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2011 Vol. 22, No. 3

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Tectonics and Mechanisms of Uplift in the Central Uplift Belt of the Huimin Depression
倪金龙, 郭颖, 王智敏, 刘俊来, 林玉祥, 李月
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0183-8
The Huimin (惠民) depression is a third-level tectonic element of the Bohai (渤海) Bay basin in eastern China. The central uplift belt is the most important oil and gas accumulation zone in the depression, but the lack of adequate geological studies in the area has greatly hindered exploration and development. In this article, using seismic data, fracture mechanics, and a combination of data on fault growth indices and fault throws, we present an analysis of tectonic activity in the central uplift belt and adjacent regions. The amount of extension is calculated along balanced N-S cross-sections, along with the thickness of strata eroded from the fourth, third, and second members of the Shahejie (沙河街) Formation (Es4–Es2) in the uplift belt, by analyzing porosity and stratigraphic correlations...
Two Types of Strike-Slip and Transtensional Intrabasinal Structures Controlling Sandbodies in Yitong Graben
王家豪, 陈红汉, 王华, 江涛, 苗红波
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0184-7
Recently, the researches on structure controls on sandbodies have provided a new method for predicting petroleum reservoirs. The Yitong (伊通) graben is situated in the northern section of the Tan-Lu (郯-庐) fault system in eastern China. It was characterized by dual properties of strike-slip and extension in Cenozoic. Two types of intrabasinal structures were identified as oblique fault and trans-verse uplift in the graben. The oblique faults arranged en echelon in plain and locally presented nega-tive rosette structures on seismic profile, so they were closely derived from strike-slip movement of the northwestern boundary faults. Moreover, these oblique faults were divided to five zones...
Formation Mechanism of High Quality Marine Source Rocks—Coupled Control Mechanism of Geological Environment and Organism Evolution
腾格尔, 胡凯, 孟庆强, 黄娟, 付小东, 谢小敏, 仰云峰, 高长林
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0185-6
High quality marine source rock (HQMSR) is the key prerequisite for medium to large hydrocarbon accumulations. However, the forming mechanism remains unclear. On the basis of the investigation for the geodynamic setting of the Middle-Upper Yangtze during the Early Cambrian in different spatial scales and the analysis of trace elements, the main controlling factors of the development of high quality marine source rock are discussed, with specific consideration of the burial rate of the organic matter. The formation of high quality marine source rocks is suggested to be the result of a coordinated development and the interaction between geological environments and organism evolution during the major geological transition periods...
Hybrid Sedimentation in Late Permian–Early Triassic in Western Sichuan Basin, China
Long Shengxiang* (龙胜祥), Wu Shixiang (吴世祥), Li Hongtao (李宏涛), Bai Zhenrui (白振瑞), Ma Jinyu (马金钰), Zhang Hua (张华)
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0186-5
Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation is common in the Upper Permian–Lower Triassic in the western Sichuan (四川) basin. The extensional movement was strong in the Late Permian, resulting in differential uplifting of fault blocks. During this period, there was an extensive retrogression. The Kangdian (康滇) ancient land progressive uplifted and enlarged, forming the major provenance of terrigenous clastics. In Changxingian age, mixed terrigenous-carbonate sedimentation was distributed in the area between Dafeishui (大飞水)-well Dashen (大深)-1-well Shoubao (寿保)-1 and Beichuan (北川)-well Guanji (关基). The terrigenous clastics sourced from Kangdian ancient land input into the relatively shallow water, resulting in an extensive limited platform-mixing tidal flat where moderate-thick laminated grey limestone, thin muddy limestone and purplish red sandy shale were de-posited...
Pressure Evolution and Hydrocarbon Migration-Accumulation in the Moliqing Fault Depression, Yitong Basin, Northeast China
曹强, 叶加仁, 陆俊泽, 黄胜兵, 唐大卿
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0187-4
The Yitong (伊通) basin is a Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic continental sedimentary basin in Northeast China. On the basis of well tests and seismic data, we use the 2D modeling technique to rebuild the pressure evolution and hydrocarbon migration in the Moliqing (莫里青) fault depression of the Yitong basin. Based on the modeling results, four conclusions are drawn as follows. (1) The Eocene Shuangyang (双阳) Formation within the Moliqing fault depression had entirely undergone three epi-sodic cycles of pressure accumulation and release in geological history, and the three tectonic move-ments since the Middle Eocene played important roles in the episodic changes of excess pressure. (2) The present formation pressure distribution is characterized by normal pressure in almost the entire fault depression with some residual overpressure...
Petroleum System of the Fula Depression at the Muglad Basin in the Central African Fault Zone
张亚敏, 顾勤
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0188-3
Petroleum system theory has been used to study characteristics of the Fula depression in the Central African fault zone. In this system, deep lacustrine facies mudstone in the Abu Gabra Formation of the Lower Cretaceous is a very good source rock, thick deltaic facies sandstone of the Abu Gabra Formation and fluvial facies sandstone of the Bentiu Formation are good reservoir beds, and the mudstone in the Upper Cretaceous Darfur Group is the regional cap rock. The oil search mode and fault block trap seal-off conditions are considered here for passive rift basins. Particularly with respect to oil source rock distribution, successive development of reverse fault block and faulted anticlinal traps on low relief structures could have accumulated hydrocarbons because of lateral sealing by down-thrown mudstone along the up-dipping reservoir beds...
Adsorption Characteristics of Lignite in China
王可新, 傅雪海, 秦勇
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0189-2
To help in ascertaining methane content of lignite reservoir in China, the isothermal adsorption measurements of methane have been performed on moisture-equilibrated coals of some typical lignite-bearing basins, which comprise maximum reflectance of vitrinite (Ro, max) ranging from 0.24% to 0.50%. Related to other coal properties, our analysis shows that methane adsorption of lignite is mainly affected by coalification, as well as by maceral composition, moisture content, and seam temperature. Maximum methane capacities of moisture-equilibrated lignite coals show a continuously increasing (and reasonably exponential) trend with increasing Ro, max. Methane adsorption capacity decreases with maceral composition besides the range 40%–60%, respectively...
PML Absorbing Boundary Condition for Seismic Numerical Modeling by Convolutional Differentiator in Fluid-Saturated Porous Media
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0190-9
The perfectly matched layer (PML) was first introduced by Berenger as an absorbing boundary condition for electromagnetic wave propagation. In this article, a method is developed to extend the PML to simulating seismic wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous medium. This nonphysical boundary is used at the computational edge of a Forsyte polynomial convolutional differentiator (FPCD) algorithm as an absorbing boundary condition to truncate unbounded media. The incorporation of PML in Biot’s equations is given. Numerical results show that the PML absorbing boundary condition attenuates the outgoing waves effectively and eliminates the reflections adequately.
Three-Dimensional Conjugate Gradient Inversion of Magnetotelluric Impedance Tensor Data
林昌洪, 谭捍东, 佟拓
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0191-8
We developed a three-dimensional (3D) conjugate gradient inversion algorithm for inverting magnetotelluric impedance tensor measurements. In order to show the importance of including diagonal components of magnetotelluric impedance tensor in 3D inversion, synthetic data were inverted using the 3D conjugate gradient inversion, and the inversion results were compared and analyzed. The results from the 3D inversion of synthetic data indicate that both the off-diagonal and the diagonal components are required in inversions to obtain better inversion results when there are no enough data sites to recover the target resistivity structure...
Distribution of Arsenic in Sewage Irrigation Area of Pearl River Delta, China
Huang Guanxing* (黄冠星), Sun Jichao (孙继朝), Zhang Ying (张英), Jing Jihong (荆继红), Zhang Yuxi (张玉玺), Liu Jingtao (刘景涛)
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0192-7
The aim of the present work is to investigate the distribution of arsenic (As) in sewage irrigation area, to deduce the migration and transformation mechanism of As in soil and groundwater, and to infer the source of As in soil and groundwater. This study is carried out in a sewage irrigation area of the Pearl River Delta, China. Surface water samples, soil samples, and groundwater samples from sewage irrigation area were analyzed for As and other elements. As contents in water samples were analyzed by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectroscopy, and As fractionation in soil samples was extracted using a seven-step sequential extraction method according to a seven fraction scheme: water soluble, ion exchangeable, bound to carbonate, weakly bound to organic matter, associated with oxides of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), strongly bound to organic matter, and the residual fraction...
Comparison between Empirical Estimation by JRC-JCS Model and Direct Shear Test for Joint Shear Strength
杜时贵, 胡云进, 胡晓飞, 郭霄
2011, 22(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0193-6
In order to study the reliability of the empirical estimation of joint shear strength by the JRC (joint roughness coefficient)-JCS (joint compressive strength) model, natural rock joints of different lithologic characteristics and different sizes were selected as samples, and their shear strengths under dry and saturated conditions were measured by direct shear test and compared to those estimated by the JRC-JCS model. Comparison results show that for natural rock joints with joint surfaces closely matched, the average relative error of joint shear strength between empirical estimation and direct shear test is 9.9%; the reliability of the empirical estimation of joint shear strength by the JRC-JCS model is good under both dry and saturated conditions if the JRC is determined accounting for direc-tional statistical measurements, scale effect and surface smoothing during shearing...