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2010 Vol. 21, No. 5

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Recent Advances in High Pressure andTemperature Rheological Studies
Yanbin Wang*, Nadege Hilairet, Przemyslaw Dera
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0124-y
Rheological studies at high pressure and temperature using in-situ X-ray diffraction and imaging have made significant progresses in recent years, thanks to a combination of recent developments in several areas: (1) advances in synchrotron X-ray techniques, (2) advances in deformation devices and the abilities to control pressure, temperature, stress, strain and strain rates, (3) theoretical and computational advances in stress determination based on powder and single crystal diffraction, (4) theoretical and computational advances in modeling of grain-level micromechanics based on elasto-plastic and visco-plastic self-consistent formulations. In this article, we briefly introduce the experimental techniques and theoretical background for in-situ high pressure, high temperature rheological studies, and then review recent studies of rheological properties of major mantle materials...
Pressure and Temperature Dependences ofElastic Properties of Grossular Garnet up to17 GPa and 1 650 K
Yoshio Kono, Steeve Gr, Yuji Higo, Hiroaki Ohfuji, Tetsuo Irifune
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0112-2
Simultaneous ultrasonic elastic wave velocity and in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements on grossular garnet were carried out up to 17 GPa and 1 650 K. P- and S-wave velocities and bulk and shear modulus showed linear pressure and temperature dependence. These data yielded a pressure derivative of the bulk modulus of 4.42(7) and a shear modulus of 1.27(3), which are in good agreement with those of garnets with variable chemical compositions. Temperature dependence of the bulk modulus of grossular (-1.36?10-2 GPa/K) is also similar to that of other garnets, while the temperature dependence of the shear modulus of grossular (-1.11?10-2 GPa/K) is higher than those of magnesium end-member garnets and pyrolitic garnet.
Technical Development of Simple Shear Deformation Experiments Using a Deformation-DIA Apparatus
Tomohiro Ohuchi, Takaaki Kawazoe, Norimasa Nishiyama, Yu Nishihara, Tetsuo Irifune
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0110-4
Technical developments for simple shear deformation experiments at high pressures were made. The newly designed cell assembly can be compressed by deformation-DIA apparatuses with the MA 6-6 system, which consists of six second-stage tungsten carbide anvils (with a truncated edge length of 5 mm) and the anvil guide. Deformation of samples was barely observed during the compression process, showing that the shear strain of the deformed samples can be measured by the rotation of a strain marker. Simple shear deformation experiments on anhydrous and hydrous olivine aggregates were conducted under upper mantle conditions (pressures of 5.2–7.6 GPa and temperatures of 1 473–1 573 K), and sample deformation with a shear strain of γ=0.8–1.2 was successfully achieved at a shear strain rate of 4.0×10-5–7.5×10-5 s-1. The present study extended the pressure range of simple shear deformation experiments in the deformation-DIA apparatus from 3 GPa in an early study to 7.6 GPa at high temperatures.
Experimental Investigation ofthe Creep Behavior of Garnet at High Temperatures and Pressures
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0127-8
To provide constraints on the rheological properties of garnet, we have experimentally investigated the creep behavior of garnet at high pressures and temperatures using a deformation-DIA. Samples were cold-pressed from a garnet powder and deformed at constant displacement rates ranging from 1.1×10-5 to 2.6×10-5 s-1 at high temperatures (1 273–1 473 K) and high pressures (2.4–4.1 GPa). Differential stress and pressure were measured using X-ray diffraction techniques based on the elastic strain of various lattice planes as a function of orientation with respect to the applied stress field. The plastic strain of a deforming sample was monitored in-situ through a series of radiographs...
Dislocation Creep Accommodated by Grain Boundary Sliding in Dunite
Zhongyan Wang, Yonghong Zhao, David L
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0113-1
To investigate the role of grain boundary sliding during dislocation creep of dunite, a series of deformation experiments were carried out under anhydrous conditions on fine-grained (~15 μm) samples synthesized from powdered San Carlos olivine and powdered San Carlos olivine+1.5 vol.% MORB. Triaxial compressive creep tests were conducted at a temperature of 1 473 K and confining pressures of 200 and 400 MPa using a high-resolution, gas-medium deformation apparatus. Each sample was deformed at several levels of differential stress between 100 and 250 MPa to yield strain rates in the range of 10-6 to 10-4 s-1...
Lattice Preferred Orientation, Water Content, and Seismic Anisotropy of Orthopyroxene
Haemyeong Jung*, Munjae Park, Sejin Jung, Jaeseok Lee
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0118-9
Lattice preferred orientation (LPO) and seismic anisotropy of orthopyroxene (enstatite) in mantle xenoliths from Spitsbergen, Svalbard, near the Arctic, are studied. LPOs of enstatite were determined using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). We found four types of LPOs of orthopyroxene and defined them as type-AC, -AB, -BC, and -ABC. Type-AC LPO of orthopyroxene is defined as (100) plane aligned subparallel to foliation and [001] axis aligned subparallel to lineation. Type-AB LPO is defined as (100) plane aligned subparallel to foliation and [010] axis aligned subparallel to lineation. Type-BC LPO is defined as (010) plane aligned subparallel to foliation and [001] axis aligned sub-parallel to lineation...
Effects of Lattice Preferred Orientation and Retrogression on Seismic Properties of Eclogite
Shi Feng (史锋), Wang Yongfeng* (王永锋), Xu Haijun (徐海军), Zhang Junfeng* (章军锋)
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0123-z
We report here lattice preferred orientations (LPOs) and seismic properties of eclogites from the Sulu (苏鲁) UHP terrane. Our results show strong fabrics in omphacite and amphibole, and approximately random fabrics in garnet with or without strong shape preferred orientations (SPOs). Dislocation creep is likely to be responsible for the observed omphacite fabrics that vary with geometry and orientation of finite strain ellipsoid. Weak garnet LPOs suggest that garnet did not accommodate plastic strain or was not deformed by dislocation creep with a dominant slip system...
Progress and Controversy in the Study ofHP-UHP Metamorphic Terranes in the West and Middle Central China Orogen
刘良, 杨家喜, 陈丹玲, 王超, 张成立, 杨文强, 曹玉亭
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0128-7
During the past ten years, various types of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks have been discovered in the South Altyn Tagh, the North Qaidam and the North Qinling (秦岭) in the West and Middle Central China orogen. The UHP rocks, as lentoid bodies in regional gneisses, include eclogite (garnet-bearing pyroxenite), garnet peridotite and various pelitic or felsic gneisses. There are many records of minerals and microstructures of exsolution indicate the UHP metamorphism, such as coesite (or its pseudomorph), diamond, exsolution of clinopyroxene/amphibole/+rutile or rutile+quartz+apatite in garnet, exsolution of quartz in omphacite and exsolution of kyanite+spinel in precursor stishovite...
Age, Trace Elements and Hf-IsotopeComposition of Zircon in Eclogites from the Sulu UHP Belt, East-Central China: NeoproterozoicIntrusion and Subsequent Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic Metamorphism
Zheng Jianping* (郑建平), Tang Huayun (汤华云), Zhao Junhong (赵军红), Su Yuping (苏玉平), Yu Chunmei (余淳梅), Wei Qirong (魏启荣), Liu Qingsheng (刘庆生), Wu Xiuling (吴秀玲)
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0122-0
The Sulu (苏鲁)-Dabie (大别) orogen in East-Central China formed during the subduction and collision of the Yangtze block with the North China block in Early Mesozoic (240–225 Ma). Constraints on the nature and derivation of eclogites, which are a significant component of the orogen, can provide useful information about subduction-zone metamorphism and crust-mantle interaction. The U-Pb ages, Hf-isotope ratios and trace-element compositions of zircons in eclogites from the Jiangzhuang (蒋庄) (Jiangsu (江苏) Province) and Rongcheng (荣成) (Shandong (山东) Province) areas indicate that the protoliths of the eclogites derived from ultramafic-mafic complexes or mafic intrusion in the subducted continental lithosphere...
CrustalSignature of δ13C and NitrogenContent in Microdiamonds from Erzgebirge, Germany: Ion Microprobe Studies
Larissa F, Harry W, Green II, Naoto Takahata, Yuji Sano, Korato Shirai
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0129-6
The study of δ13CPDB (Pee Dee Belemnite) and nitrogen contents in 1 to 5-μm-diameter microdiamonds included in garnets from the quartz-feldspathic gneisses (Erzgebirge, Germany) was performed in situ with the Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer. The results revealed that there were two stages of diamond crystallization from a C-O-H supecritical fluid rich in biogenic carbon and diverse minor elements of crustal origin. The δ13CPDB of the Erzgebirge diamond of the first stage falls in the range -17‰ to 19‰, with an average value of -17.8‰; the average content of nitrogen is 820 ppm...
Garnet-Spinel Transition in the Upper Mantle: Review and Interpretation
苏本勋, 张宏福, 秦克章, 汤艳杰, 英基丰, 肖燕
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0117-x
This study carried out a comprehensive review of mantle-derived garnet peridotites on the basis of their garnet-spinel compositional relationships. The P-T estimates of the garnet peridotites of both orogenic and xenolithic derivations confirm previously established two garnet-spinel transition (GST) zones. Results of natural samples and experimental studies of all the garnet peridotites plot below the first GST at low P (<2 GPa). The second GST at high P (6–10 GPa), obtained from the experimental system (MgO-Cr2O3-SiO2), was firstly evidenced from natural samples in this study and may imply a challenge to our understanding of Cr-rich and Al-poor mineral phase transition under ultra- high P condition...
Garnet-Rich Granulite Xenoliths from the Hannuoba Basalts, North China: Petrogenesis and Implications for the Mesozoic Crust-Mantle Interaction
刘勇胜, 高山, 高长贵, 宗克清, 胡兆初, 凌文黎
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0125-x
Garnet-rich granulite xenoliths collected from the Hannuoba basalts, the North China craton (NCC), were studied to reveal the Mesozoic crust-mantle interaction. These xenoliths are characterized by low SiO2 (37.7 wt.%–46.0 wt.%) and high Al2O3 (10.8 wt.%–17.9 wt.%) contents. Their Mg# (60–75, Mg#=100?Mg/(Mg+Fe), atomic number) are relatively low for their low SiO2 contents. They have low rare-earth element (REE) contents and LREE-rich REE patterns, and show remarkable enrichments in Sr relative to the adjacent REE. Some of them exhibit convex REE patterns with a maximum at Nd and remarkably positive Eu anomalies...
Dunite Xenoliths and OlivineXenocrysts in Gabbro from Taihang Mountains:Characteristics of Mesozoic LithosphericMantle in Central China
许文良, 王春光, 杨德彬, 王枫, 裴福萍
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0121-1
This article reports the petrography and mineral chemistry of dunite xenoliths and olivine xenocrysts entrained by the Early Cretaceous Xi’anli (西安里) hornblende (Hb)-gabbros from the southern Taihang (太行) Mountains, with the aim of constraining the nature of the Mesozoic lithospheric mantle in Central China. Rounded dunite xenoliths are 1–3 cm3 in size and display porphyroclastic, tabular, and protogranular textures. Chromite with Cr#=60–89 is common in the xenoliths. Olivine xenocrysts of 4–6 mm in size are also found in the Hb-gabbros. Orthopyroxene reaction rims are commonly observed around olivine xenocrysts or between dunite xenoliths and host rocks...
Thermal State and Structure ofthe Lithosphere beneath Eastern China: A Synthesis on Basalt-Borne Xenoliths
Huang Xiaolong (黄小龙), Xu Yigang* (徐义刚)
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0111-3
Application of reliable thermobarometer on garnet-bearing mantle xenoliths and granulite xenoliths entrained by Cenozoic basalts in eastern China reveals two main types of geotherm. The first type, as exampled by Hannuoba (汉诺坝), Mingxi (明溪) and probably Northeast China, is characterized by constant slope of data in the P-T space. The second type, as exampled by the high geotherms of Nüshan (女山) and probably Xinchang (新昌), is characterized by variable slopes, with the samples with pressure 2 MPa define a virtually vertical slope. The different slopes in the second type of geotherm may correspond to different heat transfer mechanisms, with conductive transfer for the shallow upper mantle and advective transfer for the deep mantle...
The Alpe Arami Story: Triumph of Data over Prejudice
Harry W, Green II, Larissa F, Krassimir N
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0130-0
The Alpe Arami garnet peridotite of the Southern Swiss Alps is associated with eclogites and included within quartzofeldspathic gneisses. Controversy has swirled around the depth of origin of this massif since the 1970s when application of the newly-developed technique of thermobarometry suggested a depth of last equilibration of greater than 120 km. Such controversy accelerated in 1996 when we reported microstructural evidence of extensive precipitation of ilmenite and spinel from olivine and proposed a much greater depth of origin...
Origin and Emplacement of ArcheanOphiolites of the Central Orogenic Belt,North China Craton
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0119-8
Understanding Archean crustal and mantle evolution hinges upon identification and characterization of oceanic lithosphere. We report and update here more than 10 years work on a complete, yet dismembered and metamorphosed Archean ophiolite sequence in the North China craton, in the Dongwanzi (东湾子)-Zunhua (遵化) structural belt and correlatives in the Wutaishan (五台山) area. Banded iron formation structurally overlies several tens of meters of variably deformed pillow lavas, mafic flows, and picritic amphibolites. These are in structural contact with a 2 km thick mixed gabbro and dike complex with gabbro screens, exposed discontinuously along strike for more than 20 km. The dikes consist of metamorphosed diabase, basalt, Hb-Cpx-gabbro, and pyroxenite...
Acoustic Velocities and Elastic Properties of Pyrite (FeS2) to 9.6 GPa
Matthew L, Wei Liu, Liping Wang, Baosheng Li
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0115-z
Ultrasonic interferometry was utilized in conjunction with synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction and X-radiographic imaging to determine the compressional and shear wave velocities and unit-cell volumes of pyrite (FeS2) at room temperature and pressures up to 9.6 GPa. Fitting all of the experimental volume and velocity data to third-order finite-strain equations yielded the adiabatic zero-pressure bulk and shear moduli and their first pressure derivatives: KS0=138.9(7) GPa, G0=112.3(3) GPa, (?KS0/?P)T=KS0’=6.0(1), (?G0/?P)T=G0’=3.0(<1), where the numbers in parentheses represent the 1σ uncertainty in the last significant digit...
Ab Initio Two-Phase Molecular Dynamics onthe Melting Curve of SiO2
Yusuke Usui*, Taku Tsuchiya
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0126-9
Ab initio two-phase molecular dynamics simulations were performed on silica at pressures of 20–160 GPa and temperatures of 2 500–6 000 K to examine its solid-liquid phase boundary. Results indicate a melting temperature (Tm) of 5 900 K at 135 GPa. This is 1 100 K higher than the temperature considered for the core-mantle boundary (CMB) of about 3 800 K. The calculated melting temperature is fairly consistent with classical MD (molecular dynamics) simulations. For liquid silica, the O-O coordination number is found to be 12 along the Tm and is almost unchanged with increasing pressure.
Changes in the Hydrogen-BondedStructure of Lawsonite: An Experimental Study to 2.5 GPa and 400 ℃
Yang Yuping (杨玉萍), Zhang Lifei* (张立飞)
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0114-0
In-situ Raman spectroscopic measurements of lawsonite in the OH and H2O stretching region were conducted up to approximately 2.5 GPa and 400 ℃ with a hydrothermal diamond- anvil cell. In the experimental design at room temperature, the ratio of band-area and the width at half maximum of the decomposed Raman band shows discontinuities at 0.8 GPa, and correspondingly, the 695-cm-1 peak in the low-wavenumber region was split into two peaks. In the experiments at high temperature, the splitting of the 695-cm-1 peak was induced at 2.4 GPa and 250 ℃. These findings demonstrate the existence of discontinuities in the pressure response of the strength of the hydrogen bonds, which suggests a possible change of the hydrogen-bonded structure in lawsonite under these conditions.
Formation of Melt Pocket in Mantle Peridotite Xenolith from Western Qinling, Central China: Partial Melting and Metasomatis
苏本勋, 张宏福, 秦克章, 刘平平, 英基丰, 汤艳杰, 肖燕
2010, 12(5) doi: 10.1007/s12583-010-0116-y
Two types of melt pockets, closed melt pocket (CMP) and open melt pocket (OMP), are recognized from the peridotite xenoliths en-trained in the Cenozoic kamafugites in western Qinling (秦岭), Central China. The Haoti (好梯) CMPs have a mineral assemblage of olivine+ clinopyroxene+amphibole+K-feldspar, whereas the Baiguan (白关) CMPs are composed of olivine+clinopyroxene+ilmenite+carbonate. The components of the OMPs are more complicated. In the Haoti OMPs, there are olivine, clinopy-roxene, glass, low modal abundances of amphi-bole, K-feldspar (Kfs), ilmenite, sulfide, chlorite, perovskite, chromite and phlogopite...