2016 Vol. 27, No. 4
The Huashixia area in the Madoi County, Qinghai Province, western China is one of the most important areas for the studies of the formation and evolution of the A’nyemaqen mélange zone due to the well exposed, relatively complete tectonostratigraphic successions. However, the timing and evolutionary process of the A’nyemaqen paleo-ocean has long been poorly understood. Recently, we obtained abundant radiolarians from the siliceous rocks of the Maerzheng Formation of this mélange zone in Huashixia. Total 19 species in 10 radiolarian genera have been identified. They belong mainly to the Albaillellaria, Spumellaria, Entactinaria, and Latentifistularia. Four radiolarian assemblage zones are established, including: the Pseudoalbaillella rhombothoracata, Pseudoalbaillella scalprata, Ruzhencevispongus uralicus, and Follicucullus bipartitus-Follicucullus sp. cf. F. ventricosus zones. Radiolarian faunal correlations suggest a late Artinskian–early Kungurian age and late Capitanian–early Wuchiapingian age for the first two zones from the lower part and the last two zones from the upper parts of the Maerzheng Formation, respectively. All radiolarians are typical of deep water elements living in deep oceans in low latitudes during the Permian. Previously, the radiolarians of Early Carboniferous to Early Permian age and fusulinids of Early–Middle Permian age have also been reported from the A’nyemaqen mélange successions. The combination of the newly found radiolarians with the previously reported faunal and microfloral assemblages as well as radiometric ages obtained from the same stratigraphic units indicates that the A’nyemaqen paleo-ocean may have opened initially during the Early Carboniferous, expanded from the Early–Middle Permian, reached its acme in the early Late Permian, shrunk during the latest Permian to Early Triassic, and eventually was closed in the Middle Triassic.
A suite of ~1.84–1.92 Ga metamafic dykes within the paragneiss suite (khondalite) of the Quanji massif in NW China, has been chosen in this study for further understanding the tectonic evolution and possible links to the global Columbia supercontinent. Occurrence and field relations suggest that they were formed coevally with a previous studied ~1.83–1.85 Ga metamafic dyke swarms. Whole-rock major and trace elemental geochemistry suggests precursor magma of the amphibolites being generated from a volcanic arc-related tectonic setting rather than a back-arc environment where the metamafic dyke swarms were emplaced. The metamafic dykes show enrichment of LREE and strongly negative anomalies for Ta-Nb, Zr-Hf and Ti, have high SiO2 (49.3 wt.%–52.5 wt.%) but low MgO (6.40 wt.%–7.76 wt.%) contents and Mg# (Mg#=[100×(MgO/40.3)]/[MgO/40.3+FeO/71.8]) values (45.7–52.1), suggesting evolved precursor magma. The high values of La/Ta (22.2–42.8) and La/Nb (1.71–2.47), mildly negative εNd(t) values (-2.51–0.15), with depleted mantle model ages (TDM) of 2.45–2.84 Ga, suggest that their precursor magmas were possibly derived from a subduction-related fluid metasomatized Archean sub-continental lithospheric mantle. This study provides further evidence for oceanic plate subduction prevailing before or around ~1.85 Ga, which confirms a prolonged subduction-accretion-collision history in the NW China which is possibly linked to the assembly of the Columbia supercontinent.
The Late Cretaceous Mamba granodiorite belongs to a part of the Mesozoic Gangdese continental magmatic belt. No quantitative mineralogical study has been made hitherto, and hence the depth at which it formed is poorly constrained. Here we present mineralogical data for the Mamba pluton, including host rocks and their mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs), to provide insights into their overall crystallization conditions and information about magma mixing. All amphiboles in the Mamba pluton are calcic, with B(Ca+Na)>1.5, and Si=6.81–7.42 apfu for the host rocks and Si=6.77–7.35 apfu for the MMEs. The paramount cation substitutions in amphibole include edenite type and tschermakite type. Biotites both in the host rocks and the MMEs collectively have high MgO (13.19 wt.%–13.03 wt.%) contents, but define a narrow range of Al apfu (atoms per formula unit) variations (2.44–2.57). The oxygen fugacity estimates are based on the biotite compositions cluster around the NNO buffer. The calculated pressure ranges from 1.2 to 2.1 kbar according to the aluminum-in-hornblende barometer. The computed pressure varies from 0.9 to 1.3 kbar based on the aluminum-in-biotite barometer which corresponds to an average depth of ca. 3.9 km. Besides, the estimates of crystallization pressures vary from 0.8 to 1.4 kbar based on the amphibole barometer proposed by Ridolfi et al. (2010), which can be equivalent to the depths ranging from 3.1 to 5.2 km. The MMEs have plagioclase oscillatory zonings and quartz aggregates, probably indicating the presence of magma mixing. Besides, core-to-rim element variations (Rb, Sr, Ba, and P) for the K-feldspar megacrysts serve as robust evidence to support magma mixing and crystal fractionation. This indicates the significance of the magma mixing that contributes to the formation of K-feldspar megacryst zonings in the Mamba pluton.
Microscopic to mesoscopic structural investigations and foliation intersection axes (FIAs) preserved in porphyroblasts reveal a very complex history of deformation and tectonism within the southwestern part of the western hinterland zone along the northern margin of the Indian plate, NW Pakistan. D1, D2, and D3 related structures in the southwestern part resemble the F1/F2, F3, and F4 related structures in the northeastern part of the western hinterland zone. These structures developed at the same time through the same changes in the direction of bulk shortening in southwestern and northeastern parts of the western hinterland zone. FIA set 1 indicates NW-SE shortening. The D2 fabrics, mineral lineations and fold axes indicate E-W shortening. FIA set 2, D3 fold axes and mineral lineations indicate NNE-SSW shortening. D3 deformation event is equivalent to the F4 deformation event in the northeastern part of the western hinterland zone. D4 fold axes, mineral stretching lineations and axial plane foliation suggest ENE-WSW shortening. The D4 NNW-SSE fabrics, which formed in the region after the formation of the MMT (main mantle thrust), Khairabad-Panjal thrust fault, Hissartang thrust fault and MBT (main boundary thrust), likely resulted from ENE-WSW bulk shortening related to development of the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis.
Ti-rich garnet is found within calcitic ijolite from the Oka carbonatite complex in Canada, which is characterized by 58%–73% andradite component (2.12 wt.%–4.18 wt.% TiO2) and classified as melanite. The garnet displays complex zoning and contains abundant high field strength elements (HFSEs) and rare earth elements (REEs). Three groups (I, II, III) have been identified based on their petrographic nature. Compared to groups II and III, Group I garnet cores contain higher TiO2, MgO, HFSE, and REE and lower SiO2 abundances. The distinct chemical and petrographic signatures of the investigated garnets cannot be attributed to simple closed system crystallization, but they are consistent with the multi-pulse magma mixing. Combined with previously reported U-Pb ages for apatite from the calcitic ijolite, at least three stages of magma evolution and subsequent mixing have been involved in the generation of calcitic ijolite at Oka. The early-formed melt that generated Group I garnet core was later mixed with at least two small-volume, more evolved melts. The intermediate stage melt formed the remaining garnet along with some pyroxene, calcite, nepheline, and apatite at 127±3.6 Ma. The youngest, most evolved melt generated the majority of pyroxene, calcite, nepheline, and apatite within the calcitic ijolite at 115±3.1 Ma.
The easternmost part of Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) has special crustal structure, magmatic and tectonic processes. Abyssal peridotite from the easternmost part of Southwest Indian Ridge (63.5oE/28oS) is serpentinized spinel lherzolite. The accessory spinel has zoned texture, which was studied by petrography, electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging to reconstruct the petrotectonic and hydrothermal metamorphic history of the host abyssal peridotite. The fresh core is magmatic Al-spinel with low Cr#. The average extent of melting of the abyssal peridotite is about 5.9%. The composition of fresh magmatic spinel core indicates the studied area to be an anomalously thin crust with a melt-poor system. Hydrothermal reaction modifies the chemical composition of magmatic spinel. Ferritchromit is the first product forming the inner rim during pre-serpentinization. The abyssal ferritchromit crystalized as micro- to nano-sized particle with no triple grain boundary, indicating they crystalized in a rapid cooling process during hydrothermal alteration. Chemical compositions of ferritchromit indicate a hydrothermal metamorphism in amphibolite facies. Magnetite in the outer rim was formed by replacement of ferritchromit during syn- or post-serpentinization. Authigenic chlorites crystallized in two events: (1) after formation of ferritchromit crystallized as vein in fracture-zone near the core of spinel and (2) after formation of magnetite crystallized at outermost rim. They are different in compositions, indicating their formation temperature was about 289 oC and declined to 214 oC. These results show that the abyssal peridotite had undergone amphibolite to lower-greenschist facies hydrothermal events during pre- to syn-serpentinization or post-serpentinization.
Natural gas is providing a larger proportion of primary energy, and will soon surpass oil to become the most important fossil fuel. There are various genetic types of natural gas of which the type that pyrolysed or cracked from humic kerogen accounts for 70% of presently discovered global natural gas reserves. The parent material of humic kerogen is higher multi-cellular plants. Investigations of offshore basins in China, Russia, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Australia, Egypt and Namibia show that river-delta systems contain the major sources of coal-type gas. Sand and mud carried by rivers form deltas at river mouths and fertile soil of these deltas encourages the long-term growth of higher plants. Autochthonous higher plants and allochthonous terrigenous phytoclasts contribute to the formation of coal, carbargilite and dark mudstone, which are potential parent materials of natural gas and the basis of coal-type gas generation.
The Qiongdongnan Basin (QDNB) is situated in the extensional zone at the vertex of the V-shaped northwest sub-basin, non-volcanic northern margin of the South China Sea (SCS). From north to south, the thickness of the continental lithosphere decreases from 22 km on the northern continental shelf to 17 km at the deepest area of the central depression. A sharp change on the crustal structure is of importance to hydrocarbon exploration yet the dynamic causes remain unknown. A comprehensive study including (1) interpretation of seismic profiles, (2) P-wave velocity data modeling, and (3) magnetic anomalies analysis reveals that there are some high-density intrusions along the lithospheric thinning belt. Chaotic reflections can be found in the southwest of the QDNB, with a low velocity (6 km/s) suggest the existence of igneous diapirs. Diapirism differentiation are primarily achieved through analysis of the contact relationship and the thickness variations in the surrounding strata. The first phase of diapirism along the Songnan low uplift occurred in the Late Mesozoic, and the second phase of diapirism in a form of subsequent gas movement remained active until the Late Quaternary. The distribution and the evolution of the diapirs would have major implications for post-rift emplacement.
Tectonism is of extreme importance to sequence stratigraphic patterns in continental sedimentary basins, affecting both the architectures and internal makeup of sequences. Sequence stratigraphic framework of the Paleogene system in the Fushan sag, northern South China Sea, was built using 3D and 2D seismic data, complemented by drilling cores and well logs data. One first-order, three second-order and seven third-order sequences were identified. Analysis of paleotectonic stress field, unconformities and subsidence history showed that the Paleogene tectonic evolution presented significant characteristics of multistage and episode, and can be divided into three stages: rifting stage I (initial rifting period), rifting stage II (rapid subsidence period), rifting stage III (fault-depressed diversionary period). Partition of the west and east in tectonic activity was obvious. The west area showed relatively stronger tectonic activity than the east area, especially during the rifting stage II. Episodic rifting and lateral variations in tectonic activity resulted in a wide variety of structural slope break belts, which controlled both the sequence architectures and interval makeup, and strongly constrained the development of special facies zones or sand bodies that tended to form hydrocarbon accumulation. This paper classifies the genetic types of slope break belts and their relevant sequence stratigraphic patterns within the Fushan sag, and further discusses the tectonic evolution controls on sequence stratigraphic patterns, which suggests that vertical evolution paths of structural slope break belts and relevant sequence stratigraphic patterns as a response to the Paleogene tectonic evolution were strongly controlled by sag margin types and lateral variations of tectonic activity.
Pore structure characteristics of rock are a great concern for researchers and practitioners in rock mechanics and rock engineering fields. In this study, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was used to measure pore size distribution, as well as several important index parameters of pore structure, for seven common types of deep sedimentary rocks with a total of fifty rock samples. Results show a similar pore size distribution pattern of the rock samples in the same lithological group, but remarkable differences among different lithological groups. Among seven investigated rock types, mudstone has the smallest porosity of 3.37%, while conglomerate has the largest value of 18.8%. It is also found that the porosity of rock types with finer grain size is lower than those with coarser grain size. Meanwhile, a comparison of frequency distribution at ten intervals of pore-throat diameter among seven types of sedimentary rocks reveals that different rock types have different dominant pore-size ranges. Furthermore, permeability of the investigated sedimentary rock samples was derived based on MIP data using reported theoretical equations. Among seven rock types, mudstone has the lowest averaged permeability (3.64×10-6 mD) while conglomerate has the highest one (8.59×10-4 mD). From mudstone to conglomerate, rock permeability increases with an increase of grain size, with only an exception of siltstone which has a relatively larger porosity value. Finally, regression analysis show that there is a good fitting (R2=0.95) between permeability and porosity which could be easily used to derive reliable permeability values of similar kinds of engineering rocks.
Previous constitutive models of granite shear creep have two limitations: (1) although moisture greatly affects granite shear creep behavior, currently there are no constitutive models that include this factor; (2) there are also no models that include an acceleration stage. This paper presents an improved Burgers constitutive model with the addition of a damage parameter to characterize the moisture effect and uses a nonlinear relation equation between stress and strain for inclusion as the acceleration stage. The damage parameter is determined from granite creep experiment under four different moisture contents (0%, 0.22%, 0.49%, and 0.79%). The nonlinear relation equation is obtained by fitting a dataset of stain versus time under five different loading stages. To verify the presented model, a creep experiment was conducted on other granite samples and the results show that the model agrees well with the experimental observation data
Differences between the Cenozoic and pre-Cenozoic strata and structures in the middlesouth South Yellow Sea are analyzed using high-resolution airborne gravity data combined with data from offshore wells, seismic exploration and the regional geological background, using forward and inverse methods. We discuss why hydrocarbon exploration has so far failed in the South Yellow Sea, and put forward alternative future exploration plans. The results show that there are thick Cenozoic strata over Jurassic–Cretaceous continental strata in the southern basin of the South Yellow Sea, contrasted with thick Mid-Paleozoic marine strata preserved in the middle uplift area. In the mid-southern South Yellow Sea, airborne Bouguer gravity anomalies are fragmentized with scattered local anomalies. Many tensile normal faults and minor fault blocks occur in the Cenozoic strata. In contrast, reverse faults and nappe structures are found in pre-Cenozoic strata. The essential reasons for the lack of a breakthrough in hydrocarbon exploration are the complexity of geological structures, hydrocarbon accumulation environments, seismic-geologic conditions, and the difficulty of interpreting and understanding these features, rather than an imbalance of exploration framework. Hydrocarbon exploration should be targeted at Mid-Cenozoic continental strata, especially of Paleogene age, in the middle to southern parts of the South Yellow Sea. Special attention should be paid to the favorable structural belts SYI1, SYI2, SYI3 and SYI4 in the southern basin of the South Yellow Sea, where detailed seismic exploration or drilling should be carried out. Attention should also be given to Mid-Paleozoic marine strata in the middle uplift area of the South Yellow Sea. Key strategies that could lead to a hydrocarbon exploration breakthrough are improving exploration resolution, conducting detailed studies of fine structures, and accurately locating minor structures.
The adsorptive removal of arsenic by synthetically-prepared nano Fe-Mn binary oxides (FM) was investigated. A novel method using potassium permanganate and ferric chloride as raw materials was used to synthesise FM. The molar ratio of Fe and Mn in the synthetic Fe-Mn binary oxides was 4 : 3. The FM-1 and FM-2 (prepared at different activation temperatures) having high specific surface areas (358.87 and 128.58 m2/g, respectively) were amorphous and of nano particle types. The amount of arsenic adsorbed on FM-1 was higher than that adsorbed on FM-2 particles. After adsorption by FM-1, residual arsenic concentration decreased to less than 10 μg/L. The adsorption kinetics data were analyzed using different kinetic models including pseudo first-order model, pseudo second-order model, Elovich model and intraparticle diffusion model. Pseudo second-order kinetic model was the most appropriate model to describe the adsorption kinetics. The adsorption percentage of As(III) increased in the pH range of 2–3 while it decreased with the increase of pH ( 3
The Chang’e-3 (CE-3) spacecraft successfully landed on one of the youngest mare surfaces on the Moon in December 2013. The Yutu rover carried by CE-3 was equipped with a radar system that could reveal subsurface structures in unprecedented details, which would facilitate understanding regional and global evolutionary history of the Moon. Based on regional geology, cratering scaling, and morphological study, here we quantify the subsurface structures of the landing site using high-resolution orbital and in-situ imagery data. Three layers of lunar regolith, two layers of basalt units, and one layer of ejecta deposits are recognized at the subsurface of the landing site, and their thicknesses are deduced based on the imagery data. These results could serve as essential references for the on-going interpretation of the CE-3 radar data. The ability to validate our theoretical subsurface structure using CE-3 in-situ radar observations will improve the methods for quantifying lunar subsurface structure using crater morphologies and scaling.
The automatic feature extracting and matching for large amount of linear pushbroom imagery with higher and higher resolution is urgent and challenging in three dimensional reconstructions, remote sensing and mapping. Affine & scale-invariant heterogeneous pyramid feature is proposed in this paper, along with the new scale-invariant analysis method, the detecting of the key points, the affine & scale-invariant descriptor, the steering method of the matching, and the quasi-dense matching algorithm based on the extensive epipolar geometry. The automatic matching is devised for the linear pushbroom imagery. The whole process is executed on lunar images of the highest resolution of ~7 m/pixel (or ~1 m/pixel in the lower orbits) from the Chinese Chang’e 2 satellite, it runs robustly at present, and resulting in large amounts of well-distributed-correspondences with accuracy of 0.3 pixels and excellent reliability, which gives great support for the further exploration both on the Moon and the Earth.