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2009 Vol. 20, No. 3

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Seismic Reflection Characteristics ofNaturally-Induced Subsidence AffectingTransportation
Richard D, Jianghai Xia, Don W
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0042-z
High-resolution seismic reflections have been used effectively to investigate sinkholes formed from the dissolution of a bedded salt unit found throughout most of Central Kansas. Surface subsidence can have devastating effects on transportation structures. Roads, rails, bridges, and pipelines can even be dramatically affected by minor ground instability. Areas susceptible to surface subsidence can put public safety at risk...
Hammer-Impact SH-Wave Seismic Reflection Methods in Neotectonic Investigations: General Observations and Case Histories from theMississippi Embayment, U.S.A.
James B Harris*
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0043-y
Shallow shear-wave seismic reflection imaging, using a sledgehammer and mass energy source and standard processing, has become increasingly common in mapping near-surface geologic features, especially in water-saturated, unconsolidated sediments. Tests of the method in the Mississippi Embayment region of the central United States show interpretable reflection arrivals in the depth range of 100 m with the potential for increased resolution when compared with compressional-wave data...
Exploiting Lateral Resolution of Near-Surface Seismic Refraction Methods
Derecke Palmer*
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0044-x
The 1D τ-p inversion algorithm is widely employed to generate starting models with most computer programs that implement refraction tomography. However, this algorithm emphasizes the vertical resolution of many layers, and as a result, it frequently fails to detect even large lateral variations in seismic velocities, such as the decreases that are indicative of shear zones. This study presents a case that demonstrates the failure of the 1D τ-p inversion algorithm to define or even detect a major shear zone that is 50 m or ten stations wide...
Applications of Engineering Seismology for Site Characterization
Oz Yilmaz, Murat Eser, Mehmet Berilgen
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0045-9
We determined the seismic model of the soil column within a residential project site in Istanbul, Turkey. Specifically, we conducted a refraction seismic survey at 20 locations using a receiver spread with 484.5-Hz vertical geophones at 2-m intervals. We applied nonlinear tomography to first-arrival times to estimate the P-wave velocity-depth profiles and performed Rayleigh-wave inversion to estimate the S-wave velocity-depth profiles down to a depth of 30 m at each of the locations...
Three-Dimensional Modeling of Shallow Shear-Wave Velocities for Las Vegas, Nevada,Using Sediment Type
Barbara Luke, Helena Murvosh, Wanda Taylor, Jeff Wagoner
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0046-8
A three-dimensional model of near-surface shear-wave velocity in the deep alluvial basin underlying the metropolitan area of Las Vegas, Nevada (USA), is being developed for earthquake site response projections. The velocity dataset, which includes 230 measurements, is interpolated across the model using depth-dependent correlations of velocity with sediment type. The sediment-type database contains more than 1 400 well and borehole logs...
High-Frequency Rayleigh-Wave Method
徐义贤, 罗银河, 陈超, 刘江平
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0047-7
High-frequency (≥2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity...
Quantitative Integration of High-Resolution Hydrogeophysical Data: A Novel Approach to Monte-Carlo-Type Conditional Stochastic Simulations and Implications for Hydrological Predictions
Baptiste Dafflon, James Irving, Klaus Holliger*
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0048-6
Geophysical techniques can help to bridge the inherent gap that exists with regard to spatial resolution and coverage for classical hydrological methods. This has led to the emergence of a new and rapidly growing research domain generally referred to as hydrogeophysics. Given the differing sensitivities of various geophysical techniques to hydrologically relevant parameters, their inherent trade-off between resolution and range, as well as the notoriously site-specific nature of petrophysical parameter relations, the fundamental usefulness of multi-method surveys for reducing uncertainties in data analysis and interpretation is widely accepted...
Improvements in Inversion of Magnetic Resonance Exploration—Water Content, Decay Time, and Resistivity
Ugur Yaramanci, Mike M
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0049-5
In this review article, we present recent developments and improvements in magnetic resonance sounding (MRS), a newly established geophysical exploration method that provides unique information about hydrogeophysical properties due to its direct sensitivity to hydrogen protons and proton dynamics. Starting with the most sophisticated and complete MRS formulation, we give a detailed view on how to solve the equation, i.e., inverting exactly for all model parameters: water content, decay time, and resistivity...
Apparent Formation Factor for Leachate-Saturated Waste and Sediments: Examples from the USA and China
丁爱中, 程莉蓉, 刘普新, 楚福录
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0050-z
The formation factor relates bulk resistivity to pore fluid resistivity in porous materials. Understanding the formation factor is essential in using electrical and electromagnetic methods to monitor leachate accumulations and movements both within and around landfills. Specifically, the formation factor allows leachate resistivity, the degree of saturation, and, possibly, even the hydraulic conductivity of the waste to be estimated from non-invasive surface measurements...
Early Analogue Modeling Experiments and Related Studies to Today’s Problems of Geo-electromagnetic Exploration
László Szarka*
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0051-y
As I learned it from extensive geo-electromagnetic analogue modeling experiments, some specific nonconventional interpretation parameters, in certain conditions, give more detailed information about the geometry of subsurface resistivity inhomogeneities than the routinely used parameters. In this article, I show several examples, and I present how these early results influenced our later research. An enhanced geometric sensitivity may be due to special array geometry (as we call it “null array”), or it may be due to a narrow and very special frequency range (i.e., the so-called “keyhole” range)...
Advances in Microgeophysics for Engineering and Cultural Heritage
P L Cosentino*, P Capizzi, G Fiandaca, R Martorana, P Messina
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0052-x
A large number of unconventional investigations have been implemented, tested, and validated in the field of microgeophysics, with the aim being to solve specific diagnostic and/or monitoring problems regarding civil engineering and cultural heritage studies. The investigations were carried out using different tomographic 2D and 3D approaches as well as different energy sources, namely sonic, ultrasonic and electromagnetic (radar) waves, electric potential fields, and infrared thermography...
Land 3D-Seismic Data: Preprocessing Quality Control Utilizing Survey Design Specifications, Noise Properties, Normal Moveout,First Breaks, and Offset
Abdelmoneam Raef
2009, 11(3) doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0053-9
The recent proliferation of the 3D reflection seismic method into the near-surface area of geophysical applications, especially in response to the emergence of the need to comprehensively characterize and monitor near-surface carbon dioxide sequestration in shallow saline aquifers around the world, justifies the emphasis on cost-effective and robust quality control and assurance (QC/QA) workflow of 3D seismic data preprocessing that is suitable for near-surface applications...