125 Years: Influence of Climate and Other Factors
Wilfred H Theakstone
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0011-6
The two ice caps of Svartisen, at the latitude of the Arctic Circle in Norway, supply 60 glaciers, ranging in size from >50 to <1 km2. Until the last two decades of the 19th century, the glaciers remained close to their maximum recent (Little Ice Age) size. In response to the prevailing 20th century climate, they have become smaller, but the changes have varied between glaciers. Climatic factors have not been the sole control of the variations. The response times of small, steep glaciers are shorter than those of the longer, more gently sloping outlet glaciers...
Characteristics of DDF at Baishui Glacier No. 1 Region in Yulong Snow Mountain
和献中, 杜建括, 吉亚鹏, 张宁宁, 李宗省, 王世金
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0013-4
Based on observed mass balance and meteorological data since September 2008 and ablation data by the expedition team of Tibetan plateau from June to August 1982 at Baishui (白水) Glacier No. 1 region, we analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of degree-day factor (DDF) of the Baishui Glacier No. 1 following the changes of space, time, and temperature, which lays a theoretical foundation to establish DDF model. The results indicate that the melting DDF of ice showed a significant downward trend with rising temperatures, and larger value of DDF only appeared at low temperature conditions. A larger value of DDF appeared in the high altitude areas, and as altitude rises, the value of DDF increased...
Characteristics and EnvironmentalSignificance of pH and EC in Summer Rainfall and Shallow Firn Profile at Yulong Snow Mountain,Lijiang City, China
李宗省, 何元庆, 贾文雄, 辛惠娟, 张蔚, 刘婧, 王淑新
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0014-3
The seasonal and inter-annual variations of pH and EC (electrical conductivity) at Yulong (玉龙) Snow Mountain, Lijiang (丽江) City, are sensitive to precipitation variations and are important indicators of the atmospheric environment. The pH of summer rainfall at Lijiang City ranges from 6.7 to 7.4, and alkaline mineral salts dominate the variations of rainfall acidity...
Impacts of Climate Warming on AlpineGlacier Tourism and Adaptive Measures: A Case Study of Baishui Glacier No. 1 in Yulong Snow Mountain, Southwestern China
王世金, 何元庆, 宋晓东
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0015-2
Alpine glaciers usually feature with best hydrothermal condition in mountain climate, and present beautiful glacier scenery, various glacier landforms, rich biodiversity, and easier accessibility, compared with continental glaciers or ice sheets. Nevertheless, Alpine glaciers are more sensitive to climate warming, and climate warming has seriously affected Alpine glaciers and surrounding environment. The quality and attractiveness of Alpine glaciers to tourism has been and will con-tinue to be diminished with tourists’ visitation and local economic development. At present, it has become a primary problem that Alpine gla-cier tourism adapts to climate warming...
Observed Glaciohydrological Changes inChina’s Typical Monsoonal Temperate GlacierRegion since 1980s
庞洪喜, 何元庆, 张宁宁, 李宗省
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0016-1
Under the background of significant climate warming since the 1980s, the glaciers in China’s monsoonal temperate glacier region respond to the warming intensely. Based on the glaciohydrological observations at some typical glaciers from Mts. Yulong (玉龙) and Gongga (贡嘎) of Hengduan (横断) Mountains Range in the southeastern Tibetan plateau, the glaciohydrological changes in the temperate glacier region since the 1980s were investigated. First, the glacier terminus exhibited an accelerating retreat...
Altitude Effects of Climatic Variation on Tibetan Plateau and Its Vicinities
卢爱刚, 康世昌, 李宗省
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0017-0
High topographies, such as the Tibetan plateau (TP) in China, have been considered as the sensitive areas in response to global climate change. By analyzing the relationship between warming structure and altitude (1 000–5 000 m) in the TP and its vicinities using the 46-year January mean observed temperature data, we found that there was a significant altitude effect of temperature warming onset time (mutation time) on the plateau and the neighboring regions: the higher the altitude, the later the climate warming happens, and vice versa. There also seems a slight altitude effect on warming mag-nitude: the higher the altitude, the less the warming magnitude...
Chemical Composition of Aerosol and FreshSnow and Tourism Influences at BaishuiGlacier No. 1 from Mt. Yulong, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau
张宁宁, 何元庆, 庞洪喜
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0018-z
Aerosol and snow samples were collected at ablation zone of Baishui (白水) Glacier No. 1, Mt. Yulong (玉龙), from May to June, 2006. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were determined by ion chromatograph both in aerosol and snow samples. The average total aerosol loading is 25.45 neq?scm-1, NO3- and Na+ are the dominant soluble ions in the aerosol, ac-counting for 39% and 21% of average total aerosol loading, respectively. Monsoon circula-tion reduces the concentration of most ions, in-dicating that wet scavenging is effective for aerosol particles. In snow samples, SO42- and Ca2+ are the dominant anion and cation, respec-tively...
Environmental Monitoring of BombetokaBay and the Betsiboka Estuary, Madagascar, Using Multi-temporal Satellite Data
Tsilavo Raharimahefa, Timothy M
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0019-y
The causes and consequences of soil erosion in Madagascar have been the focus of recent environmental debates. The Betsiboka, Madagascar’s largest river stretching 600 km from the high central plateau to the northwest coast on the Mozambique Channel, is a major conduit for transporting lateritic soils and sediments derived from the highlands of Central Madagascar to the sea. These entrained lateritic sediments color the river a blood-red hue, as if the life of the island is being drained away. In this study, Landsat visible and near infrared spectral bands are used to map the underwater sediments especially under the sea and in the interface between seawater and freshwater. Band color composites, single bands and band ratios are used to improve the detection of underwater sediments including sand bars and delta lobes...
REE and Sr-Nd Isotope Geochemistry for Yixian Fluorite Deposit, Western Liaoning Province, China, and Its Geological Implications
孙祥, 邓军, 杨立强, 王庆飞, 杨子荣, 龚庆杰, 王长明
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0020-5
Up to now, there were no systematic studies of geochemistry and isotopic age for the Yixian (义县) fluorite deposit, western Liaoning (辽宁) Province, China. Based on the analysis of metallogenic geological setting, we studied the REE, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopes. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of fluorite are characterized by moderate LREE depletion (LREE/HREE=0.95–3.57, (La/Yb)N=0.08–2.84) and enrichment of Sr (146×10-6–596×10-6) and moderately positive Eu anomalies (δEu=1.10–1.34), which are similar to those of the host Mesoproterozoic carbonate rocks. The fluorite display (87Sr/86Sr)t=-0.708 5, (143Nd/144Nd)t=-0.511 785, and εNd(t)=-12.8, which are similar to those of the host Mesoproterozoic carbonate rocks and volcanic rocks of Middle Jurassic Lanqi (蓝旗) Formation. The REE and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry suggest that the source of the ore-forming material may be the volcanic rocks of Lanqi Formation and host carbonate rocks...
Petroleum Characteristics and ControllingFactors in Lunnan Low Uplift, Tarim Basin
王晓梅, 张水昌
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0021-4
The Lunnan (轮南) low uplift is a complex basin that is situated in northwestern China. This area had undergone a range of tectonic events, and there are multi-production zones and reservoir types. Also, heavy oil, common black oil, volatilization oil, condensate oil and natural gas are approximately under the same stratum pressure grads and geothermal grads. The east Lunnan low uplift is mainly composed of condensate oil and natural gas, the middle part has many types of petroleum and the west part mostly has heavy oil. The petroleum geochemistry may be the principal reason for the great difference of the oil and gas characteristics. The heavy oil in the west part is established by the biodegradation and mixing effect...
REE and Sr-Nd Isotope Geochemistry for Yixian Fluorite Deposit, Western Liaoning Province, China, and Its Geological Implications(Table)
孙祥, 邓军, 杨立强, 王庆飞, 杨子荣, 龚庆杰, 王长明
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0000-0
Climate Change and Its Effect on AnnualRunoff in Lijiang Basin-Mt. Yulong Region, China
何元庆, 蒲焘, 李宗省, 朱国锋, 王世金, 张宁宁, 王淑新, 辛惠娟
2010, 12(2) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0012-5
Based on the meteorological and hydrologic data in the Lijang (丽江) basin from 1979 to 2006, variational trend and characteristics of climate change and its effect on runoff in Yanggong Manuscript accepted January 8, 2010. (漾弓) River were examined in the study. The results show that the temperature have signifi-cantly increased in the drainage basin during the past 28 years. The average temperature in-creased markedly from 1979 to 2006, and the increase of temperature in winter was higher than those in other seasons...