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2001 Vol. 12, No. 2

Display Method:
New Evidence from Alashan Area of West Nei Monggol to Reveal Enigma of Dinosaur Extinction
Wang Hongzhi, Wang Xueyin, Li Rendong
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
DinosaurextinctionofthelateCretaceousisanenigma.AscorchedearthlayerwasdiscoveredattheendoftheCretaceoussystemfromdrillingcoresinwestofNeiMonggolinChina.Andtherewasacreatureinterruptionfor6~8millionyearsafterthatperiodthroughfossilanalysisoftheareaandtheadjacentarea.Justinthesamesystemofscorchedearthlayer,thePolishscientistsfoundtheabnormalgeo~chemicalphenomenaandhigh~denseuniversalsubstancesgenerallycontainedinmeteorite.Theauthorsthink,attheendofCretaceous,manycelestialbodiesranintotheearth.Thecollisioncausedfiresallovertheworldandsloweddownthespeedoftheearthrotationsuddenly.Theoxygendensitydecreasedsharply.Andbecauseofthesuddenincreaseofdaylength,thebiologicalclockofdinosaurwasinthestateofchaos.That’sthereasonwhydinosaursgotextinct.Ittookaverylongtimebothfortheoxygentoreturnnormalformostcreaturestoliveandforthenewspeciesfitfornewrotationspeedoftheearthtocomeintobeing.That’swhytherewasthecreatureinterruptionaftertheextinctionofthedinosaur.
Dinosaur Footprints of Early Cretaceous in Site 1,Yanguoxia, Yongjing Country, Gansu Province
Du Yuansheng, Li Daqing, Peng Bingxia, Lei Rulin, Bai Zhongcai
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
A High~Precision Forecasting Model and Its Constructing Method for Vein~Type Gold Deposits
Zhang Jun
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
Ahigh~precisionforecastingandprospectingmodelincorporatingthe“fieldtheory~fieldstructureanalysis~fieldsimulation”,atemporalandspatialstructuralframeworkreflectinglocalextremelyfinestructures,isestablishedtomakeaneffectiveextractionandanintegratedanalysisofmultivariateforecastinginformation.Thismodelcanbestshownotonlythecouplingbetweenmetallogenicanomalousstructure,mineralizedstructureandinformationstructure,butalsotheextraction,optimization,matchingandsummarizationofkeyforecasting information.Thetechnologicalkeystothismodelarethefinestructuralanalysisofgeologicalandgeophysicalandgeochemicalanomalousfieldsandmetallogenicfields,andtheestablishmentofoccurrencepatternsforthespatiallocationoforebodies.
Theory of Geological Anomaly in Remote Sensing
Chen Jianping, Zhao Pengda, Ding Huoping
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
Geologicalanomalyisgeologicalbodyorcomplexbodywithobviouslydifferentcompositions,structuresorordersofgenesisascomparedwiththoseinthesurroundingareas.Geologicalanomaly,restrainedbythegeologicalfactorscloselyassociatedwithore~formingprocess,isanimportantcluetooredeposits.Thegeologicalanomalyservesasageologicalsigntolocateoredeposits.Therefore,itisveryimportanttostudyhowtodefinethecharacteristicsofgeologicalanomalyandfurthertolocatethechangesinthesecharacteristics.Inthispaper,theauthorsproposethegeologicalanomalybasedontheremote~sensingimagesanddata,andexpoundsystematicallysuchimagefeaturesasscale,size,boundary,morphologyandgenesisofgeologicalanomalies.Thentheauthorsintroducethecategorizationofthegeologicalanomaliesaccordingtotheirgeneses.Theimagecharacteristicsofsometypesofgeologicalanomalies,suchastheundergroundgeologicalanomaly,arealsoexplainedindetail.Basedontheremote~sensinginterpretationofthesegeologicalanomalies,theauthorsconcludethattheforecastingandexplorationoforedepositsshouldbefocusedonthefollowingthreeaspects:(1)theanalysisofgeologicalsettingandgeologicalanomaly;(2)theanalysisofcirculargeologicalanomaly,and(3)thecomprehensiveforecastingoforedepositsandtheresearchintomultisourceinformation
Vertical Migration of Petroleum via Faults in Zhu Ⅲ Subbasin, Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea
Nie Fengjun, Li Sitian, Wang Hua, Xie Xinong, Wu Keqiang, Jiang Meizhu
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
Theproblemthatfaultsactasaconduitforhydrocarbon~bearingfluidflowhasbeenunderdebateforalongtime.Thesouthernboundaryfault(FS)andNo.2faultbeltintheZhuⅢsubbasininthePearlRiverMouthbasin(PRMB)ofSouthChinaSea(SCS)areconsideredastheconduitofhydrocarbonsfortheoilandgasfieldsinthehydrocarbon~generatinghalfgrabens.Baseduponthebasinmodelingandseismicvelocityinversionsimulation,thereareabnormalpressurecompartmentsinthecentralpartofhalfgrabens.Wenchang,EnpingandZhuhaiFormationⅡareseatedwithintheabnormal~pressurezone,whiletheZhuhaiFormationⅠiswithinthepressure~transitionzone.Theabnormalpressurewasmainlycausedbyundercompactionduetothehighrateofsedimentationforlayerswithanabnormalpressure.Theincreaseoftemperatureofinclusionsastheincreaseofdepthsupportsverticalmigrationviafaultsinthestudyarea.
Development of Diapirs and Accumulation of Natural Gases in Yinggehai Basin
Gong Zaisheng, Yang Jiaming, Hu Jianwu, Hao Fang
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
OverpressuredevelopedthroughoutmostoftheYinggehaibasin.Theburialdepthtotopoverpressurevariedfromabout1600mto4500m,withtheshallowesttopoverpressureoccurringinthedepocenter.Themaincauseoftheoverpressurewasdisequilibriumcompactionresultingfromrapidsedimentationoffine~grainedsediments.Theoverpressurewasstrengthenedbytheretentionoffluidsincludinggasesduetolackoffaultsbeforediapirdevelopment.ThediapirismintheYinggehaibasinwasacombinedresultofthestrongoverpressureandthetensilestressfieldcausedbytheright~lateralslipoftheboundary~fault.Thediapirism,aproductofthemovementofoverpressuredfluidsandplasticshales,shapedtheverticalconduitsfromsourcetotrapsthatwouldbeabsentwithoutoverpressuredfluidrelease.Naturalgasaccumulationintrapsinthediapirstructurezoneswasalsointermittent,whichcanbeinferredfromtheinter~reservoircompositionalheterogeneity,transientthermaleffectoffluidflowandmigrationfractionation.
GIS Based Evaluation of Danger in Karst Collapse
Chen Xuejun, Chen Fujian, Liu Baochen, Bao Huiming
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
Inthispaper,feasibilityandadvantageofGIStechnologyarediscussedtomakeaquantitativeevaluationofkarstcollapses,afastandpreciseevaluationmethodfordevelopinginterfacebetweenthekarstcollapseandGIS~basedevaluationmodelisusedtopredictmajornaturalgeologicaldisasters.Acompleteprocedureoffuzzy~hierarchicalGIS~basedevaluationofkarstcollapsesisillustratedwiththekarstcollapsesinwesternurbanareaofGuilin,China.
Characteristics of Water Environment in Regions of Zhaling and Eling Lakes near Waterhead of Yellow River
Cao Wenbing, Wan Li, Hu Fusheng, Shen Zhaoli, Yan Weide
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
ConditionsofthewaterenvironmentintheregionoftheZhalingandElinglakes,whicharelocatedinthefrozenearthzoneontheQingzangplateau,areunique.Theequilibriumofthewaterquantityofthetwolakesismaladjustmentundertheconditionofadryandcoldclimateinwhichevaporationisgreaterthanprecipitation.TheZhalingandElinglakeshavebeenatrophying,leavingthreelaketerracesandstar~studdedlagoonsaroundthetwolakessinceHolocene.Whentheselagoonswereseparatedfromtheoriginallakes,theybecamecut~lakebasins,andweretransformedfromfreshwaterlakesintosaltwaterlakes,saltlakesorsaltplayasowingtostrongevaporation.Thiskindofevolutionaryprocesswillcontinueinthefuture.
Effect Blasting Excavation of Yujiapeng Tunnel on Stability of Nearby Giant Dangerous Rock Masses (DRM)
Yu Hongming, Hu Yanxin
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
Onthebasisoftheinterpretationofengineeringgeologyofthetunnelandofitsadjacentdangerousrockmasses(DRM),thispaperpresentstheenergyandvibrationparametersoftheexplosionthatpropagatesindifferentblastingmodesaccordingtotheexperimentalformulasnowusuallyemployed.ThenthestabilitycheckingcomputationofT8~T12area,themostdangerousareaofDRM,isconductedunderthelimitedblastingconditionandwiththelimitedequilibriummethod.Theresultshowsthattheeffectonthestabilityisonly5.5%andthatthisareaalsocontainscertainsafetyreserves.
Study on Smooth~Blasting Results in Jointed and Fractured Rock
Wu Li, Chen Jianping
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
Factorsthataffectblastingresultsmaybegroupedintothosefactorsthatcanbecontrolledandthosethatcannotbecontrolled.Thecontrollablefactorsincludeexplosiveproperties,initiationtiming,andblastgeometry.Theuncontrollablefactorscomprisetherock’snaturalstructures,suchasjointsandfractures,andtheproperties,suchaselasticconstants,densityandstrength.Amongthese,theinfluenceofrockstructuralplanesoftencontributesahighdegreeofvariabilitytoblastingresults.Thispaperpresentsatheoreticalanalysisofrockstructuralplaneinfluencesonsmooth~blastingresultsbasedonelasticityandstresswavepropagationtheorywithanemphasisonsmoothblastingtechniques.Twotypesofsimulatedexperimentsinlab(usingstrainandacousticemissionmeasurements)areusedtoverifythetheoreticalanalysis.Theresultsshowthatitisdifficulttoachievesmoothblastingresultswhentheanglebetweenthenaturalrockstructuralplanesandtheblast~inducedfractureplanesrangesfrom10to60°.Amongtheseangles,30°istheleastdesirableangletoproduceasmoothwall.Forangleslessthan10°andgreaterthan60°,theinfluenceofrockstructuralplanesonblastingresultscanbeignored.
Frequency Analysis of Heavy Tamping Vibration
Sun Jinzhong, Tan Hanhua, Qi Shengwen, Wang Shuli
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
Heavytampingisoneoftheimportantmethodsforgroundtreatment.Butthevibrationisoftenaproblemthatrestrictstheapplicationduringheavytamping.Ontheotherhand,asaninstantimpactloadwithcontrollableenergy,heavytampingisagoodtestinsituforthestudyofsoildynamics.Withtheanalysisinthefieldoffrequency,deductivemethodformedium~effectingfunctionandexcitationfunctionofheavytampingisputforwardinthispaper
Magnetic, Geochemical and Mineralogical Characteristics of Soils in Qiangtang Basin, Tibet, China: Implications for Prospective Oil and Gas Land
Liu Qingsheng, Wu Qifan, Li Haixia, Cheng Tongjin, Xia Xianghua, Chan Lung S, Zhang Shuang
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
Thealterationofironbearingmineralsinducedbyhydrocarbonmicroseepageaboveoil/gasreservoirshasbeenevaluatedusingmeasurementsofsoilmagneticsusceptibilityκ,geochemicalcompositions(gashydrocarbonandalterationcarbonateΔC),andcompositionandconcentrationofiron~bearingminerals.TheanalyseswereperformedalongtwoprofilesacrosstheQiangtangbasininTibet,China:theNuoermahu~Xuehuanhuprofile(C)andtheMugari~Huochetoushanprofile(E).Resultsshowthatthreestrongmagneticanomalies(C1,E1andE2anomalies)arerelatedtothedistributionofNeogenevolcanicrocksonthesurfaceintheGangmacuo~Xiyaerganguplift.Twootheranomalies(C2andE4anomalies),characterizedbybothmoderatelyamplitudemagneticsusceptibilityandelevatedsoilgashydrocarbons,occurnearfaultzonesintheCuoni~Donghusynclinorium.Theselatteranomaliesdisplaycharacteristicsofhydrocarbonmicroseepageanomaliescommonlyassociatedwithoilandgasaccumulations.TheirpresenceintheCuoni~DonghusynclinoriumsuggeststhatpartsoftheQiangtangbasinmayhavesignificantpetroleumpotential.
Cold Thermal Anomalous Structure within Lower Mantle and Its Geodynamic Implications
Xiong Xiong, Hsu Houtze, Teng Jiwen
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
Thelateraltemperatureanomalousstructureofthelowermantleisreconstructedfromtheseismictomographicalmodelandhightemperatureandhighpressurelaboratoryresults.Asignificantcorrelationbetweenthedistributionofthecoldanomalyandthelocationofpastsubductionbeltsshowsthattheshalloweranomalycorrespondstotheyoungersubductionsites,whilethedeeperanomalytotheolderones.Thiscorrelationalsosuggeststhatthecoldanomalymayhavecomefromthesubductionslabsandthescaleofmantleconvectionmayhavebeencompleted.Thecoldestandlargestanomalyisconcentratednearthecore~mantleboundary(CMB).Fewcoldanomaliesfloatintheshallowerandmiddlepartsofthelowermantle,suggestingthatthedownwardmigrationofthesubductionslabs,discontinuousandstep~like,maybedividedintothefollowingthreestages:subduction,stagnationatthe670kmdiscontinuityduetothephasetransition,anddisintegrationwhenthesizeexceedsthecriticalpoint.
Fast Web~Based Data Transmission
Wei Zukuan, Kim Jaehong, Bae Haeyoung
2001, 3(2)
Abstract:
Sinceweb~basedGISprocesseslarge~sizespatialgeographicinformationoninternet,weshouldtrytoimprovetheefficiencyofspatialdataqueryprocessingandtransmission.Thispaperpresentstwoefficientmethodsforthispurpose:division~transmissionandprogressive~transmissionmethods.Indivision~transmissionmethod,amapcanbedividedintoseveralparts,called“tiles”,andonlytilescanbetransmittedattherequestofaclient.Inprogressive~transmissionmethod,amapcanbesplitintoseveralphaseviewsbasedonthesignificanceofvertices,andaserverproducesatargetobjectandthentransmitsitprogressivelywhenthisspatialobjectisrequestedfromaclient.Inordertoachievethesemethods,thealgorithms,“tiledivision”,“priority~orderestimation”andthestrategiesfordatatransmissionareproposedinthispaper,respectively.Comparedwithsuchtraditionalmethodsas“maptotaltransmission”and“layertransmission”,theweb~basedGISdatatransmission,proposedinthispaper,isadvantageousintheincreaseofthedatatransmissionefficiencybyagreatmargin.