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2011 Vol. 22, No. 5

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Quantifying TiO2 Abundance of Lunar Soils: Partial Least Squares and Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis for Determining Causal Effect
Lin Li*
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0206-5
Partial least squares (PLS) regression was applied to the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) dataset for spectral estimation of TiO2. The LSCC dataset was split into a number of subsets including the low-Ti, high-Ti, total mare soils, total highland, Apollo 16, and Apollo 14 soils to investigate the effects of interfering minerals and nonlinearity on the PLS performance. The PLS weight loading vectors were analyzed through stepwise multiple regression analysis (SMRA) to identify mineral species driving and interfering the PLS performance. PLS exhibits high performance for esti-mating TiO2 for the LSCC low-Ti and high-Ti mare samples and both groups analyzed together...
Noble Gas Diffusion Mechanism in Lunar Soil Simulant Grains: Results from 4He+ Implantation and Extraction Experiments
付晓辉, 邹永廖, 郑永春, 贺怀宇, 欧阳自远
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0207-4
Experiments on ion implantation were performed in order to better characterize diffusion of noble gases in lunar soil. 4He+ at 50 keV with 5×1016 ions/cm2 was implanted into lunar simulants and crystal ilmenite. Helium in the samples was released by stepwise heating experiments. Based on the data, we calculated the helium diffusion coefficient and activation energy. Lunar simulants display similar 4He release patterns in curve shape as lunar soil, but release temperatures are a little lower. This is probably a consequence of long-term diffusion after implantation in lunar soil grains. Variation of activation energy was identified in the Arrhenius plots of lunar simulants and Panzhihua (攀枝花) ilmenite...
A Systematic Spectroscopic Study of Four Apollo Lunar Soils
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0208-3
A systematic spectroscopic study including Raman, Mid-IR, NIR, and VIS-NIR, is used to investigate four endmember lunar soils. Apollo soils (<45 μm) 14163, 15271, 67511, and 71501 were selected as endmembers to study, based on their soil chemistry, maturity against space weathering, and the sampling locations. These endmembers include an anorthositic highlands soil (67511), a low-Ti basaltic soil (15271), a high-Ti basaltic soil (71501), and a mafic, KREEPy, impact-melt-rich soil (14163). We used a laser Raman point-counting procedure to derive mineral modes of the soils and the composi-tional distributions of major mineral phases, which in turn reflect characteristics of the main source materials for these soils...
Distribution of Olivine and Pyroxene Derived from Clementine Data in Crater Copernicus
Fujiang Liu* (刘福江), Rong Yang (杨荣), Ying Zhang (章颖), Le Qiao (乔乐), Shun Wang (王顺), Yang Yang (杨阳), Xiaopan Wang (王小攀)
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0209-2
In order to derive the distribution of olivine and pyroxene in Crater Copernicus, we compute two band ratios (950/750 and 2 000/1 500 nm), percent content of elements (Al%, Ca%, Mg%, FeO%) and maturity (Is/FeO) based on Clementine UVVIS and NIR image data. The central peaks of Copernicus, which are known to be olivine-rich or pyroxene-rich, are chosen as “ground truth” and ROIs used to derive the distribution of olivine and pyroxene with a decision tree and spectral angle mapper (SAM). Additionally, we compared previous works and the extraction results coming from the decision tree and the SAM method...
Research on the Distribution and Content of Water Ice in Lunar Pole Regions Using Clementine UVVIS Data
孟治国, 陈圣波, 路鹏, 汪自军, 连懿, 周超
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-012-0247-4
Interest in the Moon started to increase at the beginning of the 21st century, and henceforth, more and more attention has been paid to the content and distribution of water ice in the lunar polar regions. The existence of water or ice in the regolith can apparently change its dielectric features. Therefore, in this article, the Dobson model is adopted and improved according to the Moon’s environmental features, to construct the relationship between the volumetric water ice content and the dielectric constant. Thereafter, a lunar regolith dielectric distribution map is generated based on the improved Dobson model and the Clementine UVVIS data. The map indicates that the imaginary part of the dielectric constants in the lunar mare is much higher than that in the highlands...
Geological Characteristics and Model Ages of Marius Hills on the Moon
Jun Huang (黄俊), Long Xiao* (肖龙), Xinxing He (贺新星), Le Qiao (乔乐), Jiannan Zhao (赵健楠), Hui Li (李卉)
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0211-8
Marius Hills is a volcanic plateau on the nearside of the Moon. It is of great interest for its high concentration of volcanic features, including domes, cones, ridges, and rilles. However, the morphological and chronological characteristics of this plateau were not well studied due to the low resolution of early mission data. This study describes the detailed morphology of the volcanic features using the latest high spatial resolution images of the Terrain Camera (TC) onboard Selene-1 (10 m/pix) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) (0.5 m/pix). We report here some new structures such as skylights and remnants of lava tubes...
Automatic Seamless Stitching Method for CCDImages of Chang’E-1 Lunar Mission
叶梦杰, 李坚, 梁延研, 蔡占川, 唐泽圣
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0212-7
A novel automatic seamless stitching method is presented. Compared to the traditional method, it can speed the processing and minimize the utilization of human resources to produce global lunar map. Meanwhile, a new global image map of the Moon with spatial resolution of ~120 m has been completed by the proposed method from Chang’E-1 CCD image data.
Metasomatic Stages and Scapolitization Effects on Chemical Composition of Pasveh Pluton, NW Iran
S A, S Amini, J Ghalamghash, F Bea
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0213-6
Pasveh gabbros are mafic component of a plutonic complex in the northwest Sanandaj- Sirjan Zone. These cumulative rocks are composed of plagioclase and calcic clinopyroxene (Cpx), which yield unusually high CaO (>19 wt.%) in whole-rock chemistry. Petrographical and geochemical data suggest that Pasveh gabbros can be divided into two groups: free scapolite and scapolite-bearing gabbros. The second group has higher Na2O, K2O, and P2O5 relative to free scapolite ones and is enriched in LIL (large ion lithophile) and HFS (high field strength) elements...
Formation Mechanism of Underpressured Reservoir in Huatugou Oilfield of Qaidam Basin
许浩, 汤达祯, 张君峰, 尹微, 陈晓智
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0214-5
Underpressured reservoirs are widespread in the Huatugou (花土沟) oilfield of the western uplift in Qaidam basin, western China. At depths between 462 and 1 248 m, the pressure of Neogene reservoirs in the Huatugou oilfield is only about 40% to 80% of hydrostatic pressure. Based on a study of the geological characteristics of these underpressured reservoirs, this work used fluid inclusion analysis and numerical simulation to investigate the mechanism creating these abnormal pressures and to evaluate the characteristics of the hydrocarbon distribution. The results show that the underpressured reservoirs are all well-sealed by undercompacted and thick mudrocks...
Anomalous Signals Prior to Wenchuan Earthquake Detected by Superconducting Gravimeter and Broadband Seismometers Records
申文斌, 王迪晋, 黄金维
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0215-4
Using 1 Hz sampling records at one superconducting gravimeter (SG) station and 11 broadband seismometer stations, we found anomalous signals prior to the 2008 Wenchuan (汶川) earthquake event. The tides are removed from the original SG records to obtain the gravity residuals. Applying the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and the wavelet analysis to the SG gravity residuals leads to time-frequency spectra, which suggests that there is an anomalous signal series around 39 h prior to the event. The period and the magnitude of the anomalous signal series are about 8 s and 3?10-8 m/s2 (3 μGal), respectively...
Effect of Agents on Hydrate Formation and Low-Temperature Rheology of Polyalcohol Drilling Fluid
Guosheng Jiang* (蒋国盛), Fulong Ning (宁伏龙), Ling Zhang (张凌), Yunzhong Tu (涂运中)
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0216-3
In order to ensure safe drilling in deep water and marine gas hydrate bearing sediments, the needed characteristics of drilling fluid system were analyzed. Moreover, the effect of different agents on hydrate formation and the low-temperature rheology of designed polyalcohol drilling fluid were tested, respectively. The results show that clay can promote gas hydrate growth, while modified starch and polyalcohol can inhibit hydrate formation to some extent, and PVP K90 has a good performance on hydrate inhibition. The influence of clay on low-temperature rheology of polyglycols drilling fluid is notable. Therefore, the clay-free polyalcohol drilling fluid is suitable for deep water and marine gas hydrate drilling under optimal conditions.
Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization upon Surface Water Quality: A Pilot Study of Panzhihua Mining Town
滕彦国, 杨洁, 左锐, 王金生
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0217-2
In order to investigate the impact of urbanization and industrialization on surface water quality, a pilot study of Panzhihua (攀枝花) mining town was carried out. The urbanization of Panzhihua region was dominated by industry development and population growth. The level of urbanization showed that it was 18.44% in 1965, and reached 45.99% in 1983. Then, it reached 53.71% in 2005, so the urbanization process was very rapid in Panzhihua region. In the process of industrialization, the level of industrialization was fluctuated at around 70% from 1965 to 2005, which was influenced by mining, extracting, and smelting production. In the processes of urbanization, population growth caused an increase in life pollution sources, and an amount of effluents bearing coliform, COD (chemical oxygen demand), NH4+-N, and BOD5 (five-day biological oxygen demand) were released into Jinsha (金沙) River, which could cause decline in the surface water quality...
Analysis of Microbial Molecular Ecology Techniques in Constructed Rapid Infiltration System
姜昕, 马鸣超, 李俊, 鲁安怀, 钟佐燊
2011, 13(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-011-0218-1
The microbial molecular ecology techniques, which were developed on the basis of molecular, were applied in studying the bacteria in Constructed Rapid Infiltration (CRI) system. These techniques are very efficient in better describing the bacterial diversity, microbial community distribution, and relations between microbial group structure and nitrogen contamination through the analysis of microbial nucleic acid sequence fragment in CRI. The results further revealed the removal mechanism of contamination, which is essential for the improvement of wastewater treatment in CRI.